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Christopher Brown

Christopher Brown

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 371-7381

Biography

Mr. Brown manages the Geosciences Group within the Earth Systems Science Division at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He leads a team of researchers delivering science and technology solutions for legacy waste cleanup, energy development and deployment, and climate change. These efforts include developing and testing waste forms for immobilization of Hanford's high- and low-activity waste, developing conceptual models for Hanford's waste sites and operable units, developing risk-based alternatives for tank retrieval and closure, using isotopic signatures to apportion source terms for subsurface contamination and basins of origin, identifying novel approaches for subsurface energy development, developing protocols to safely sequester carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, and understanding the impact of mineral weathering on carbon cycling and climate change. In his role as Technical Group Manager, Mr. Brown stewards capabilities within PNNL's Environmental Sciences Laboratory (ESL), which include ten fully equipped, radiologically-controlled, wet chemistry and analytical laboratories housed in the 325 and 331 buildings. These laboratories serve as a foundation for PNNL’s core capabilities in Subsurface Science and Applied Nuclear Science and Technology. The analytical capabilities housed within the ESL have been used to safely and successfully analyze the most radioactively-contaminated sediment and tank waste samples collected on the Hanford Site. New capabilities just brought online include a Class 10,000 clean room instrument laboratory containing a Nu Instruments NuPlasma II (MC-ICP-MS) and a Nu Instruments NuTIMS (MC-TIMS). These are each among the most advanced and capable instruments of their types anywhere. Mr. Brown also serves as the PNNL lead for business development activities with the Geothermal Technologies Office. Additionally, Mr. Brown currently serves as the PNNL lead for the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Project. The NRAP Project includes five DOE national labs that have been executing collaborative research for DOE-FE's Carbon Sequestration Program. The general approach is divided into three main technical tasks: (1) development of a methodology and computational platform for quantifying risk profiles based on integrated assessment models (IAMs) and uncertainty quantification (UQ); (2) targeted scientific investigations at the laboratory- and field-scale to reduce uncertainties in the predicted risk profiles; and (3) integration of risk-based monitoring and mitigation strategies to reduce both uncertainty and overall risk.

Research Interests

  • Understanding risks associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide
  • Developing new technologies in support of geothermal energy development
  • Waste form development and performance testing for Hanford's low activity waste stream
  • Conceptual model development and subsurface contaminant fate and transport

Education and Credentials

  • M.S., Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, 2002
  • B.A., Environmental Geology, University of Montana, 1997

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society
  • American Geophysical Union
  • American Society of Civil Engineering

PNNL Publications

2017

  • Qafoku N, AR Lawter, DH Bacon, L Zheng, JE Kyle, and CF Brown. 2017. "Review of the Impacts of Leaking CO2 Gas and Brine on Groundwater Quality"." Earth - Science Reviews 169:69-84.  doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.04.010

2016

  • Harvey OR, N Qafoku, KJ Cantrell, MJ Wilkins, and CF Brown. 2016. "Methanogenesis-induced pH-Eh shifts drives aqueous metal(loid) mobility in sulfide mineral systems under CO2 enriched conditions." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 173:232-245.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2015.11.002
  • Williams BD, JJ Neeway, MMV Snyder, ME Bowden, JE Amonette, BW Arey, EM Pierce, CF Brown, and N Qafoku. 2016. "Mineral Assemblage Transformation of a Metakaolin-based Waste Form After Geopolymer Encapsulation." Journal of Nuclear Materials 473:320-332.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.12.023
  • Bacon DH, N Qafoku, Z Dai, E Keating, and CF Brown. 2016. "Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44(2016):290-299.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.04.008
  • Gilmore TJ, AH Bonneville, EC Sullivan, ME Kelley, D Appriou, VR Vermeul, SK White, Z Zhang, BN Bjornstad, F Cornet, JL Gerst, N Gupta, G Hund, JA Horner, GV Last, DC Lanigan, M Oostrom, C McNeil, MA Moody, ML Rockhold, ML Elliott, FA Spane, CE Strickland, LL Swartz, PD Thorne, CF Brown, J Hoffmann, and KK Humphreys, JR. 2016. "Characterization and Design of the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Storage Site." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 53:1-10.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.022
  • Neeway JJ, N Qafoku, BD Williams, MMV Snyder, CF Brown, and EM Pierce. 2016. "Evidence of Technetium and Iodine from a Sodalite-Bearing Ceramic Waste Form." Applied Geochemistry 66:210-218.  doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.12.017

2015

  • Shao H, N Qafoku, AR Lawter, ME Bowden, and CF Brown. 2015. "Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on Groundwater Quality ." Environmental Science & Technology 49(13):8202-8209.  doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b01004
  • Lawter AR, N Qafoku, H Shao, DH Bacon, and CF Brown. 2015. "Evaluating Impacts of CO2 and CH4 Gas Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: Fate of As and Cd." Frontiers in Environmental Science 3:Article No. 49.  doi:10.3389/fenvs.2015.00049
  • Lawter AR, N Qafoku, G Wang, H Shao, and CF Brown. 2015. "Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: I. Experimental Data." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44(2016):323-333.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.07.009
  • Qafoku N, L Zheng, DH Bacon, AR Lawter, and CF Brown. 2015. A Critical Review of the Impacts of Leaking CO2 Gas and Brine on Groundwater QualityPNNL-24897, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Wang G, N Qafoku, AR Lawter, ME Bowden, O Harvey, EC Sullivan, and CF Brown. 2015. "Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to an Unconfined Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44(2016):310-322.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.07.002
  • Zheng L, N Qafoku, AR Lawter, G Wang, H Shao, and CF Brown. 2015. "Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: II. Modeling Results." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44(2016):300-309.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.07.001

2014

  • Brown CF, BM Rapko, RJ Serne, JH Westsik, Jr, A Cozzi, KM Fox, DJ Mccabe, CA Nash, and WR Wilmarth. 2014. "Assessment of the Cast Stone Low-Temperature Waste Form Technology Coupled with Technetium Removal - 14379." In Waste Management Symposia (WM2014): 40 Years of meeting Global Radioactive Waste Management Challenges, March 2-6, 2014, Phoenix, Arizona, vol. 1, pp. 722-733.  WM Symposia, Tucson, AZ. 
  • Cantrell KJ, and CF Brown. 2014. "Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 27:139-145.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.05.009
  • Carroll SA, E Keating, K Mansoor, Z Dai, Y Sun, W Trainor-Guitton, CF Brown, and DH Bacon. 2014. "Key Factors for Determining Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 29:153-168.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.07.007
  • Last GV, CJ Murray, YJ Bott, and CF Brown. 2014. "Threshold Values for Identification of Contamination Predicted by Reduced-Order Models." Energy Procedia 63:3589-3597.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.389
  • McGrail BP, FA Spane, JE Amonette, CJ Thompson, and CF Brown. 2014. "Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project." Energy Procedia 63:2939-2948.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.316
  • Neeway JJ, N Qafoku, BD Williams, KA Rod, ME Bowden, CF Brown, and EM Pierce. 2014. "Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 131:119-128.  doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.10.008
  • Qafoku N, AR Lawter, H Shao, G Wang, and CF Brown. 2014. "Evaluating impacts of CO2 gas intrusion into a confined sandstone aquifer: Experimental results." Energy Procedia 63:3275-3284 .  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.355
  • Um W, HB Jung, S Kabilan, CA Fernandez, and CF Brown. 2014. "Geochemical and geomechanical effects on wellbore cement fractures." Energy Procedia 63:5808-5812.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.613

2013

  • Harvey OR, N Qafoku, KJ Cantrell, GH Lee, JE Amonette, and CF Brown. 2013. "Geochemical Implications of Gas Leakage Associated with Geologic CO2 Storage - A Qualitative Review." Environmental Science & Technology 47(1):23-36.  doi:10.1021/es3029457
  • Last GV, CJ Murray, CF Brown, PD Jordan, and M Sharma. 2013. No-Impact Threshold Values for NRAP's Reduced Order ModelsPNNL-22077, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Neeway JJ, N Qafoku, CF Brown, and RA Peterson. 2013. "Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization." In Proceedings of the Annual Waste Management Symposium (WM2013): International Collaboration and Continuous Improvement, February 24-28, 2013, Phoenix, Arizona, vol. 3, pp. 2268-2275, Paper No. 13400.  WM Symposia, Tucson, AZ. 
  • Qafoku N, CF Brown, G Wang, EC Sullivan, AR Lawter, OR Harvey, and M Bowden. 2013. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined AquifersPNNL-22420, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2012

  • Harvey OR, N Qafoku, KJ Cantrell, and CF Brown. 2012. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A ReviewPNNL-21550, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Heald SM, KM Krupka, and CF Brown. 2012. "Incorporation of Pertechnetate and Perrhenate into Corroded Steel Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy." Radiochimica Acta 100(4):243-253.  doi:10.1524/ract.2012.1912
  • McGrail BP, CJ Freeman, CF Brown, EC Sullivan, SK White, S Reddy, R Garber, D Tobin, J Gilmartin, and E Steffensen. 2012. "Overcoming Business Model Uncertainty in a Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration Project: Case Study at the Boise White Paper Mill." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 9:91-102.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.03.009
  • Neeway JJ, N Qafoku, BD Williams, MM Valenta, EA Cordova, SC Strandquist, DNC Dage, and CF Brown. 2012. "Single Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) Test Results of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms used for LAW Immobilization." In Waste Management Symposium (WM 2012): Improving the Future in Waste Management, February 26 - March 1, 2012, Phoenix, Arizona, p. Paper No. 12252.  Waste Management Symposia, Inc., Tucson, AZ. 
  • Neeway JJ, N Qafoku, JH Westsik, Jr, CF Brown, C Jantzen, and EM Pierce. 2012. "Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products." Chapter 11 in Radioactive Waste, ed. RA Rahman, pp. 239-262.  InTech Europe, Rijeka, Croatia (Local Name: Hrvatska). 

2010

  • Daniel RC, JM Billing, JR Bontha, CF Brown, PW Eslinger, BD Hanson, JL Huckaby, NK Karri, ML Kimura, DE Kurath, and MJ Minette. 2010. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF ScalePNNL-18498 Rev 1; WTP-RPT-185 Rev 1 , Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Rapko BM, PP Schonewill, CF Brown, PW Eslinger, MS Fountain, TS Hausmann, JL Huckaby, BD Hanson, DE Kurath, and MJ Minette. 2010. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching ResultsPNNL-18500 Rev 1; WTP-RPT-188 Rev 1, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Riley RG, JE Szecsody, DS Sklarew, AV Mitroshkov, PM Gent, CF Brown, and CJ Thompson. 2010. "Desorption Behavior of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform in contaminated Low Organic Carbon Aquifer Sediments." Chemosphere 79(8):807-813. 
  • Um W, JP Icenhower, CF Brown, RJ Serne, Z Wang, CJ Dodge, and AROKIASAMYJ FRANCIS. 2010. "Characterization of Uranium-Contaminated Sediments From Beneath A Nuclear Waste Storage Tank From Hanford, Washington: Implications for Contaminant Transport and Fate." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74(4):1363-1380. 

2009

  • Brown CF, RJ Serne, JG Catalano, KM Krupka, and JP Icenhower. 2009. "Mineralization of contaminant uranium and leach rates in sediments from Hanford, Washington." Applied Geochemistry 25(1):97-104.  doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.10.005
  • Daniel RC, JM Billing, JR Bontha, CF Brown, PW Eslinger, BD Hanson, JL Huckaby, NK Karri, ML Kimura, DE Kurath, and MJ Minette. 2009. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF ScalePNNL-18498, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Kurath DE, BD Hanson, MJ Minette, DL Baldwin, BM Rapko, LA Mahoney, PP Schonewill, RC Daniel, PW Eslinger, JL Huckaby, JM Billing, PS Sundar, GB Josephson, JJ Toth, ST Yokuda, EBK Baer, SM Barnes, EC Golovich, SD Rassat, CF Brown, JGH Geeting, GJ Sevigny, AJ Casella, JR Bontha, RL Aaberg, PM Aker, CE Guzman-Leong, ML Kimura, SK Sundaram, RP Pires, BE Wells, and OP Bredt. 2009. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test ReportPNNL-18894; WTP-RPT-197 Rev 0, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Rapko BM, CF Brown, PW Eslinger, MS Fountain, TS Hausmann, JL Huckaby, BD Hanson, DE Kurath, and MJ Minette. 2009. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching ResultsPNNL-18500, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Um W, MJ Truex, MM Valenta, C Iovin, IV Kutnyakov, H Chang, RE Clayton, RJ Serne, AL Ward, CF Brown, KN Geiszler, ET Clayton, SR Baum, and DM Smith. 2009. Characterization of Sediments from the Soil Desiccation Pilot Test (SDPT) Site in the BC Cribs and Trenches AreaPNNL-18800, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Um W, Z Wang, RJ Serne, BD Williams, CF Brown, CJ Dodge, and AROKIASAMYJ FRANCIS. 2009. "Uranium Phases in Contaminated Sediments Below Hanford's U Tank Farm ." Environmental Science & Technology 43(12):4280-4286.  doi:10.1021/es900203r
  • Valenta MM, KN Geiszler, BN Bjornstad, HT Schaef, and CF Brown. 2009. Tier II Analysis of Vadose Zone Sediments from UPRS 200-E-81 and 200-E-86PNNL-18383, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

  • Icenhower JP, BP McGrail, DM Strachan, RD Scheele, VL Legore, EA Cordova, JL Steele, CF Brown, and MJ O'Hara. 2002. "Experimental Determination of the Dissolution Kinetics of Plutonium- and Uranium-Bearing Ceramics at 90 degrees C." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 713, ed. B.P. McGrail and G.A. Cragnolino, pp. 433-440 paper no. JJ11.38.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Icenhower JP, BP McGrail, WJ Weber, BD Begg, NJ Hess, EA Cordova, JL Steele, CF Brown, and MJ O'Hara. 2002. "Dissolution of A2Ti2O7 (A = Y3?, Gd3?, or Lu3?) Pyrochlore by Experiment at pH = 2, T = 90 C: Evidence for Solubility Control Using a Linear Free Energy Model." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 713, ed. BP McGrail and GA Cragnolino, pp. 397-403 paper no. JJ6.2.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Liu C, YA Gorby, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, and CF Brown. 2002. "Reduction Kinetics of Fe(III), Co(III), U(VI), Cr(VI), and Tc(VII) in Cultures of Dissimilatory Metal-reducing Bacteria." Biotechnology and Bioenegineering 80(6):637-649. 
  • Serne RJ, CF Brown, HT Schaef, EM Pierce, MJ Lindberg, Z Wang, PL Gassman, and JG Catalano. 2002. 300 Area Uranium Leach and Adsorption ProjectPNNL-14022, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Serne RJ, BN Bjornstad, HT Schaef, BA Williams, DC Lanigan, DG Horton, RE Clayton, AV Mitroshkov, VL Legore, MJ O'Hara, CF Brown, KE Parker, IV Kutnyakov, JN Serne, GV Last, SC Smith, CW Lindenmeier, JM Zachara, and DS Burke. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite SamplesPNNL-13757-1, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Serne RJ, GV Last, GW Gee, HT Schaef, DC Lanigan, CW Lindenmeier, MJ Lindberg, RE Clayton, VL Legore, RD Orr, IV Kutnyakov, SR Baum, KN Geiszler, CF Brown, MM Valenta, and TS Vickerman. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-45 Near BX-102 in the B-BX-BY Waste Management AreaPNNL-14083, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Serne RJ, GV Last, HT Schaef, DC Lanigan, CW Lindenmeier, CC Ainsworth, RE Clayton, VL Legore, MJ O'Hara, CF Brown, RD Orr, IV Kutnyakov, TC Wilson, KB Wagnon, BA Williams, and DS Burke. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 41-09-39 in the S-SX Waste Management AreaPNNL-13757-3, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Serne RJ, GV Last, HT Schaef, DC Lanigan, CW Lindenmeier, CC Ainsworth, RE Clayton, VL Legore, MJ O'Hara, CF Brown, RD Orr, IV Kutnyakov, TC Wilson, KB Wagnon, BA Williams, and DS Burke. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management AreaPNNL-13757-4, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Serne RJ, HT Schaef, BN Bjornstad, DC Lanigan, GW Gee, CW Lindenmeier, RE Clayton, VL Legore, RD Orr, MJ O'Hara, CF Brown, GV Last, IV Kutnyakov, DS Burke, TC Wilson, and BA Williams. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-W23-19 [SX -115] in the S-SX Waste Management Area. PNNL-13757-2, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Strachan DM, RD Scheele, AE Kozelisky, RL Sell, HT Schaef, MJ O'Hara, CF Brown, and WC Buchmiller. 2002. "Radiation Damage in Titanate Ceramics Used for Plutonium Immobilization." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, vol. 713, pp. 461-468.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 

2001

  • Fredrickson JK, JM Zachara, RK Kukkadapu, YA Gorby, SC Smith, and CF Brown. 2001. "Biotransformation of Ni-Substituted Hydrous Ferric Oxide by an Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium." Environmental Science and Technology 35(4):703-712. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, YA Gorby, JE Szecsody, and CF Brown. 2001. "Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) and Sorption/Precipitation of Fe(II) on Shewanella putrefaciens Strain CN32." Environmental Science and Technology 35(7):1385-1393. 
  • Strachan DM, RD Scheele, JP Icenhower, AE Kozelisky, RL Sell, VL Legore, HT Schaef, MJ O'Hara, CF Brown, and WC Buchmiller. 2001. The Status of Radiation Damage ExperimentsPNNL-13721, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

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