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Energy and Environment Directorate

Wu Xu

Wu Xu

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-6934

Biography

Dr. Wu Xu is currently a Senior Research Scientist in the Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group in the Energy Processes and Materials Division at PNNL. He has more than 20 years’ knowledge and experience in the development of novel electrolytes for different energy storage devices including lithium ion batteries, lithium metal batteries, lithium-air batteries, electrochemical capacitors and electrochromic display devices, organic synthesis of novel ionic liquids, lithium salts and polymer electrolytes, battery testing and electrochemical evaluation. Before joining PNNL in April 2008, he was a Senior Scientist in the Electrolyte Business Group of Ferro Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio for four years. Before that, he was a Faculty Research Associate/Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Arizona State University. Dr. Xu has about 100 papers published in peer reviewed professional journals including 2 in Science, 5 book chapters and 20 U.S. patents granted (6 from PNNL) with the other 14 patents pending (at PNNL).

Research Interests

  • Dr. Xu's research interests include the development of materials (electrolytes and electrodes), the investigation of electrode/electrolyte interphases for various energy storage systems including lithium batteries, organic redox flow batteries and supercapacitors.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore, February 2000
  • M. Eng., Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, China, July 1989
  • B. Eng., Fine Chemicals, Tianjin University, China, July 1986

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • The Electrochemical Society
  • Materials Research Society

Awards and Recognitions

  • Battelle Recognition Award of Inventor-of-the-Year of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, May 2014.
  • PNNL 2013 Inventor-of-the-Year Award, April 2014.
  • PNNL 2013 Pathway to Excellence Patent Award, April 2014.
  • PNNL 2013 Pathway to Excellence Key Contributor – Intellectual Property Award, April 2014.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate 2013 Of-the-Year Publication Award, December 2013.
  • PNNL 2012 Pathway to Excellence Microscopy Today 2012 Innovation Award.
  • Microscopy Today 2012 Renovation Award.
  • 2012 R&D 100 Award.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate 2012 Of-the-Year Award – 2012 EED CSM Award Nomination, December 2012.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate Outstanding Performance Award, 2012, 2010, 2009, 2008.
  • Discovering Excellence Award “2007 Innovator of the Year” by Arizona Technology Enterprises and Arizona State University, United States, April 2007.
  • Natural Science Prize of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, 1995.

PNNL Publications

2015

  • Wei X, L Cosimbescu, W Xu, JZ Hu, M Vijayakumar, J Feng, MY Hu, X Deng, J Xiao, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5(1):Article No. 1400678.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Mehdi BL, J Qian, E Nasybulin, C Park, DA Welch, R Faller, HS Mehta, WA Henderson, W Xu, CM Wang, JE Evans, J Liu, J Zhang, KT Mueller, and ND Browning. 2015. "Observation and Quantification of Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries by Operando Electrochemical (S)TEM." Nano Letters 15(3):2168-2176.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00175
  • Qian J, WA Henderson, W Xu, P Bhattacharya, MH Engelhard, O Borodin, and J Zhang. 2015. "High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 6362.  doi:10.1038/ncomms7362

2014

  • Bhattacharya P, EN Nasybulin, MH Engelhard, L Kovarik, ME Bowden, S Li, DJ Gaspar, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries." Advanced Functional Materials 24(47):7510-7519.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201402701
  • Cao R, ED Walter, W Xu, EN Nasybulin, P Bhattacharya, ME Bowden, MH Engelhard, and J Zhang. 2014. "The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries." ChemSusChem 7(9):2436-2440.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201402315
  • Wei X, W Xu, M Vijayakumar, L Cosimbescu, TL Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26(45):7649-7653.  doi: 10.1002/adma.201403746
  • Xu W, J Wang, F Ding, X Chen, EN Nasybulin, Y Zhang, and J Zhang. 2014. "Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries." Energy & Environmental Science 7(2):513-537.  doi:10.1039/c3ee40795k
  • Zheng J, J Tian, D Wu, M Gu, W Xu, CM Wang, F Gao, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2014. "Lewis Acid-Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic Framework in Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Nano Letters 14(5):2345-2352.  doi:10.1021/nl404721h
  • Abellan Baeza P, BL Mehdi, LR Parent, M Gu, C Park, W Xu, Y Zhang, I Arslan, J Zhang, CM Wang, JE Evans, and ND Browning. 2014. "Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy." Nano Letters 14(3):1293-1299.  doi:10.1021/nl404271k
  • Chen X, W Xu, MH Engelhard, J Zheng, Y Zhang, F Ding, J Qian, and J Zhang. 2014. "Mixed Salts of LiTFSI and LiBOB for Stable LiFePO4-Based Batteries at Elevated Temperatures." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(7):2346-2352.  doi:10.1039/C3TA13043F
  • Chen X, X Li, D Mei, J Feng, MY Hu, JZ Hu, MH Engelhard, J Zheng, W Xu, J Xiao, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Reduction Mechanism of Fluoroethylene Carbonate for Stable Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Film on Silicon Anode." ChemSusChem 7(2):549-554.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201300770
  • Ding F, W Xu, X Chen, J Zhang, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Y Zhang, TA Blake, GL Graff, X Liu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118(8):4043-4049.  doi:10.1021/jp4127754
  • Fernandez CA, PF Martin, HT Schaef, ME Bowden, PK Thallapally, LX Dang, W Xu, X Chen, and BP McGrail. 2014. "An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework." Scientific Reports 12(3):Article No. 6114 .  doi:10.1038/srep06114
  • Jiang J, W Shi, J Zheng, P Zuo, J Xiao, X Chen, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Optimized Operating Range for Large-Format LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 161(3):A336-A341.  doi:10.1149/2.052403jes
  • Mehdi BL, M Gu, LR Parent, W Xu, EN Nasybulin, X Chen, RR Unocic, P Xu, DA Welch, P Abellan, J Zhang, J Liu, CM Wang, I Arslan, JE Evans, and ND Browning. 2014. "In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research." Microscopy and Microanalysis 20(2):484-492.  doi:10.1017/S1431927614000488
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, BL Mehdi, EC Thomsen, MH Engelhard, RC Masse, P Bhattacharya, M Gu, WD Bennett, Z Nie, CM Wang, ND Browning, and J Zhang. 2014. "Formation of Interfacial Layer and Long-Term Cylability of Li-O-2 Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6(16):14141-14151.  doi:10.1021/am503390q
  • Pan A, Y Wang, W Xu, Z Nie, S Liang, Z Nie, CM Wang, G Cao, and J Zhang. 2014. "High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs." Journal of Power Sources 225:125-129. 
  • Zhang Y, J Qian, W Xu, SM Russell, X Chen, E Nasybulin, P Bhattacharya, MH Engelhard, D Mei, R Cao, F Ding, AV Cresce, K Xu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure." Nano Letters 14(12):6889-6896.  doi:10.1021/nl5039117

2013

  • Ding F, W Xu, GL Graff, J Zhang, ML Sushko, X Chen, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, J Xiao, X Liu, PV Sushko, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 135(11):4450-4456.  doi:10.1021/ja312241y
  • Ding F, W Xu, X Chen, J Zhang, MH Engelhard, Y Zhang, BR Johnson, JV Crum, TA Blake, X Liu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(10):A1894-A1901.  doi:10.1149/2.100310jes
  • Gu M, LR Parent, BL Mehdi, RR Unocic, MT Mcdowell, RL Sacci, W Xu, JG Connell, P Xu, P Abellan Baeza, X Chen, Y Zhang, DE Perea, JE Evans, L Lauhon, J Zhang, J Liu, ND Browning, Y Cui, I Arslan, and CM Wang. 2013. "Demonstration of an Electrochemical Liquid Cell for Operando Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of the Lithiation/Delithiation Behavior of Si Nanowire Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 13(12):6106-6112.  doi:10.1021/nl403402q
  • Lu X, BW Kirby, W Xu, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and ZG Yang. 2013. "Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(1):299 - 306.  doi:10.1039/C2EE23606K
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, MH Engelhard, XS Li, M Gu, D Hu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Electrocatalytic properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in Li-O2 battery." Electrochemistry Communications 29:63-66.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2013.01.011
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, SD Burton, L Cosimbescu, ME Gross, and J Zhang. 2013. "Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117(6):2635-2645.  doi:10.1021/jp311114u
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, XS Li, and J Zhang. 2013. "Stability of polymer binders in Li-O2 batteries." Journal of Power Sources 243:899-907.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.097
  • Shao Y, F Ding, J Xiao, J Zhang, W Xu, SK Park, J Zhang, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2013. "Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):987-1004.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200688
  • Xu W, X Chen, W Wang, D Choi, F Ding, J Zheng, Z Nie, YJ Choi, J Zhang, and Z Yang. 2013. "Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 236:169-174.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.055

2012

  • Xu W, AL Read, PK Koech, D Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, AB Padmaperuma, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2012. "Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(9):4032-4039.  doi:10.1039/c2jm15764k
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, W Xu, X Chen, M Gu, XS Li, and J Zhang. 2012. "Surface and Structural Stabilities of Carbon Additives in High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 227:211-217.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.038
  • Chen X, W Xu, J Xiao, MH Engelhard, F Ding, D Mei, D Hu, J Zhang, and J Zhang. 2012. "Effects of cell positive cans and separators on the performance of high-voltage Li-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 213:160-168.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.04.009
  • Chen X, X Li, F Ding, W Xu, J Xiao, Y Cao, P Meduri, J Liu, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2012. "Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 12(8):4124-4130.  doi:10.1021/nl301657y
  • Ding F, W Xu, D Choi, W Wang, X Li, MH Engelhard, X Chen, Z Yang, and J Zhang. 2012. "Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(25):12745-12751.  doi:10.1039/c2jm31015e
  • Ding F, W Xu, Y Shao, X Chen, Z Wang, F Gao, X Liu, and J Zhang. 2012. "H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 214:292-297.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.04.058
  • Gu M, Y Li, X Li, SY Hu, X Zhang, W Xu, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, J Zhang, J Liu, and CM Wang. 2012. "In-Situ TEM Study Of Lithiation Behavior Of Silicon Nanoparticles Attached To And Embedded In A Carbon Matrix ." ACS Nano 6(9):8439-8447.  doi:10.1021/nn303312m
  • Li X, P Meduri, X Chen, WN Qi, MH Engelhard, W Xu, F Ding, J Xiao, W Wang, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2012. "Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(22):11014-11017.  doi:10.1039/C2JM31286G
  • Wang CM, X Li, Z Wang, W Xu, J Liu, F Gao, L Kovarik, J Zhang, J Howe, DJ Burton, Z Liu, X Xiao, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2012. "In Situ TEM Investigation of Congruent Phase Transition and Structural Evolution of Nanostructured Silicon/Carbon Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 12(3):1624-1632.  doi:10.1021/nl204559u
  • Wang W, W Xu, L Cosimbescu, D Choi, L Li, and Z Yang. 2012. "Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Chemical Communications 48(53):6669-6671.  doi:10.1039/C2CC32466K
  • Xu W, JZ Hu, MH Engelhard, SA Towne, JS Hardy, J Xiao, J Feng, MY Hu, J Zhang, F Ding, ME Gross, and J Zhang. 2012. "The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 215:240-247.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.021
  • Xu W, X Chen, F Ding, J Xiao, D Wang, A Pan, J Zheng, XS Li, AB Padmaperuma, and J Zhang. 2012. "Reinvestigation on the state-of-the-art nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes for 5 V Li-ion battery applications." Journal of Power Sources 213:304-316.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.04.031
  • Zhang J, W Wang, J Xiao, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Yang, D Choi, X Li, D Wang, and J Liu. 2012. "Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology.  Springer, New York, NY. 

2011

  • Xu W, K Xu, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, JS Hardy, J Xiao, Z Nie, D Hu, D Wang, and J Zhang. 2011. "Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 196(22):9631-9639.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.06.099
  • Xu W, VV Viswanathan, D Wang, SA Towne, J Xiao, Z Nie, D Hu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 196(8):3894-3899. 
  • Choi D, J Xiao, YJ Choi, JS Hardy, M Vijayakumar, MS Bhuvaneswari, J Liu, W Xu, W Wang, Z Yang, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2011. "Thermal Stability and Phase Transformation of Electrochemically Charged/Discharged LiMnPO4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 4(11):4560-4566.  doi:10.1039/C1EE01501J
  • Pan A, J Zhang, G Cao, S Liang, CM Wang, Z Nie, BW Arey, W Xu, D Liu, J Xiao, G Li, and J Liu. 2011. "Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(27):10077-10084.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10976F
  • Wang CM, W Xu, J Liu, J Zhang, LV Saraf, BW Arey, D Choi, Z Yang, J Xiao, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2011. "In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Microstructure and Phase Evolution in a SnO2 Nanowire during Lithium Intercalation." Nano Letters 11(5):1874-1880.  doi:10.1021/nl200272n
  • Wang D, J Xiao, W Xu, Z Nie, CM Wang, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2011. "Preparation and electrochemical investigation of Li2CoPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196(4):2241-2245.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.10.021
  • Xiao J, D Mei, X Li, W Xu, D Wang, GL Graff, WD Bennett, Z Nie, LV Saraf, IA Aksay, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode." Nano Letters 11(11):5071-5078.  doi:10.1021/nl203332e
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, D Wang, D Hu, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Nie, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 196(13):5674-5678. 
  • Xiao J, N Chernova, S Upreti, X Chen, Z Li, Z Deng, D Choi, W Xu, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2011. "Electrochemical Performances of LiMnPO4 Synthesized from Non-Stoichiometric Li/Mn Ratio." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(40):18099-18106.  doi:10.1039/C1CP22658D

2010

  • Zhang J, W Xu, XS Li, and W Liu. 2010. "Air Dehydration Membranes for Nonaqueous Lithium-Air Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(8):A940-A946. 
  • Huang JY, L Zhong, CM Wang, JP Sullivan, W Xu, LQ Zhang, S Mao, N Hudak, XH Liu, AK Subramanian, H Fan, L Qi, A Kushima, and J Li. 2010. "In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode." Science 330(6010):1515-1520.  doi:10.1126/science.1195628
  • Pan A, J Liu, J Zhang, W Xu, GH Cao, Z Nie, BW Arey, and S Liang. 2010. "Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 /Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries." Electrochemistry Communications 12(12):1674-1677.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.09.014
  • Pan A, J Liu, J Zhang, GH Cao, W Xu, Z Nie, J Xiao, D Choi, BW Arey, CM Wang, and S Liang. 2010. "Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for High-Rate Secondary Lithium Batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(4):1153-1161.  doi:10.1039/c0jm02810j
  • Viswanathan VV, D Choi, D Wang, W Xu, SA Towne, RE Williford, J Zhang, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2010. "Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management." Journal of Power Sources 195(11):3720-3729.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.11.103
  • Wang CM, W Xu, J Liu, D Choi, BW Arey, LV Saraf, J Zhang, Z Yang, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, and N Salmon. 2010. "In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and Opportunities." Journal of Materials Research 25(8):1541-1547.  doi:10.1557/JMR.2010.0198
  • Wang D, J Xiao, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2010. "High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(7):A760-A764. 
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Wang, and J Zhang. 2010. "Hybrid Air-Electrode for Li/Air Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(3):A294-A297.  doi:10.1149/1.3280281
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Wang, D Choi, W Wang, X Li, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Stabilization of Silicon Anode for Li-Ion Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(10):A1047-A1051.  doi:10.1149/1.3464767
  • Xiao J, D Wang, W Xu, D Wang, RE Williford, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Optimization of Air Electrode for Li/Air Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(4):A487-A492.  doi:10.1149/1.3314375
  • Xu W, NL Canfield, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, and J Zhang. 2010. "A three-dimensional Macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheet prepared via a novel method." Journal of Power Sources 195(21):7403-7408.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.05.054
  • Xu W, NL Canfield, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, XS Li, WD Bennett, CC Bonham, and J Zhang. 2010. "Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(7):A765-A769. 
  • Xu W, J Xiao, D Wang, J Zhang, and J Zhang. 2010. "Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 13(4):A48-A51. 
  • Xu W, J Xiao, D Wang, J Zhang, and J Zhang. 2010. "Effects of Nonaqueous Electrolytes on Primary Li-Air Batteries." In Proceedings of the 44th Power Sources Conference, pp. 43-46.  US Army Electronics Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, NJ. 
  • Zhang J, D Wang, W Xu, J Xiao, and RE Williford. 2010. "Ambient Operation of Li/Air Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195(13):4332-4337.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.01.022

2009

  • Xu W, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, and J Zhang. 2009. "Non-aqueous Electrolytes for High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries." In Proceedings of the 9th International Advanced Automotive Battery and EC Capacitor Conference and Symposia: Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Application (LLIBTA); Large EC Capacitor Technology and Application (ECCAP), June 8-12, 2009, Long Beach, CA.  Advanced Automotive Batteries, Oregon House, CA. 
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Choi, and J Zhang. 2009. "Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Manganese Phosphate by a precipitation method." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(2):A142-A147.  doi:10.1149/1.3265440
  • Xu W, J Xiao, J Zhang, D Wang, and J Zhang. 2009. "Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 156(10):A773-A779.  doi:10.1149/1.3168564
  • Xu W, J Xiao, D Wang, J Zhang, and J Zhang. 2009. "Effects of Nonaqueous Electrolytes on the Performance of Primary Lithium/Air Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(2):A219-A224.  doi:10.1149/1.3269928

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