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Energy and Environment Directorate

Guosheng Li

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 371-6520

PNNL Publications


  • Chang HJ, NL Canfield, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Advanced Na-NiCl2 Battery using Nickel-Coated Graphite with Core-Shell Microarchitecture." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9(13):11609-11614.  doi:10.1021/acsami.7b00271
  • Chang HJ, X Lu, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, S Son, YC Park, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Development of Intermediate Temperature Sodium Nickel Chloride Rechargeable Batteries using Conventional Polymer Sealing Technologies." Journal of Power Sources 348:150-157.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059
  • Howe DT, DJ Taasevigen, M Garcia-Perez, A McDonald, G Li, and MP Wolcott. 2017. "Steam Gasification of a Thermally Pretreated High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Digester Residue." Energy 119:400-407.  doi:10.1016/


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, HJ Chang, NL Canfield, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Advanced Intermediate Temperature Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries with Ultra-High Energy Density." Nature Communications 7:Article No. 10683.  doi:10.1038/ncomms10683
  • Cheng Y, D Choi, KS Han, KT Mueller, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2016. "Toward the Design of High Voltage Magnesium-Lithium Hybrid Batteries Using Dual-Salt Electrolytes." Chemical Communications 52(31):5379-5382.  doi:10.1039/C6CC00986G
  • Cheng Y, HJ Chang, H Dong, D Choi, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, Y Yao, and G Li. 2016. "Rechargeable MgLi Hybrid Batteries: Status and Challenges." Journal of Materials Research 31(20):3125-3141.  doi:10.1557/jmr.2016.331
  • Cheng Y, L Luo, L Zhong, J Chen, B Li, W Wang, SX Mao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(22):13673-13677.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, V Raju, X Ji, BL Mehdi, KS Han, MH Engelhard, G Li, ND Browning, KT Mueller, and J Liu. 2016. "Molecular Storage of Mg Ions with Vanadium Oxide Nanoclusters." Advanced Functional Materials 26(20):3446-3453.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201505501
  • Dong H, Y Li, Y Liang, G Li, CJ Sun, Y Ren, Y Lu, and Y Yao. 2016. "A magnesium-sodium hybrid battery with high operating voltage." Chemical Communications 52(53):8263-8266.  doi:10.1039/C6CC03081E
  • Lu X, G Li, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Development of Na-beta alumina batteries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: From tubular to planar." Energy Storage Science and Technology (Chuneng Kexue yu Jishu) 5(3):309-316. 


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, VV Viswanathan, KD Meinhardt, MH Engelhard, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application." Advanced Energy Materials 5(12):Article No.1500357.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201570069
  • Cheng Y, RM Stolley, KS Han, Y Shao, BW Arey, NM Washton, KT Mueller, ML Helm, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2015. "Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(µ-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 17(20):13307-13314.  doi:10.1039/C5CP00859J
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, LR Parent, ML Sushko, G Li, P Sushko, ND Browning, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Interface Promoted Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Tin-Antimony Alloys." Advanced Materials 27(42):6598-6605.  doi:10.1002/adma.201502378
  • Li B, Z Nie, M Vijayakumar, G Li, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 6303.  doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Enhanced Sintering of ß"-Al2O3/YSZ with the Sintering Aids of TiO2 and MnO2." Journal of Power Sources 295:167-174.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.147


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C ." Journal of Power Sources 249:414-417.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C." Journal of Power Sources 249:414-417.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, MH Engelhard, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation of Na-NiCl2 Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 272:398-403.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.106
  • Cheng Y, LR Parent, Y Shao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2014. "Facile Synthesis of Chevrel Phase Nanocubes and their Applications for Multivalent Energy Storage." Chemistry of Materials 26(17):4904-4907.  doi:10.1021/cm502306c
  • Cheng Y, TL Liu, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, J Liu, and G Li. 2014. "Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(8):2473 - 2477.  doi:10.1039/C3TA15113A
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2014. "High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry." Chemical Communications 50(68):9644-9646.  doi:10.1039/C4CC03620D
  • Cui J, JP Choi, G Li, E Polikarpov, JT Darsell, MJ Kramer, N Zarkevich, LL Wang, DD Johnson, M Marinescu, Q Huang, H Wu, NV Vuong, and JP Liu. 2014. "Development of MnBi permanent magnet: neutron diffraction of MnBi powder." Journal of Applied Physics 115(17):Article No. 17A743.  doi:10.1063/1.4867230
  • Cui J, JP Choi, G Li, E Polikarpov, JT Darsell, NR Overman, MJ Olszta, DK Schreiber, ME Bowden, TC Droubay, MJ Kramer, N Zarkevich, LL Wang, DD Johnson, M Marinescu, I Takeuchi, Q Huang, H Wu, H Reeve, NV Vuong, and JP Liu. 2014. "Thermal Stability of MnBi Magnetic Materials." Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter 26(6):Article No. 064212.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/26/6/064212
  • Cui J, JP Choi, E Polikarpov, ME Bowden, W Xie, G Li, Z Nie, N Zarkevich, MJ Kramer, and DD Johnson. 2014. "Effect of Composition and Heat Treatment on MnBi Magnetic Materials." Acta Materialia 79:374-381.  doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2014.07.034
  • Du Y, TC Droubay, AV Liyu, G Li, and SA Chambers. 2014. "Self-corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy For Atom Flux Measurements In Molecular Beam Epitaxy." Applied Physics Letters 104(16):Article No. 163110.  doi:10.1063/1.4873544
  • Liu TL, Y Shao, G Li, M Gu, JZ Hu, S Xu, Z Nie, X Chen, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2014. "A Facile Approach Using MgCl2 to Formulate High Performance Mg2+ Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(10):3430 - 3438.  doi:10.1039/c3ta14825d
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, D Mei, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2014. "Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 4578.  doi:10.1038/ncomms5578
  • Shao Y, M Gu, X Li, Z Nie, P Zuo, G Li, TL Liu, J Xiao, Y Cheng, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 14(1):255-260.  doi:10.1021/nl403874y
  • Shao Y, NN Rajput, JZ Hu, MY Hu, TL Liu, Z Wei, M Gu, X Deng, S Xu, KS Han, J Wang, Z Nie, G Li, K Zavadil, J Xiao, CM Wang, WA Henderson, J Zhang, Y Wang, KT Mueller, KA Persson, and J Liu. 2014. "Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries." Nano Energy 2015(12):750-759.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.12.028


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Cell Degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) Battery." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(47):14935 - 14942.  doi:10.1039/C3TA13644B
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2013. "A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(6):1837-1843.  doi:10.1039/C3EE24244G
  • Lu X, BW Kirby, W Xu, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and ZG Yang. 2013. "Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(1):299 - 306.  doi:10.1039/C2EE23606K
  • Shao Y, TL Liu, G Li, M Gu, Z Nie, MH Engelhard, J Xiao, D Lu, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance." Scientific Reports 3:Article No. 3130.  doi:10.1038/srep03130


  • Li G, X Lu, CA Coyle, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2012. "Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries." Journal of Power Sources 220:193-198.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.07.089
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2012. "The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 215:288-295.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.020


  • Dagle RA, AM Karim, G Li, Y Su, and DL King. 2011. "Syngas Conditioning." Chapter 12 in Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing, ed. D Shekhawat, JJ Spivey and DA Berry, pp. 361-408.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
  • Pan A, J Zhang, G Cao, S Liang, CM Wang, Z Nie, BW Arey, W Xu, D Liu, J Xiao, G Li, and J Liu. 2011. "Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(27):10077-10084.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10976F
  • Su Y, HM Brown, G Li, XD Zhou, JE Amonette, JL Fulton, DM Camaioni, and ZC Zhang. 2011. "Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvent." Applied Catalysis. A, General 391(1-2):436-442.  doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2010.09.021
  • Toulemonde M, WJ Weber, G Li, V Shutthanandan, P Kluth, T Yang, Y Wang, and Y Zhang. 2011. "Synergy of Nuclear and Electronic Energy Losses in Ion-irradiation Processes: the Case of Vitreous Silicon Dioxide." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 83(5):054106- 054106-9.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.054106


  • Li G, D Hu, G Xia, and ZC Zhang. 2010. "Catalyst Structure-Performance Relationship Identified by High-Throughput Operando Method: New Insight for Silica-Supported Vanadium Oxide for Methanol Oxidation." Topics in Catalysis 53(1-2):40-48. 
  • Li G, DM Camaioni, JE Amonette, ZC Zhang, TJ Johnson, and JL Fulton. 2010. "[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization ." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114(39):12614-12622.  doi:10.1021/jp106762b
  • Pan A, J Zhang, Z Nie, GH Cao, BW Arey, G Li, S Liang, and J Liu. 2010. "Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(41):9193-9199.  doi:10.1039/C0JM01306D
  • Shao Y, S Zhang, MH Engelhard, G Li, G Shao, Y Wang, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(35):7491-7496.  doi:10.1039/c0jm00782j


  • Li G, D Hu, G Xia, and ZC Zhang. 2009. "Methanol Partial Oxidation on MoO3/SiO2 Catalysts: Application of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging Techniques in a High Throughput Operando Reactor." Topics in Catalysis 52:1381-1387. 
  • Jiang W, H Wang, I Kim, IT Bae, G Li, P Nachimuthu, Z Zhu, Y Zhang, and WJ Weber. 2009. "Response of Nanocrystalline 3C Silicon Carbide to Heavy-Ion Irradiation." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 80(16):Art. No.161301(R).  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.80.161301
  • Kim DH, JH Kwak, J Szanyi, X Wang, G Li, JC Hanson, and CHF Peden. 2009. "Characteristics of Desulfation Behavior for Pre-Sulfated Pt-BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts: The Role of the CeO2 Support." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(50):21123-21129 .  doi:10.1021/jp9062548


  • Li G, D Hu, G Xia, JM White, and ZC Zhang. 2008. "High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman Spectroscopy." Review of Scientific Instruments 79:074101.  doi:10.1063/1.2949389

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas