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Energy and Environment Directorate

Jeffry Stevenson

Jeffry Stevenson

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 372-4697

Biography

Jeff Stevenson has over 30 years of experience in the materials science field. Since joining PNNL in 1993, his work has focused primarily on the development and characterization of electrical ceramic materials, and the development of fabrication techniques for devices based on those materials, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gas separation membranes. At present, his primary responsibility is leadership of PNNL’s SECA Core Technology Program (SOFC) materials development activities. In this role, he directs work in a number of areas, including cathode and anode materials, alloy interconnect materials, protective coatings for alloy interconnects, contact and sealing materials for SOFC stacks, and cost-effective cell fabrication techniques.

Research Interests

  • Solid oxide fuel cells
  • High temperature electrochemical devices
  • Electrical ceramic materials
  • Protective coatings for high temperature alloys

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. Ceramic Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla
  • B.S. Ceramic Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications

2017

  • Dogdibegovic E, NS Alabri, CJ Wright, JS Hardy, CA Coyle, SA Horlick, W Guan, JW Stevenson, and XD Zhou. 2017. "Activity and Stability of (Pr1-xNdx)2NiO4 as Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Part V. In Situ Studies of Phase Evolution." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 164(12):F1115-F1121.  doi:10.1149/2.1041707jes
  • LU Z, S Darvish, JS Hardy, JW Templeton, JW Stevenson, and Y Zhong. 2017. "SrZrO3 Formation at the Interlayer/Electrolyte Interface During (La1-xSrx)1-dCo1-yFeyO3 Cathode Sintering." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 164(10):F3097-F3103.  doi:10.1149/2.0141710jes

2015

2014

  • Chou YS, JP Choi, W Xu, EV Stephens, BJ Koeppel, JW Stevenson, and E Lara-Curzio. 2014. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC StacksPNNL-23397, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and JP Choi. 2014. "Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic short stack fixture, Part II: sealing glass stability, microstructure and interfacial reactions." Journal of Power Sources 250:166-173.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.09.148
  • Stevenson JW, and BJ Koeppel. 2014. FY13 Annual Progress Report for SECA Core Technology ProgramPNNL-23127, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Stevenson JW, and BJ Koeppel. 2014. FY14 Q1 Progress Report for SECA Core Technology ProgramPNNL-23152, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Yan J, H Chen, E Dogdibegovic, JW Stevenson, M Cheng, and XD Zhou. 2014. "High-efficiency intermediate temperature solid oxide electrolyzer cells for the conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels ." Journal of Power Sources 252:79-84.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.11.047

2013

  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and JP Choi. 2013. "Evaluation of a single cell and candidate materials with high water content hydrogen in a generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture, Part II: materials and interface characterization." International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology 10(1):97-106.  doi:10.1111/j.1744-7402.2012.02753.x
  • Stevenson JW, EM Riel, EV Stephens, and MA Khaleel. 2013. Surface Treatments for Improved Performance of Spinel-coated AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless SteelPNNL-22191, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Stevenson JW, ZG Yang, G Xia, Z Nie, and JD Templeton. 2013. "Long-term oxidation behavior of spinel-coated ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications." Journal of Power Sources 231:256-263.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.033

2012

  • Hardy JS, JW Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2012. "IN-SITU XRD OF OPERATING LSFC CATHODES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY." Chapter 7 in Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, vol. VIII, ed. P Singh, et al.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.  doi:10.1002/9781118217481.ch7
  • Hardy JS, JW Templeton, DJ Edwards, Z Lu, and JW Stevenson. 2012. "Lattice Expansion of LSCF-6428 Cathodes Measured by In-situ XRD during SOFC Operation." Journal of Power Sources 198:76-82.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.09.099
  • Chou YS, JP Choi, and JW Stevenson. 2012. "Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 37(23):18372-18380.  doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.08.084
  • Chou YS, EC Thomsen, JP Choi, and JW Stevenson. 2012. "Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Combined stability in isothermal ageing and thermal cycling with YSZ coated ferritic stainless steels." Journal of Power Sources 197(1):154-160.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.09.027
  • Chou YS, EC Thomsen, JP Choi, and JW Stevenson. 2012. "Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective YSZ coating on electrical stability in dual environment ." Journal of Power Sources 202:149-156.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.11.017
  • Lu Z, JS Hardy, JW Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2012. "Extended reaction zone of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode for solid oxide fuel cell." Journal of Power Sources 198:90-94.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.09.020
  • Lu Z, JS Hardy, JW Templeton, JW Stevenson, D Fisher, N Wu, and A Ignatiev. 2012. "Performance of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Thin Bi-Layer Electrolyte by Pulsed Laser Deposition." Journal of Power Sources 210:292-296.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.03.036
  • Zhou XD, JW Templeton, Z Nie, H Chen, JW Stevenson, and LR Pederson. 2012. "Electrochemical performance and stability of the cathode for solid oxide fuel cells: V. high performance and stable Pr2NiO4 as the cathode for solid oxide fuel cells." Electrochimica Acta 71:44-49.  doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2012.03.067

2011

  • Choi JP, YS Chou, and JW Stevenson. 2011. Reactive Air AluminizationPNNL-20859, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2011. Refractory Glass Seals for SOFCPNNL-20545, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Hardy JS, JW Templeton, Z Lu, and JW Stevenson. 2011. Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier LayersPNNL-20908, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Hardy JS, JW Templeton, Z Lu, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "Development of SOFC Cathodes." Chapter III.A.9 in 2011 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report, vol. DOE/NETL-2012-1525, pp. 84-87.  Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 
  • Yoon KJ, JW Stevenson, and OA Marina. 2011. "Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFCs." Chapter III.C.6 in 2011 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report, vol. DOE/NETL-2012-1525, pp. 129-133.  Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 
  • Yoon KJ, JW Stevenson, and OA Marina. 2011. "Effect of Nickel Substitution on Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties, and Dimensional Stability of Calcium-Doped Yttrium Chromite ." Solid State Ionics 193(1):60 - 65.  doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2011.04.008
  • Yoon KJ, JW Stevenson, and OA Marina. 2011. "High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite ." Journal of Power Sources 196(20):8531-8538.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.06.089
  • Choi JP, KS Weil, YS Chou, JW Stevenson, and Z Yang. 2011. "Development of MnCoO Coating with New Aluminizing Process for Planar SOFC Stacks." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36(7):4549-4556.  doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.04.110
  • Chou YS, EC Thomsen, RT Williams, JP Choi, NL Canfield, JF Bonnett, JW Stevenson, A Shyam, and E Lara-Curzio. 2011. "Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility." Journal of Power Sources 196(5):2709-2716.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.020
  • Chou YS, EC Thomsen, JP Choi, WE Voldrich, JW Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "Development and Implementation of Stack Fixture Tests." Chapter III.E.5 in 2011 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report, vol. DOE/NETL-2012-1525, pp. 163-167.  Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 
  • Lu Z, JS Hardy, JW Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "New insights in the polarization resistance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathodes." Journal of Power Sources 196(1):39-45.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.07.054
  • Lu Z, G Xia, JD Templeton, XS Li, Z Nie, Z Yang, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells." Electrochemistry Communications 13(6):642-645 .  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2011.03.034
  • Templeton JW, JS Hardy, Z Lu, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "THE EFFECT OF A-SITE STOICHIOMETRY ON LSCF CATHODE PERFORMANCE AND STABILITY." In Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells VII: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 35th Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2011, Daytona Beach, Florida, vol. 32, ed. NP Bansal, et al.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.  doi:10.1002/9781118095249.ch5
  • Templeton JW, Z Lu, JW Stevenson, and JS Hardy. 2011. Effect of A-site Non-stoichiometry on LSCF CathodesPNNL-20902, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Xia G, RC Scott, XS Li, Z Nie, JP Choi, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "Development of SOFC Interconnects and Coatings." Chapter III.C.4 in 2011 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report, vol. DOE/NETL-2012-1525, pp. 120-123.  Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 
  • Xia G, XS Li, Z Lu, Z Nie, RC Scott, JD Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "Development of Cathode-Interconnect Contact Materials for SOFCs." Chapter III.C.5 in 2011 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report, vol. DOE/NETL-2012-1525, pp. 124-128.  Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 

2010

  • Yoon KJ, CN Cramer, JW Stevenson, and OA Marina. 2010. "Advanced Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Electrical and Thermal Properties of Calcium- and Nickel-Doped Yttrium Chromites ." Journal of Power Sources 195(22 SP ISS):7587-7593. 
  • Yoon KJ, CN Cramer, JW Stevenson, and OA Marina. 2010. "Improvement of Sintering, Thermal Behavior, and Electrical Properties of Calcium- and Transition Metal-Doped Yttrium Chromite." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 13(9):B101-B105.  doi:10.1149/1.3456525
  • Yoon KJ, JW Stevenson, and OA Marina. 2010. "Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC ." In Proceedings of the 11th Annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop, July 27-29, 2010, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, p. Abstract No. 3.  US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV. 
  • Zhou XD, JW Templeton, Z Zhu, YS Chou, GD Maupin, Z Lu, RK Brow, and JW Stevenson. 2010. "Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: III. Role of volatile boron species on LSM/YSZ and LSCF." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(7):B1019-B1023.  doi:10.1149/1.3397854
  • Zhou XD, SP Simner, JW Templeton, Z Nie, JW Stevenson, and BP Gorman. 2010. "Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells II. Role of Ni diffusion on LSM performance ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(5):B643-B649. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and KD Meinhardt. 2010. "Electrical Stability of a Novel Refractory Sealing Glass in a Dual Environment for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications." Journal of the American Ceramic Society 93(3):618-623.  doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2009.03466.x
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, G Xia, and Z Yang. 2010. "Electrical stability of a novel sealing glass with (Mn,Co)-spinel coated Crofer22APU in a simulated SOFC dual environment ." Journal of Power Sources 195(17 SP ISS):5666-5673. 
  • Lu Z, XD Zhou, D Fisher, JW Templeton, JW Stevenson, N Wu, and A Ignatiev. 2010. "Enhanced performance of an anode-supported YSZ thin electrolyte fuel cell with a laser-deposited Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 interlayer." Electrochemistry Communications 12(2):179-182. 
  • Lu Z, XD Zhou, JW Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2010. "Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV. On the Ohmic loss in anode supported button cells with LSM or LSCF cathodes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(6):b964-b969. 

2009

  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2009. "Long-term ageing and materials degradation of hybrid mica compressive seals for solid oxide fuel cells ." Journal of Power Sources 191(2):384-389. 
  • Lu X, J Zhu, Z Yang, G Xia, and JW Stevenson. 2009. "Pd-impregnated SYT/LDC composite as sulfur-tolerant anode for solid oxide fuel cells." Journal of Power Sources 192(2):381-384. 
  • Yang Z, and JW Stevenson. 2009. "Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings." In Handbook of Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Technology and Applications, vol. 5, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, NY. 
  • Zhou XD, LR Pederson, JW Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2009. "Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. I. Cross Validation of Polarization Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy and Current-Potential Sweep." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(2):B220-B227. 
  • Choi JP, KS Weil, and JW Stevenson. 2009. "Optimization of Protective Coatings for SOFC Interconnects." Chapter III.C.4 in Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program FY 2009 Annual Report.  Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program, Washington, DC . 

2008

  • Yang Z, G Xia, Z Nie, JD Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2008. "Ce-Modified (Mn,Co)3O4 Spinel Coatings on Ferritic Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications ." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 11(8):B140-B143. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2008. "Effect of aluminizing of Cr-containing ferritic alloys on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell sealing glass." Journal of Power Sources 185(2):1001-1008.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.09.004
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2008. "Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect ." Journal of Power Sources 184(1):238-244. 
  • Yang Z, G Xia, CM Wang, Z Nie, JD Templeton, P Singh, and JW Stevenson. 2008. Investigation of AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel and Development of Spinel Coatings for SOFC Interconnect ApplicationsPNNL-17568, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Yang Z, G Xia, CM Wang, Z Nie, JD Templeton, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2008. "Investigation of Iron-Chromium-Niobium-Titanium Ferritic Stainless Steel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Applications." Journal of Power Sources 183(2):660-667.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.05.037
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2008. "Corrosion Behavior of Interconnect Candidate Alloys under Air//Simulated Reformate Dual Exposure Conditions." In Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings. Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells III - A Collection of Papers Presented at the 31st International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 21-26, 2007, Daytona Beach, Florida, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 279-288.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. 

2007

  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and RN Gow. 2007. "Novel alkaline earth silicate sealing glass for SOFC, Part I: the effect of nickel oxide on the thermal and mechanical properties." Journal of Power Sources 168(2):426-433. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and RN Gow. 2007. "Novel alkaline earth silicate sealing glass for SOFC, Part II: sealing and interfacial microstructure." Journal of Power Sources 170(2):395-400.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.03.060
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, XS Li, and JW Stevenson. 2007. "(Mn,Co)(3)O-4 Spinel Coatings on Ferritic Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32(16):3648-3654. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2007. "Novel refractory alkaline earth silicate sealing glasses for planar solid oxide fuel cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 154(7):B644-B651.  doi:10.1149/1.2733868
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, JW Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2007. "Silver-Perovskite Composite SOFC Cathodes Processed via Mechanofusion." Journal of Power Sources 168(1):236-239.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.03.029
  • Yang Z, G Xia, XS Li, P Singh, and JW Stevenson. 2007. Fabrication of (Mn,Co)3O4 Surface Coatings onto Alloy Substrates PNNL-16470, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, MS Walker, CM Wang, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2007. "HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION/CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF METALS AND ALLOYS UNDER A HYDROGEN GRADIENT." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32(16):3770-3777.  doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.08.056
  • Yang ZG, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2007. "Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Chapter 11 in Materials for the Hydrogen Economy, ed. GJ Thomas and RH Jones, pp. 229-250.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 

2006

  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2006. "Compressive Mica Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 15(4):414-421. 
  • Yang Z, G Xia, GD Maupin, and JW Stevenson. 2006. "Conductive Protection Layers on Oxidation Resistant Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications." Surface & Coatings Technology 201(7):4476-4483. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, and JW Stevenson. 2006. "Evaluation of Ni-Cr-Base Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications." Journal of Power Sources 160(2):1104-1110. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, GD Maupin, and JW Stevenson. 2006. "Evaluation of Perovskite Overlay Coatings on Ferritic Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 153(10):A1852-A1858.  doi:10.1149/1.2239371
  • Chen L, B Jha, ZG Yang, G Xia, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2006. "Clad metals by roll bonding for SOFC interconnects ." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 15(4):399-403. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, JS Hardy, and P Singh. 2006. "Material Degradation during Isothermal Aging and Thermal Cycling of Hybrid Mica Seal with Ag Interlayer under SOFC Exposure Conditions." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 153(8):A1591-A1598. 
  • Gorokhovsky VI, P Gannon, M Deibert, RJ Smith, AN Kayani, M Kopczyk, D Van Vorous, ZG Yang, JW Stevenson, Visco, jacobson, H Kurokawa, and SW Sofie. 2006. "Deposition and Evaluation of Protective PVD Coatings on Ferritic Stainless Steel SOFC Interconnects." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 153(10):A1886-A1893. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, JE Coleman, and JW Stevenson. 2006. "Performance of a Novel La(Sr)Fe(Co)O3-Ag SOFC Cathode." Journal of Power Sources 161(1):115-122. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, MH Engelhard, and JW Stevenson. 2006. "Degradation Mechanisms of La-Sr-Co-Fe-O3 SOFC Cathodes." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 9(10):A478-A481. 
  • Stevenson JW, LA Chick, MA Khaleel, DL King, LR Pederson, GL McVay, and P Singh. 2006. "Recent Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." In Fuel Cell Seminar 2006, November 13-17, Honolulu, HI.  Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Xia G, ZG Yang, and JW Stevenson. 2006. "Manganese-Cobalt Mixed Spinel Oxides as Surface Modifiers for Stainless Steel Interconnects of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." ECS Transactions 1(7):325.  doi:10.1149/1.2215566
  • Yang ZG, P Singh, JW Stevenson, and G Xia. 2006. "Investigation of Modified Ni-Cr-Mn Base Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 153(10):A1873-A1879. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, P Singh, and JW Stevenson. 2006. "Electrical Contacts between Cathodes and Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 155(2):246-252. 
  • Yang ZG, GW Coffey, JP Rice, P Singh, JW Stevenson, and G Xia. 2006. "High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Oxidation Resistant Alloys under SOFC Interconnect Dual Exposures ." Chapter 21 in Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells II: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, vol. 27, no. 4, ed. NP Bansal, A Wereszczak and E Lara-Curzio, pp. 211-221.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH.  doi:10.1002/9780470291337.ch21

2005

  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Infiltrated Phlogopite Micas with Superior Thermal Cycle Stability as Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Developments in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries - Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the Ceramic Society, Apr 18-21 2004, *Indianapolis, IN, United States (Ceramic Transactions Vol. 161), pp. 89-98.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH. 
  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Long-term Thermal Cycling of Phlogopite Mica-based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 140(2):340-345. 
  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Long-Term Thermal Cycling of Phlogopite Mica-Based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Developments in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries (Ceramic Transactions Vol. 161), pp. 69-78.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville. 
  • Yang Z, G Xia, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "ELECTRICAL CONTACTS BETWEEN CATHODES AND METALLIC INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS." In Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. A Collection of Papers Presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, vol. 26, no. 4, ed. NP Bansal, pp. 217-224.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH.  doi:10.1002/9780470291245.ch25
  • Yang Z, G Xia, SP Simner, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Thermal Growth and Performance of Manganese Cobaltite Spinel Protection Layers on Ferritic Stainless Steel SOFC Interconnects." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 152(9):A1896-A1901. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Mn1.5Co1.5O4 Spinel Protection Layers on Ferritic Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 8(3):A168-A170. 
  • Chen L, Z Yang, B Jha, G Xia, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Clad Metals, Roll Bonding and their Applications for SOFC Interconnects." Journal of Power Sources 152(1):40-45. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2005. "Combined Ageing and Thermal Cycling of Compressive Mica Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, a collection of papers presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, published in Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings. , vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 265-272.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2005. "Glass Mica Composite Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells , A Collection of Papers Presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, published in Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings , vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 257-264.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2005. "Thermal Cycle Stability of a Novel Glass-Mica Composite Seal for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Effect of Glass Volume Fraction and Stresses." Journal of Power Sources 152(1):168-174. 
  • Chou YS, ZG Yang, P Singh, JW Stevenson, and G Xia. 2005. "SOFC Interconnect and Compressive Seal Development at PNNL." In 2005 Fuel Cell Seminar, Progress, Challenges and Markets, November 14-18, 2005, Convention Center, Palm Springs, California, p. 4 pages.  Courtesty Associates, Washington, DC. 
  • Petrovic JJ, IE Anderson, TM Adams, G Sandrock, CF Legsdins, JW Stevenson, and ZG Yang. 2005. Materials Science & Technology 2005 Conference & Exhibition (MS&T '05).  MS&T Partner Societies, Pittsburgh. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, LR Pederson, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Performance Variability of La(Sr)FeO3 SOFC Cathode with Pt, Ag and Au Current Collectors." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 152(9):A1851-A1859.  doi:10.1149/1.1995687
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, G Xia, ZG Yang, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Long-Term SOFC Stability with Coated Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnect." In Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings. 2005, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 83-90.  American Ceramic Society, Inc, Westerville, OH. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, G Xia, ZG Yang, LR Pederson, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "SOFC Performance with Fe-Cr-Mn Alloy Interconnect." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 152(4):A740-A745. 
  • Stevenson JW, P Singh, and SC Singhal. 2005. "Secrets of SOFC Success." The Fuel Cell Review 2(2):15-21. 
  • Stevenson JW, SP Simner, MD Anderson, OA Marina, and A Mueller. 2005. "SECA Core Technology Program - PNNL: Cell Materials Development." In SECA Workshop Proceedings: 6th Annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance.  National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV. 
  • Yang Z, SP Simner, P Singh, G Xia, and JW Stevenson. 2005. Development of (Mn,Co)3O4 Protection Layers for Ferritic Stainless Steel InterconnectsPNNL-15303, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, P Singh, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Effects of Water Vapor on Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels Under Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Exposure Conditions." Solid State Ionics 176:1495-1503. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2005. Observations on the oxidation of Mn-modified Ni-base Haynes 230 alloy under SOFC exposure conditions PNNL-15304, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, KD Meinhardt, KS Weil, and JW Stevenson. 2005. "Glass Sealing in Planar SOFC Stacks and Chemical Stability of Seal Interfaces." In Surfaces, Interfaces, and the Science of Ceramic Joining, held in 2004 Published in Ceramic Transactions, vol. 158, pp. 135-146.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville. 

2004

  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2004. "Novel Infiltrated Phlogopite Mica Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 135(1-2):72-78. 
  • Marina OA, JW Stevenson, and LR Pederson. 2004. "Sulfur-Tolerant Ceramic Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Fuel Cell Seminar 2004: Markets and Commercialization, p. 174.  Fuel Cell Seminar Headquarters, Washington DC. 
  • Anderson MD, JW Stevenson, and SP Simner. 2004. "Reactivity of Lanthanide Ferrite SOFC Cathodes with YSZ Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 129(2):188-192. 
  • Chou YS, KD Meinhardt, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2004. Mica-based Composite Compressive Seals for SOFCPNNL-14740, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, JF Bonnett, and JW Stevenson. 2004. "Enhanced Low Temperature Sintering of (Sr, Cu) Doped Lanthanum Ferrite SOFC Cathodes ." Solid State Ionics 175(1-4):79-81. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, JF Bonnett, and JW Stevenson. 2004. "Enhanced Low Temperature Sintering of (Sr, Cu) Doped Lanthanum Ferrite SOFC Cathodes ." Solid State Ionics 175:79-81. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, and JW Stevenson. 2004. "La(Sr)FeO3 SOFC Cathodes with Marginal Copper Doping." Journal of the American Ceramic Society 87(8):1471-1476. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, JE Coleman, JYY Kim, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2004. "SOFC Cathode Interaction with Volatile Chromia Species." In 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar: November 1-5, 2004, San Antonio, Texas.  Courtesy Associates, Washington, DC. 
  • Yang Z, MS Walker, P Singh, JW Stevenson, and T Norby. 2004. "Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels under SOFC Interconnect Exposure Conditions." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 151(12):B669-B678. 
  • Yang ZG, JS Hardy, MS Walker, G Xia, SP Simner, and JW Stevenson. 2004. "Structure and Conductivity of Thermally Grown Scales on Ferritic Fe-Cr-Mn Steel for SOFC Interconnect Applications ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 151:A1825. 
  • Yang ZG, G Xia, KD Meinhardt, KS Weil, and JW Stevenson. 2004. "Chemical Stability of Glass Seal Interfaces in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 13(3):327-334. 

2003

  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Mid-term Stability of Novel Mica-based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 115(2):274-278. 
  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Novel Silver/mica Multilayer Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: The Effect of Thermal Cycling and Material Degradation on Leak Behavior." Journal of Materials Research 18(9):2243-2250. 
  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Phlogopite Mica-based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Effect of Mica Thickness." Journal of Power Sources 124(2):473-478. 
  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Thermal Cycling of Advanced Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Advances in Joining of Ceramics: Proceedings of the Joining of Ceramics Symposium: Held at the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society, April 28-May 1, 2002 in St. Louis, Missouri., vol. 138, ed. CA Lewisohn; M Singh; RE Loehman, pp. 175-184.  American Ceramics Society, Westerville, OH. 
  • Marina OA, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Electrical and Thermal Properties of Strontium Titanate-Based Compounds." In Solid State Ionic Devices III: Proceedings of the International Symposium, vol. 2002-26, ed. Wachsman, ED., et al, pp. 91-100.  Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington, NJ. 
  • Marina OA, MS Walker, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Development of Ceramic Composites as SOFC Anodes." In 2003 FUEL CELL SEMINAR, pp. 340-343.  Fuel Cell Seminar, Miami Beach, FL. 
  • Yang ZG, JW Stevenson, and KD Meinhardt. 2003. "Chemical Interactions of Barium-Calcium-Aluminosilicate Based Sealing Glasses with Oxidation Resistant Alloys." Solid State Ionics 160(3-4):213-225. 
  • Yang ZG, KD Meinhardt, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Chemical Compatibility of Barium-Calcium-Aluminosilicate Based Sealing Glasses with Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnect in SOFCs." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 150(8):A1095-A1101 . 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and LA Chick. 2003. "Novel Compressive Mica Seals with Metallic Interlayers for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications." Journal of the American Ceramic Society 86(6):1003-1007. 
  • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, JP Shelton, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Development of Lanthanum Ferrite SOFC Cathodes." Journal of Power Sources 113(1):1-10. 
  • Simner SP, JP Shelton, MD Anderson, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Interaction Between La(Sr)FeO3 SOFC Cathode and YSZ Electrolyte ." Solid State Ionics 161(1-2):11-18. 
  • Simner SP, MD Anderson, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Improved Sinterability and Performance of Lanthanum Ferrite SOFC Cathodes." In 2003 Fuel Cell Seminar, Nov. 3-7, 2003, Miami Beach, Florida, pp. 388 -391.  Courtesy Associates, Washington, DC. 
  • Stevenson JW, S Baskaran, LA Chick, YS Chou, JE Deibler, MA Khaleel, OA Marina, KD Meinhardt, DM Paxton, LR Pederson, KP Recknagle, SP Simner, VL Sprenkle, KS Weil, ZG Yang, P Singh, and GL McVay. 2003. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells VIII (SOFC VIII). Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, vol. 2003-07, ed. S.C. Singhal; M Kokiya, pp. 31-42.  The Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington, NJ. 
  • Williford RE, LA Chick, GD Maupin, SP Simner, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Diffusion Limitations in the Porous Anodes of SOFCs." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 150(8):A1067-A1072. 
  • Williford RE, LA Chick, GD Maupin, SP Simner, JW Stevenson, and MA Khaleel. 2003. "Anodic Concentration Polarization in SOFCs." In Solid State Ionic Devices III: Proceedings of the International Symposium, vol. 2002-26, ed. Wachsman, ED, et al, pp. 101-112.  Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington, NJ. 
  • Yang Z, KS Weil, KD Meinhardt, JW Stevenson, DM Paxton, G Xia, and DS Kim. 2003. "Chemical Compatibility of Barium-Calcium-Aluminosilicate Based Sealing Glasses with Heat Resistant Alloys." In Materials Solutions 2002; Columbus, OH; USA; 7-9 Oct. 2002. International Conference on Joining of Advanced and Specialty Materials, pp. 116-122.  ASM International, Materials Park, OH. 
  • Yang ZG, KS Weil, DM Paxton, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Selection and Evaluation of Heat-Resistant Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 150(9):A1188-A1201 (2003. 
  • Yang ZG, KS Weil, KD Meinhardt, DM Paxton, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Considerations of Glass Sealing SOFC Stacks." In Joining of Advanced and Specialty Materials V, 2002, ed. Indacochea, J. E., pp. 40-46.  ASM International, Materials Park, OH. 
  • Yang ZG, KS Weil, KD Meinhardt, JW Stevenson, DM Paxton, G Xia, and DS Kim. 2003. "Chemical Compatibility of Barium-Calcium-Aluminosilicate Based Sealing Glasses with Heat Resistant Alloys." In Joining of Advanced and Specialty Materials V, Proceedings, ed. Indacochea, J. E., pp. 116-122.  ASM International, Materials Park, OH. 
  • Yang ZG, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2003. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Advanced Materials & Processes 161(6):34-37. 
  • Yang ZG, MS Walker, P Singh, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Anomalous Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steels under SOFC Interconnect Exposure Conditions." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 6(10):B35-B37. 
  • Yang ZG, MS Walker, P Singh, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Investigation of Oxidation-Resistant Alloy Interconnects for use in Planar SOFC Stacks." In 2003 Fuel Cell Seminar : Fuel Cells for Secure, Sustainable Energy. November 3-7, 2003. Miami Beach, Florida., pp. 404-407  Fuel Cells Seminar, Washington DC, DC. 

2002

  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Development of Advanced Mica-Based Compressive Seals for SOFCs: The Effect of Thermal Cycling with Metallic Interlayers." In 2002 Fuel Cell Seminar; fuel cells - reliable, clean energy for the world, pp. 336-339.  Fuel Cell Seminar, Palm Springs, CA. 
  • Chou YS, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Thermal Cycling and Degradation Mechanisms of Compressive Mica-based Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 112(2):376-383. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, and LA Chick. 2002. "Ultra-low Leak Rate of Hybrid Compressive Mica Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 112(1):130-136. 
  • Khaleel MA, KP Recknagle, Z Lin, JE Deibler, LA Chick, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Thermo-Mechanical and Electrochemistry Modeling of Planar SOFC Stacks." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cell VII, Electrochemical Society Proceedings, vol. 16, pp. 1032-1041.  Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington. 
  • Marina OA, NL Canfield, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Thermal, Electrical, and Electrocatalytical Properties of Lanthanum-Doped Strontium Titanate." Solid State Ionics 149(1-2):21-28. 
  • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, JP Shelton, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Development of Cathode Materials for Low Temperature SOFCs." In 2002 Fuel Cell Seminar: Fuel Cells - Reliable, Clean Energy for the World, November 19-21, 2002, Palm Springs, California. , pp. 344-347.  Fuel Cell Seminar, Washington, DC. 
  • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Optimized Lanathanum Ferrite-Based Cathodes for Anode-Supported SOFCs." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 5(7):A173-A175. 
  • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Optimized Lanthanum Ferrite-Based Cathods for Anode-Supported SOFCs." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 5(7):A173-A175. 
  • Windisch CF, Jr, JW Stevenson, SP Simner, RE Williford, and LA Chick. 2002. "Experimentally-Calibrated, Spreadsheet-Based SOFC Unit-Cell Performance Model." In 2002 Fuel Cell Seminar: Fuel Cells - Reliable, Clean Energy for the World, November 19-21, 2002, Palm Springs, California., pp. 383-386  Fuel Cell Seminar, Washington, DC. 
  • Yang ZG, KS Weil, DM Paxton, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Selection and Evaluation of Heat-Resistant Alloys for Planar SOFC Interconnect Applications." In 2002 Fuel Cell Seminar: Fuel Cells - Reliable, Clean Energy for the World, November 19-21, 2002, Palm Springs, California. , pp. 522-525.  Fuel Cell Seminar, Washington, DC. 
  • Yang ZG, DM Paxton, KS Weil, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2002. Materials Properties Database for Selection of High-Temperature Alloys and Concepts of Alloy Design for SOFC ApplicationsPNNL-14116, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2001

  • Singh P, LR Pederson, SP Simner, JW Stevenson, and VV Viswanathan. 2001. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Generation Systems." In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC 2001): Energy Technologies Beyond Traditional Boundaries, vol. 2, ed. S Somasundaram, pp. 953-958.  American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY. 
  • Chick LA, JW Stevenson, KD Meinhardt, SP Simner, JE Jaffe, and RE Williford. 2001. "Modeling and Performance of Anode-Supported SOFC." In Fuel Cells - Powering the 21st Century : 2000 Fuel Cell Seminar, October 30-November 2, 2000, Portland, Oregon, pp. 619-622.  Courtesy Associates, Washington, DC. 
  • Simner SP, JS Hardy, JR, and JW Stevenson. 2001. "Sintering and Properties of Mixed Lanthanide Chromites." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 148(4):A351-A360. 
  • Simner SP, and JW Stevenson. 2001. "Compressive Mica Seals for SOFC Applications." Journal of Power Sources 102(1-2):310 - 316. 
  • Simner SP, and JW Stevenson. 2001. "Compressive Mica Seals for SOFC Applications." Journal of Power Sources 102(1-2):310-316. 
  • Simner SP, KD Meinhardt, NL Canfield, and JW Stevenson. 2001. "Development of Fabrication Techniques and Electrodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Solid oxide fuel cells VII, (SOFC VII), proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, June 3-8, 2001. Proceedings of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 2001-16, ed. H. Yokokawa and S.C. Singhal, pp. 1051-1060.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Stevenson JW, KD Meinhardt, CF Habeger, NL Canfield, and SP Simner. 2001. "Fabrication and Testing of Anode-Supported SOFC." In Fuel cells--powering the 21st Century. 2000 Fuel Cell Seminar, October 30-November 2, 2000, Portland, Oregon, pp. 627-630.  Courtesy Associates, Washington, DC. 
  • Williford RE, JW Stevenson, YS Chou, and LR Pederson. 2001. "Computer Simulations of Thermal Expansion in Lanthanum-Based Perovskites." Journal of Solid State Chemistry 156(2):394-399. 

2000

  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, TR Armstrong, JS Hardy, K Hasinska, and LR Pederson. 2000. "Microstructure and mechanical properties of Sm1-xSrxCo0.2Fe0.8O3." Journal of Materials Research 15(7):1505-1513. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, TR Armstrong, and LR Pederson. 2000. "Mechanical Properties of La1-xSrxCo0.2Fe0.803 Mixed-Conducting Perovskites Made by the Combustion Synthesis Technique ." Journal of the American Ceramic Society 83(6):1457-1464. 
  • Chou YS, JW Stevenson, TR Armstrong, and LR Pederson. 2000. "Mechanical Properties of La1-xSrxCo0.2Fe0.803 Mixed-Conducting Perovskites Made by the Combustion Synthesis Technique ." Journal of the American Ceramic Society 83(6):1457-1464. 
  • Simner SP, JS Hardy, JW Stevenson, and TR Armstrong. 2000. "Sintering Of Lanthanum Chromite Using Strontium Vanadate." Solid State Ionics 128 (1-4):53-63. 
  • Simner SP, JS Hardy, JW Stevenson, and TR Armstrong. 2000. "Sintering of Non-Stoichiometric Strontium Doped Lanthanum Chromite." Journal of Materials Science 19(10):863-865. 
  • Simner SP, JW Stevenson, JS Hardy, and LA Chick. 2000. "Cost Reduction of Lanthanum Chromite Materials ." In 2000 Fuel Cell Seminar, pp. 631-634.  Courtesy Associates, Washington, DC. 
  • Simner SP, JW Stevenson, JS Hardy, and LA Chick. 2000. "Cost Reduction of Lanthanum Chromite Materials." In Fuel cells--powering the 21st Century : 2000 Fuel Cell Seminar, October 30-November 2, 2000, Portland, Oregon, Oregon Convention Center : abstracts, pp. 631-634.  Courtesy Associates, Washington, DC. 
  • Stevenson JW, K Hasinska, NL Canfield, and TR Armstrong. 2000. "Influence of Cobalt and Iron Additions on the Electrical and Thermal Properties of (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg)O3-d." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 147(9):3213-3218. 

1999

  • Armstrong TR, SP Simner, JS Hardy, and JW Stevenson. 1999. "Optimizing Lanthanum Chromite Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In 6th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI), vol. 99, no. 19, pp. 706-715.  The Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington, NJ. 
  • Baskaran S, CA Lewinsohn, YS Chou, M Qian, JW Stevenson, and TR Armstrong. 1999. "Mechanical Properties of Alkaline-Earth Doped Lanthanum Gallate." Journal of Materials Science 34(16):3913-3922. 
  • Simner SP, JS Hardy, JW Stevenson, and TR Armstrong. 1999. "Sintering and Property Characterization of Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Chromite." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC VI). Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium, Oct. 17-22, 1999, Honolulu, HI, pp. 696-705.  The Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington, NJ. 
  • Simner SP, JS Hardy, JW Stevenson, and TR Armstrong. 1999. "Sintering and Property Characterization of Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Chromite." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC VI): Proceedings of the 6th International Conference held in Honolulu, October 1999, ed. SC Singhal, M Dokiya, pp. 696-705.  Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Stevenson JW, TR Armstrong, LR Pederson, CA Lewinsohn, and S Baskaran. 1999. "Effect of A-Site Cation Nonstoichiometry on the Properties of Doped Lanthanum Gallate." Solid State Ionics 113-115:571-583.  doi:10.1016/S0167-2738(98)00324-5

1998

  • Armstrong TR, JW Stevenson, K Hasinska, and DE McCready. 1998. "Synthesis and Properties of Mixed Lanthanide Chromite Perovskites." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 145(12):4282-4289. 

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