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Energy and Environment Directorate

Zimin Nie

Zimin Nie

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-6354


Zimin Nie has over 10 years experience in synthesis of inorganic materials, energy materials such as fuel cell and flow battery materials, multicomponent oxide and non oxide composite ceramics and nanocomposite materials using solution based synthesis, hydrothermal reactions, sol-gel chemistry and glycine nitrate combustion synthesis. Research experience includes electrolyte study of flow battery, synthesis and dissolution study of aluminum oxide and hydroxide in high alkaline conditions (pH>13), controlled hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes for catalytic, photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications and combustion synthesis of LiFePO4, LiMnPO4, LiNiPO4, Li2TiO2 with desired crystalline structure and low impurity for energy storage. Fifteen years experience in materials composition and structural characterization using wide range of analytical tools including ICP, XRD, BET and HPLC. Recently engaged in developing quantitative tools for the analysis of complex electrolyte solutions, including composition, redox activity, valence, and speciation for large scale energy storage applications.

Education and Credentials

  • B.S., Hunan University, China, 1982

PNNL Publications


  • Reed DM, EC Thomsen, B Li, W Wang, Z Nie, BJ Koeppel, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Performance of a Low Cost Interdigitated Flow Design on a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 306:24-31.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.11.089
  • Reed DM, EC Thomsen, B Li, W Wang, Z Nie, BJ Koeppel, JP Kizewski, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Stack Developments in a kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(1):A5211-A5219.  doi:10.1149/2.0281601jes
  • Banerjee D, W Xu, Z Nie, LEV Johnson, C Coghlan, ML Sushko, DS Kim, MJ Schweiger, AA Kruger, CJ Doonan, and PK Thallapally. 2016. "Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworkds for Removal of Perrhenate from Water." Inorganic Chemistry 55(17):8241-8243.  doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b01004
  • Estevez L, DM Reed, Z Nie, AM Schwarz, MI Nandasiri, JP Kizewski, W Wang, EC Thomsen, J Liu, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, and B Li. 2016. " Tunable oxygen functional groups as electro-catalysts on graphite felt surfaces for all vanadium flow batteries." ChemSusChem 9(12):1455-1461.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201600198
  • Li B, J Liu, Z Nie, W Wang, DM Reed, J Liu, BP McGrail, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Metal-organic frameworks as highly active electrocatalysts for high-energy density, aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow batteries." Nano Letters 16(7):4335-4340.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01426
  • Liu TL, X Wei, Z Nie, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2016. "A Total Organic Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing Low Cost and Sustainable Methyl Viologen Anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO Catholyte." Advanced Energy Materials 6(3):Article No. 1501449.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201501449
  • Nandasiri MI, J Liu, BP McGrail, JWJ Jenks, HT Schaef, V Shutthanandan, Z Nie, PF Martin, and SK Nune. 2016. "Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids." Scientific Reports 6:27805.  doi:10.1038/srep27805
  • Pan H, Y Shao, P Yan, Y Cheng, KS Han, Z Nie, CM Wang, J Yang, X Li, P Bhattacharya, KT Mueller, and J Liu. 2016. "Reversible aqueous zinc/manganese oxide energy storage from conversion reactions." Nature Energy 1(5):Article No. 16039.  doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.39
  • Vijayakumar M, Q Luo, RB Lloyd, Z Nie, X Wei, B Li, VL Sprenkle, JD Londono, M Unlu, and W Wang. 2016. "Tuning the perfluorosulfonic acid membrane morphology for vanadium redox flow batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(50):34327-34334.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b10744
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, WA Henderson, ML Sushko, Y Shao, J Xiao, W Wang, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, and J Liu. 2016. "Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries." Nano Energy 19:279-288.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.10.034
  • Zhang W, D Banerjee, J Liu, HT Schaef, JV Crum, CA Fernandez, RK Kukkadapu, Z Nie, SK Nune, RK Motkuri, KW Chapman, MH Engelhard, JC Hayes, KL Silvers, R Krishna, BP McGrail, J Liu, and PK Thallapally. 2016. "Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications." Advanced Materials 28(18):3572-3577.  doi:10.1002/adma.201600259


  • Reed DM, EC Thomsen, W Wang, Z Nie, B Li, X Wei, BJ Koeppel, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Performance of Nafion® N115, Nafion® NR-212, and Nafion® NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 285:425-430.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.099
  • Wei X, G Xia, BW Kirby, EC Thomsen, B Li, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(1):A5150-A5153.  doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
  • Li B, Z Nie, M Vijayakumar, G Li, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 6303.  doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Lu D, J Zheng, Q Li, X Xie, SA Ferrara, Z Nie, BL Mehdi, ND Browning, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Challenges of Thick Sulfur Cathodes." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1402290.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201402290
  • Vijayakumar M, N Govind, B Li, X Wei, Z Nie, S Thevuthasan, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion® membranes." Frontiers in Energy Research 3:Article No. 10.  doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00010
  • Vijayakumar M, Z Nie, ED Walter, JZ Hu, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80(2):428-437.  doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139


  • Cui J, JP Choi, E Polikarpov, ME Bowden, W Xie, G Li, Z Nie, N Zarkevich, MJ Kramer, and DD Johnson. 2014. "Effect of Composition and Heat Treatment on MnBi Magnetic Materials." Acta Materialia 79:374-381.  doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2014.07.034
  • Ji L, M Gu, Y Shao, X Li, MH Engelhard, BW Arey, W Wang, Z Nie, J Xiao, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage." Advanced Materials 26(18):2901-2908.  doi:10.1002/adma.201304962
  • Li B, M Gu, Z Nie, X Wei, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ." Nano Letters 14(1):158-165.  doi:10.1021/nl403674a
  • Li B, Q Luo, X Wei, Z Nie, EC Thomsen, B Chen, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "Capacity Decay Mechanism of Microporous Separator-Based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries and its Recovery." ChemSusChem 7(2):577-584.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201300706
  • Liu TL, Y Shao, G Li, M Gu, JZ Hu, S Xu, Z Nie, X Chen, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2014. "A Facile Approach Using MgCl2 to Formulate High Performance Mg2+ Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(10):3430 - 3438.  doi:10.1039/c3ta14825d
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, BL Mehdi, EC Thomsen, MH Engelhard, RC Masse, P Bhattacharya, M Gu, WD Bennett, Z Nie, CM Wang, ND Browning, and J Zhang. 2014. "Formation of Interfacial Layer and Long-Term Cylability of Li-O-2 Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6(16):14141-14151.  doi:10.1021/am503390q
  • Pan A, Y Wang, W Xu, Z Nie, S Liang, Z Nie, CM Wang, G Cao, and J Zhang. 2014. "High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs." Journal of Power Sources 225:125-129. 
  • Shao Y, M Gu, X Li, Z Nie, P Zuo, G Li, TL Liu, J Xiao, Y Cheng, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 14(1):255-260.  doi:10.1021/nl403874y
  • Shao Y, NN Rajput, JZ Hu, MY Hu, TL Liu, Z Wei, M Gu, X Deng, S Xu, KS Han, J Wang, Z Nie, G Li, K Zavadil, J Xiao, CM Wang, WA Henderson, J Zhang, Y Wang, KT Mueller, KA Persson, and J Liu. 2014. "Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries." Nano Energy 2015(12):750-759.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.12.028


  • Nie Z, X Zhou, Q Zhang, G Cao, and J Liu. 2013. "Aggregated TiO2 Based Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells." Science of Advanced Materials 5(11):1750-1755.  doi:10.1166/sam.2013.1622
  • Wang W, D Choi, and Z Yang. 2013. "Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 44A(1 Supplement):21-25.  doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4
  • Wei X, Q Luo, B Li, Z Nie, E Miller, J Chambers, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Performance Evaluation of Microporous Separator in Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." ECS Transactions 45(26):17-24.  doi:10.1149/04526.0017ecst
  • Wei X, Z Nie, Q Luo, B Li, B Chen, KL Simmons, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane." Advanced Energy Materials 3(9):1215-1220.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201201112
  • Wei X, Z Nie, Q Luo, B Li, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(8):A1215 - A1218. 
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, Z Nie, and J Zhang. 2013. "Lattice Mn3+ Behaviors in Li4Ti5O12/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Full Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(8):A1264-A1268.  doi:10.1149/2.097308jes
  • Ding F, W Xu, GL Graff, J Zhang, ML Sushko, X Chen, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, J Xiao, X Liu, PV Sushko, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 135(11):4450-4456.  doi:10.1021/ja312241y
  • Li B, L Li, W Wang, Z Nie, B Chen, X Wei, Q Luo, Z Yang, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization." Journal of Power Sources 229:1-5.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.119
  • Li B, M Gu, Z Nie, Y Shao, Q Luo, X Wei, X Li, J Xiao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 13(3):1330-1335.  doi:10.1021/nl400223v
  • Luo Q, L Li, W Wang, Z Nie, X Wei, B Li, B Chen, Z Yang, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Capacity Decay and Remediation of Nafion-based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 6(2):268-274.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201200730
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, SD Burton, L Cosimbescu, ME Gross, and J Zhang. 2013. "Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117(6):2635-2645.  doi:10.1021/jp311114u
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, XS Li, and J Zhang. 2013. "Stability of polymer binders in Li-O2 batteries." Journal of Power Sources 243:899-907.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.097
  • Shao Y, J Xiao, W Wang, MH Engelhard, X Chen, Z Nie, M Gu, LV Saraf, GJ Exarhos, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams." Nano Letters 13(8):3909-3914.  doi:10.1021/nl401995a
  • Shao Y, TL Liu, G Li, M Gu, Z Nie, MH Engelhard, J Xiao, D Lu, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance." Scientific Reports 3:Article No. 3130.  doi:10.1038/srep03130
  • Stevenson JW, ZG Yang, G Xia, Z Nie, and JD Templeton. 2013. "Long-term oxidation behavior of spinel-coated ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications." Journal of Power Sources 231:256-263.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.033
  • Vijayakumar M, W Wang, Z Nie, VL Sprenkle, and JZ Hu. 2013. "Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 241:173-177.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.072
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, J Xiao, B Schwenzer, MH Engelhard, LV Saraf, Z Nie, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 2013. "Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(33):9517-9526.  doi:10.1039/C3TA10865A
  • Xu W, X Chen, W Wang, D Choi, F Ding, J Zheng, Z Nie, YJ Choi, J Zhang, and Z Yang. 2013. "Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 236:169-174.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.055
  • Zhan H, J Xiao, Z Nie, X Li, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Nanostructured materials for rechargeable batteries: synthesis, fundamental understanding and limitations." Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 2(2):151-159.  doi:10.1016/j.coche.2013.03.007


  • Wei X, L Li, Q Luo, Z Nie, W Wang, B Li, G Xia, E Miller, J Chambers, and Z Yang. 2012. "Microporous Separators for Fe/V Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 218(1):39-45.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.06.073
  • Cao Y, L Xiao, ML Sushko, W Wang, B Schwenzer, J Xiao, Z Nie, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2012. "Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications." Nano Letters 12(7):3783-3787.  doi:10.1021/nl3016957
  • Li J, K Zhu, J Shang, D Wang, Z Nie, R Guo, C Liu, Z Wang, X Li, and J Liu. 2012. "Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction." Separation Science and Technology 47(10):1507-1513. 
  • Luo Q, L Li, Z Nie, W Wang, X Wei, B Li, B Chen, and Z Yang. 2012. "In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 218(1):15-20.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.06.066
  • Vijayakumar M, L Li, Z Nie, Z Yang, and JZ Hu. 2012. "Structure and Stability of Hexa-Aqua V(III) Cations in Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14(29):10233-10242.  doi:10.1039/c2cp40707h
  • Wang W, L Li, Z Nie, B Chen, Q Luo, Y Shao, X Wei, F Chen, G Xia, and Z Yang. 2012. "A New Hybrid Redox Flow Battery with Multiple Redox Couples." Journal of Power Sources 216:99-103.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.032
  • Wang W, Z Nie, B Chen, F Chen, Q Luo, X Wei, G Xia, M Skyllas-Kazacos, L Li, and Z Yang. 2012. "A New Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Using Sulfuric/Chloric Mixed Acid Supporting Electrolyte." Advanced Energy Materials 2(4):487-493.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201100527
  • Xiao J, X Chen, PV Sushko, ML Sushko, L Kovarik, J Feng, Z Deng, J Zheng, GL Graff, Z Nie, D Choi, J Liu, J Zhang, and MS Whittingham. 2012. "High-Performance LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Spinel Controlled by Mn3+ Concentration and Site Disorder." Advanced Materials 24(16):2109-2116.  doi:10.1002/adma.201104767
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, J Xiao, B Schwenzer, MH Engelhard, LV Saraf, Z Nie, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 2012. "A Soft Approach to Encapsulate Sulfur: Polyaniline Nanotubes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life." Advanced Materials 24(9):1176-1181.  doi:10.1002/adma.201103392
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, J Xiao, W Wang, L Kovarik, Z Nie, and J Liu. 2012. "High capacity, reversible alloying reactions in SnSb/C nanocomposites for Na-ion battery applications." Chemical Communications 48(27):3321-3323.  doi:10.1039/C2CC17129E
  • Zhou XD, JW Templeton, Z Nie, H Chen, JW Stevenson, and LR Pederson. 2012. "Electrochemical performance and stability of the cathode for solid oxide fuel cells: V. high performance and stable Pr2NiO4 as the cathode for solid oxide fuel cells." Electrochimica Acta 71:44-49.  doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2012.03.067


  • Xu W, K Xu, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, JS Hardy, J Xiao, Z Nie, D Hu, D Wang, and J Zhang. 2011. "Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 196(22):9631-9639.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.06.099
  • Xu W, VV Viswanathan, D Wang, SA Towne, J Xiao, Z Nie, D Hu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 196(8):3894-3899. 
  • Cao Y, L Xiao, W Wang, D Choi, Z Nie, J Yu, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2011. "Reversible Sodium Ion Insertion in Single Crystalline Manganese Oxide Nanowires with Long Cycle Life." Advanced Materials 23(28):3155-3160.  doi:10.1002/adma.201100904
  • Cao Y, X Li, IA Aksay, JP Lemmon, Z Nie, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2011. "Sandwich-Type Functionalized Graphene Sheet-Sulfur Nanocomposite for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(17):7660-7665.  doi:10.1039/C0CP02477E
  • Kou R, Y Shao, D Mei, Z Nie, D Wang, CM Wang, VV Viswanathan, SK Park, IA Aksay, Y Lin, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2011. "Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points." Journal of the American Chemical Society 133(8):2541-2547.  doi:10.1021/ja107719u
  • Li L, S Kim, W Wang, M Vijayakumar, Z Nie, B Chen, J Zhang, G Xia, JZ Hu, GL Graff, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2011. "A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 1(3):394-400. 
  • Li X, Y Cao, WN Qi, LV Saraf, J Xiao, Z Nie, J Mietek, J Zhang, B Schwenzer, and J Liu. 2011. "Optimization of mesoporous carbon structures for lithium-sulfur battery applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(41):16603-16610.  doi:10.1039/C1JM12979A
  • Lu Z, G Xia, JD Templeton, XS Li, Z Nie, Z Yang, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells." Electrochemistry Communications 13(6):642-645 .  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2011.03.034
  • Pan A, D Choi, J Zhang, S Liang, G Cao, Z Nie, BW Arey, and J Liu. 2011. "High-Rate Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via Surfactant-Assisted Fabrication." Journal of Power Sources 196(7):3646-3649.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.12.067
  • Pan A, J Zhang, G Cao, S Liang, CM Wang, Z Nie, BW Arey, W Xu, D Liu, J Xiao, G Li, and J Liu. 2011. "Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(27):10077-10084.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10976F
  • Wang D, J Xiao, W Xu, Z Nie, CM Wang, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2011. "Preparation and electrochemical investigation of Li2CoPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196(4):2241-2245.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.10.021
  • Wang W, S Kim, B Chen, Z Nie, J Zhang, G Xia, L Li, and Z Yang. 2011. "A New Redox Flow Battery Using Fe/V Redox Couples in Chloride Supporting Electrolyte." Energy & Environmental Science 4(10):4068-4073.  doi:10.1039/C0EE00765J
  • Xia G, RC Scott, XS Li, Z Nie, JP Choi, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "Development of SOFC Interconnects and Coatings." Chapter III.C.4 in 2011 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report, vol. DOE/NETL-2012-1525, pp. 120-123.  Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 
  • Xia G, XS Li, Z Lu, Z Nie, RC Scott, JD Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2011. "Development of Cathode-Interconnect Contact Materials for SOFCs." Chapter III.C.5 in 2011 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report, vol. DOE/NETL-2012-1525, pp. 124-128.  Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 
  • Xiao J, D Mei, X Li, W Xu, D Wang, GL Graff, WD Bennett, Z Nie, LV Saraf, IA Aksay, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode." Nano Letters 11(11):5071-5078.  doi:10.1021/nl203332e
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, D Wang, D Hu, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Nie, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 196(13):5674-5678. 
  • Xiao J, N Chernova, S Upreti, X Chen, Z Li, Z Deng, D Choi, W Xu, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2011. "Electrochemical Performances of LiMnPO4 Synthesized from Non-Stoichiometric Li/Mn Ratio." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(40):18099-18106.  doi:10.1039/C1CP22658D
  • Zhang J, L Li, Z Nie, B Chen, M Vijayakumar, S Kim, W Wang, B Schwenzer, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2011. "Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 41(10 - Special Issue S1):1215-1221.  doi:10.1007/s10800-011-0312-1
  • Zhu K, J Sun, J Liu, LQ Wang, H Wan, JZ Hu, Y Wang, CHF Peden, and Z Nie. 2011. "Solvent Evaporation Assisted Preparation of Oriented Nanocrystalline Mesoporous MFI Zeolites." ACS Catalysis 1(7):682-690.  doi:10.1021/cs200085e


  • Shao Y, S Zhang, CM Wang, Z Nie, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2010. "Highly durable graphene nanoplatelets supported Pt nanocatalysts for oxygen reduction ." Journal of Power Sources 195(15):4600-4605. 
  • Zhou XD, SP Simner, JW Templeton, Z Nie, JW Stevenson, and BP Gorman. 2010. "Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells II. Role of Ni diffusion on LSM performance ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(5):B643-B649. 
  • Choi D, D Wang, IT Bae, J Xiao, Z Nie, W Wang, VV Viswanathan, YJ Lee, J Zhang, GL Graff, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2010. "LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode." Nano Letters 10(8):2799-2805.  doi:10.1021/nl1007085
  • Li L, DL King, Z Nie, XS Li, and CJ Howard. 2010. "MgAI2O4 Spinel-Stabilized Calcium Oxide Absorbents with Improved Durability for High-Temperature CO2 Capture." Energy and Fuels 24(6):3698-3703.  doi:10.1021/ef100245q
  • Matson DW, GL Graff, JL Male, BR Johnson, Z Nie, AG Joly, and LC Olsen. 2010. "Synthesis and Screening of Thin Films in the CeCl3-CeBr3 System for Scintillator Applications." Thin Solid Films 518(12):3194-3198.  doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.09.015
  • Pan A, J Liu, J Zhang, W Xu, GH Cao, Z Nie, BW Arey, and S Liang. 2010. "Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 /Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries." Electrochemistry Communications 12(12):1674-1677.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.09.014
  • Pan A, J Liu, J Zhang, GH Cao, W Xu, Z Nie, J Xiao, D Choi, BW Arey, CM Wang, and S Liang. 2010. "Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for High-Rate Secondary Lithium Batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(4):1153-1161.  doi:10.1039/c0jm02810j
  • Pan A, J Zhang, Z Nie, GH Cao, BW Arey, G Li, S Liang, and J Liu. 2010. "Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(41):9193-9199.  doi:10.1039/C0JM01306D
  • Wang D, R Kou, D Choi, Z Yang, Z Nie, J Li, LV Saraf, D Hu, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, MA Pope, and IA Aksay. 2010. "Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage ." ACS Nano 4(3):1587-1595.  doi:10.1021/nn901819n
  • Xu W, NL Canfield, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, and J Zhang. 2010. "A three-dimensional Macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheet prepared via a novel method." Journal of Power Sources 195(21):7403-7408.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.05.054
  • Xu W, NL Canfield, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, XS Li, WD Bennett, CC Bonham, and J Zhang. 2010. "Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(7):A765-A769. 
  • Zhang J, J Liu, D Wang, D Choi, LS Fifield, CM Wang, G Xia, Z Nie, Z Yang, LR Pederson, and GL Graff. 2010. "Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth." Journal of Power Sources 195(6 SP ISS):1691-1697. 
  • Zhang S, Y Shao, X Li, Z Nie, Y Wang, J Liu, G Yin, and Y Lin. 2010. "Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles." Journal of Power Sources 195(2):457-460.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.08.012


  • Xu W, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, and J Zhang. 2009. "Non-aqueous Electrolytes for High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries." In Proceedings of the 9th International Advanced Automotive Battery and EC Capacitor Conference and Symposia: Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Application (LLIBTA); Large EC Capacitor Technology and Application (ECCAP), June 8-12, 2009, Long Beach, CA.  Advanced Automotive Batteries, Oregon House, CA. 
  • Choi D, D Wang, VV Viswanathan, IT Bae, W Wang, Z Nie, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, Z Yang, and TQ Duong. 2009. "Li-Ion Batteries from LiFePO4 Cathode and Anatase/Graphene Composite Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Electrochemistry Communications 12(3):378-381.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2009.12.039
  • Li L, DL King, Z Nie, and CJ Howard. 2009. "Magnesia-Stabilized Calcium Oxide Absorbents with Improved Durability for High Temperature CO2 Capture." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 48(23):10604-10613.  doi:10.1021/ie901166b
  • Li L, DL King, Z Nie, and CJ Howard. 2009. "Magnesia-Stabilized Calcium Oxide Absorbents with Improved Durability for High Temperature CO2 Capture." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 48(23):10604-10613.  doi:10.1021/ie901166b
  • Vijayakumar M, SN Kerisit, CM Wang, Z Nie, KM Rosso, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, and JZ Hu. 2009. "Effect of Chemical Lithium Intercalation into Rutile TiO2 Nanorods." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(32):14567-14574.  doi:10.1021/jp904148z
  • Wang CM, Z Yang, S Thevuthasan, J Liu, DR Baer, D Choi, D Wang, J Zhang, LV Saraf, and Z Nie. 2009. "Crystal and Electronic Structure of Lithiated Nanosized RutileTiO2 by Electron Diffraction and Electron Energy-loss Spectroscopy." Applied Physics Letters 94(23):Art. No.: 233116.  doi:10.1063/1.3152783
  • Wang D, D Choi, J Li, Z Yang, Z Nie, R Kou, D Hu, CM Wang, LV Saraf, J Zhang, IA Aksay, and J Liu. 2009. "Self-assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Li-ion Insertion ." ACS Nano 3(4):907-914. 
  • Zhu K, JZ Hu, X She, J Liu, Z Nie, Y Wang, CHF Peden, and JH Kwak. 2009. "Characterization of Dispersed Heteropoly Acid on Mesoporous Zeolite Using Solid-State P-31 NMR Spin-Lattice Relaxation." Journal of the American Chemical Society 131(28):9715-9721.  doi:10.1021/ja901317r


  • Wu H, Q Huo, SM Varnum, G Liu, J Wang, Z Nie, J Liu, and Y Lin. 2008. "Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticle Labels/Protein Microarray for Detection of Protein Biomarkers." The Analyst 133:1550 - 1555.  doi:10.1039/b719810h
  • Yang Z, G Xia, Z Nie, JD Templeton, and JW Stevenson. 2008. "Ce-Modified (Mn,Co)3O4 Spinel Coatings on Ferritic Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications ." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 11(8):B140-B143. 
  • Zhou XD, LR Pederson, EC Thomsen, Z Nie, and GW Coffey. 2008. "Nonstoichiometry and Transport Properties of Ca3Co4±xO9+d (x = 0 - 0.4)." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 12(2):F1-F3.  doi:10.1149/1.3039948
  • Wang D, D Choi, Z Yang, VV Viswanathan, Z Nie, CM Wang, Y Song, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2008. "Synthesis and Li-ion Insertion Properties of Highly Crystalline Mesoporous Rutile TiO2." Chemistry of Materials 20(10):3435-3442. 
  • Wang D, Z Ma, S Dai, J Liu, Z Nie, MH Engelhard, Q Huo, CM Wang, and R Kou. 2008. "Low-Temperature Synthesis of Tunable Mesoporous Crystalline Transition Metal Oxides and Applications as Au Catalyst Supports." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112(35):13499-13509.  doi:10.1021/jp804250f
  • Yang Z, G Xia, CM Wang, Z Nie, JD Templeton, P Singh, and JW Stevenson. 2008. Investigation of AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel and Development of Spinel Coatings for SOFC Interconnect ApplicationsPNNL-17568, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Yang Z, G Xia, CM Wang, Z Nie, JD Templeton, JW Stevenson, and P Singh. 2008. "Investigation of Iron-Chromium-Niobium-Titanium Ferritic Stainless Steel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Applications." Journal of Power Sources 183(2):660-667.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.05.037


  • Zhou XD, J Yang, EC Thomsen, Q Cai, BJ Scarfino, Z Nie, GW Coffey, WJ James, WB Yelon, HU Anderson, and LR Pederson. 2006. "Electrical, Thermoelectric, and Structural Properties of La(MxFe1-x)O3 (M=Mn, Ni, Cu)." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 153(12):J133-J138 . 
  • Wang D, J Liu, Q Huo, Z Nie, W Lu, RE Williford, and Y Jiang. 2006. "Surface-Mediated Growth of Transparent, Oriented, and Well-Defined Nanocrystalline Anatase Titania Films ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 128(42):13670-13671.  doi:10.1021/ja0655993


  • Fryxell GE, H Wu, Y Lin, WJ Shaw, JC Birnbaum, JC Linehan, Z Nie, KM Kemner, and S Kelly. 2004. "Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS) ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 14(22):3356-3363. 
  • Fryxell GE, H Wu, Y Lin, WJ Shaw, JC Birnbaum, JC Linehan, Z Nie, KM Kemner, and S Kelly. 2004. "Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)." Journal of Materials Chemistry 14(22):3356-3363. 


  • Shin Y, II, J Liu, JH Chang, II, Z Nie, and GJ Exarhos. 2001. "Hierarchically Ordered Ceramics through Surfactant-Templated Sol-Gel Mineralization of Biological Cellular Structures." Advanced Materials 13(10):728-732. 
  • Zemanian TS, GE Fryxell, J Liu, SV Mattigod, JA Franz, and Z Nie. 2001. "Deposition of Self-Assembled Monolayers in Mesoporous Silica from Supercritical Fluids." Langmuir 17(26):8172-8177. 
  • Zemanian TS, GE Fryxell, J Liu, SV Mattigod, Y Shin, JA Franz, OA Ustyugov, and Z Nie. 2001. "Chemical Functionalization of Nanostructured Materials Using Supercritical Reaction Media." In IEEE-NANO 2001 : proceedings of the 2001 1st IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, October, 28-30, 2001, Maui, Hawaii / , pp. 288-292.  IEEE, New York, NY. 


  • Choi S, Y Wang, Z Nie, D Khmbapati, J Liu, and CHF Peden. 2000. "Mesoporous Silica Supported Solid Acid Catalysts." In 12th International Congress on Catlysis, Studies in Surface Science Catalysis, vol. 130 pt B, ed. A. Corma, F.Melo, S. Mendioroz et al, pp. 965-970.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, , NETHERLANDS. 
  • Choi S, Y Wang, Z Nie, J Liu, and CHF Peden. 2000. "Cs-Substituted Tungstophosphoric Acid Salt Supported on Mesoporous Silica." Catalysis Today 55(1-2):117-124. 
  • Liu J, Y Shin, Z Nie, JH Chang, LQ Wang, GE Fryxell, WD Samuels, and GJ Exarhos. 2000. "Molecular Assembly in Ordered Mesoporosity: A New Class of Highly Functional Nanoscale Materials." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 104(36):8328-8339. 
  • Shin Y, J Liu, LQ Wang, Z Nie, WD Samuels, GE Fryxell, and GJ Exarhos. 2000. "Ordered Hierarchical Porous Materials: Towards Tunable Size- and Shape-Selective Microcavities in Nanoporous Channels." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 39(15):2702-2707. 


  • Fryxell GE, J Liu, TA Hauser, Z Nie, KF Ferris, SV Mattigod, M Gong, and RT Hallen. 1999. "Design and Synthesis of Selective Mesoporous Anion Types ." Chemistry of Materials 11(8):2148-2154. 

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