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Energy and Environment Directorate

Jun Liu

Jun Liu

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-4443


Dr. Liu is the Director of the Energy Processes and Materials Division within Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Energy and Environment Directorate, a position he has held since March 2013. Dr. Liu possesses a strong background in materials synthesis, colloidal and surface science, and high-resolution electron microscopy. He joined PNNL in 1992, became a Laboratory Fellow in 2000, and over time initiated and led a broad range of basic and applied research programs in materials science.

In 2001, he left PNNL for a position with Lucent Bell Laboratories, and later Sandia National Laboratories, where he served as manager of the Chemical Synthesis and Nanomaterials Department, and as a thrust leader in the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies. Dr. Liu returned to PNNL in 2005 to head the synthesis task within the catalysis initiative, and also led the Transformational Materials Science Initiative, as well as energy storage research. In addition to his division director role, he currently serves as the Cross-Science Lead on the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub in which PNNL is a partner.

Dr. Liu has more than 350 peer reviewed publications, has received more than 55 U.S. patents. He was named a Distinguished Inventor of Battelle in 2007 and was selected as PNNL's 2012 Inventor of the Year. He holds a bachelor's degree in Chemical Engineering from Hunan University, a master's degree in Ceramic Engineering from the University of Washington, and a doctorate in Materials Science and Engineering, also from the University of Washington.

PNNL Publications


  • Bhattacharya P, MI Nandasiri, D Lv, AM Schwarz, JT Darsell, WA Henderson, DA Tomalia, J Liu, J Zhang, and J Xiao. 2016. "Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes." Nano Energy 19:176-186.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.11.012
  • Cao R, J Chen, KS Han, W Xu, D Mei, P Bhattacharya, MH Engelhard, KT Mueller, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2016. "Effect of the Anion Activity on the Stability of Li Metal Anodes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Advanced Functional Materials 26(18):3059-3066.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201505074
  • Chen J, KS Han, WA Henderson, KC Lau, M Vijayakumar, T Dzwiniel, H Pan, LA Curtiss, J Xiao, KT Mueller, Y Shao, and J Liu. 2016. "Restricting the Solubility of Polysulfides in Li-S Batteries Via Electrolyte Salt Selection." Advanced Energy Materials 6(11):Article No. 1600160.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201600160
  • Cheng Y, D Choi, KS Han, KT Mueller, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2016. "Toward the Design of High Voltage Magnesium-Lithium Hybrid Batteries Using Dual-Salt Electrolytes." Chemical Communications 52(31):5379-5382.  doi:10.1039/C6CC00986G
  • Cheng Y, HJ Chang, H Dong, D Choi, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, Y Yao, and G Li. 2016. "Rechargeable MgLi Hybrid Batteries: Status and Challenges." Journal of Materials Research 31(20):3125-3141.  doi:10.1557/jmr.2016.331
  • Cheng Y, L Luo, L Zhong, J Chen, B Li, W Wang, SX Mao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(22):13673-13677.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, V Raju, X Ji, BL Mehdi, KS Han, MH Engelhard, G Li, ND Browning, KT Mueller, and J Liu. 2016. "Molecular Storage of Mg Ions with Vanadium Oxide Nanoclusters." Advanced Functional Materials 26(20):3446-3453.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201505501
  • Crawford AJ, EC Thomsen, DM Reed, DE Stephenson, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and VV Viswanathan. 2016. "Development and Validation of Chemistry Agnostic Flow Battery Cost Performance Model and Application to Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Systems." International Journal of Energy Research doi:10.1002/er.3526
  • Du L, Y Shao, J Sun, G Yin, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2016. "Advanced catalyst supports for PEM fuel cell cathodes." Nano Energy 29:314-322.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.03.016
  • Duan W, VRS Vemuri, JD Milshtein, S Laramie, RD Dmello, J Huang, L Zhang, D Hu, M Vijayakumar, W Wang, J Liu, RE Darling, L Thompson, KC Smith, JS Moore, F Brushett, and X Wei. 2016. "A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4(15):5448-5456.  doi:10.1039/c6ta01177b
  • Estevez L, DM Reed, Z Nie, AM Schwarz, MI Nandasiri, JP Kizewski, W Wang, EC Thomsen, J Liu, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, and B Li. 2016. " Tunable oxygen functional groups as electro-catalysts on graphite felt surfaces for all vanadium flow batteries." ChemSusChem 9(12):1455-1461.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201600198
  • Jeong S, X Li, J Zheng, P Yan, R Cao, HJ Jung, CM Wang, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2016. "Hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 329:323-329.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.08.089
  • Li B, J Liu, Z Nie, W Wang, DM Reed, J Liu, BP McGrail, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Metal-organic frameworks as highly active electrocatalysts for high-energy density, aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow batteries." Nano Letters 16(7):4335-4340.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01426
  • Li X, P Yan, MH Engelhard, AJ Crawford, VV Viswanathan, CM Wang, J Liu, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries." Nano Energy 27:664-672.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.07.030
  • Pan H, Y Shao, P Yan, Y Cheng, KS Han, Z Nie, CM Wang, J Yang, X Li, P Bhattacharya, KT Mueller, and J Liu. 2016. "Reversible aqueous zinc/manganese oxide energy storage from conversion reactions." Nature Energy 1(5):Article No. 16039.  doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.39
  • Shin Y, J Tao, BW Arey, C Wang, GJ Exarhos, JJ De Yoreo, ML Sushko, and J Liu. 2016. "Double epitaxy as a paradigm for templated growth of highly ordered three-dimensional mesophase crystals." ACS Nano 10(9):8670-8675.  doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b03999
  • Vissers DR, Z Chen, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, U Das, PC Redfern, LA Curtiss, B Pan, J Liu, and K Amine. 2016. "Role of Manganese Deposition on Graphite in the Capacity Fading of Lithium Ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(22):14244-14251.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b02061
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, WA Henderson, ML Sushko, Y Shao, J Xiao, W Wang, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, and J Liu. 2016. "Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries." Nano Energy 19:279-288.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.10.034
  • Zhang W, D Banerjee, J Liu, HT Schaef, JV Crum, CA Fernandez, RK Kukkadapu, Z Nie, SK Nune, RK Motkuri, KW Chapman, MH Engelhard, JC Hayes, KL Silvers, R Krishna, BP McGrail, J Liu, and PK Thallapally. 2016. "Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications." Advanced Materials 28(18):3572-3577.  doi:10.1002/adma.201600259


  • Lu D, P Yan, Y Shao, Q Li, SA Ferrara, H Pan, GL Graff, B Polzin, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Performance Li-ion Sulfur Batteries Enabled by Intercalation Chemistry." Chemical Communications 51(70):13454-13457.  doi:10.1039/C5CC05171A
  • Lu D, Y Shao, TJ Lozano, WD Bennett, GL Graff, B Polzin, J Zhang, MH Engelhard, NT Saenz, WA Henderson, P Bhattacharya, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte." Advanced Energy Materials 5(3):Article No. 1400993.  doi:10.1002/AENM.201400993
  • Lu X, ME Bowden, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2015. "A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage." Advanced Materials 27(39):5915-5922.  doi:10.1002/adma.201502343
  • Wei X, G Xia, BW Kirby, EC Thomsen, B Li, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(1):A5150-A5153.  doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
  • Wei X, L Cosimbescu, W Xu, JZ Hu, M Vijayakumar, J Feng, MY Hu, X Deng, J Xiao, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5(1):Article No. 1400678.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Zheng J, P Yan, M Gu, MJ Wagner, K Hays, J Chen, XS Li, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Interfacial Reaction Dependent Performance of Hollow Carbon NanoSphere - Sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery." Frontiers in Energy Research 3:Article No. 25.  doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00025
  • Banerjee D, J Liu, and PK Thallapally. 2015. "Separation of C2 Hydrocarbons by Porous Materials: Metal Organic Frameworks as Platform." Comments on Inorganic Chemistry 35(1):18-38.  doi:10.1080/02603594.2014.976704
  • Chen J, D Wu, ED Walter, MH Engelhard, P Bhattacharya, H Pan, Y Shao, F Gao, J Xiao, and J Liu. 2015. "Molecular-Confinement of Polysulfide within Mesoscale Electrodes for the Practical Application of Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Nano Energy 13:267-274.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.01.031
  • Cheng Y, RM Stolley, KS Han, Y Shao, BW Arey, NM Washton, KT Mueller, ML Helm, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2015. "Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(µ-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 17(20):13307-13314.  doi:10.1039/C5CP00859J
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, LR Parent, ML Sushko, G Li, P Sushko, ND Browning, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Interface Promoted Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Tin-Antimony Alloys." Advanced Materials 27(42):6598-6605.  doi:10.1002/adma.201502378
  • Cosimbescu L, X Wei, M Vijayakumar, W Xu, ML Helm, SD Burton, CM Sorensen, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5:14117.  doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Darkins R, ML Sushko, J Liu, and DM Duffy. 2015. "The effect of surface topography on the micellisation of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride at the silicon-aqueous interface." Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 27(5):Article No. 054008.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/27/5/054008
  • Deng X, MY Hu, X Wei, W Wang, Z Chen, J Liu, and JZ Hu. 2015. "Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 285:146-155.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.091
  • Lee YJ, L Huang, H Wang, ML Sushko, B Schwenzer, IA Aksay, and J Liu. 2015. "Structural rearrangement and dispersion of functionalized graphene sheets in aqueous solutions." Colloids and Interface Science Communications 8:1-5.  doi:10.1016/j.colcom.2015.12.002
  • Li B, Z Nie, M Vijayakumar, G Li, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 6303.  doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Li WZ, F Gao, Y Li, ED Walter, J Liu, CHF Peden, and Y Wang. 2015. "Nanocrystalline Anatase Titania Supported Vanadia Catalysts: Facet-dependent Structure of Vanadia." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119(27):15094-15102.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b01486
  • Liu TL, JT Cox, D Hu, X Deng, JZ Hu, MY Hu, J Xiao, Y Shao, K Tang, and J Liu. 2015. "A Fundamental Study on the [(µ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+ Dimer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries." Chemical Communications 51(12):2312-2315.  doi:10.1039/c4cc07621d
  • Lu D, J Zheng, Q Li, X Xie, SA Ferrara, Z Nie, BL Mehdi, ND Browning, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Challenges of Thick Sulfur Cathodes." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1402290.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201402290
  • Lu PJ, JN Liu, S Liang, J Liu, WJ Wang, M Lei, S Tang, and Q Yang. 2015. "Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties." Nano Energy 12:709-724.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.12.019
  • Mehdi BL, J Qian, E Nasybulin, C Park, DA Welch, R Faller, HS Mehta, WA Henderson, W Xu, CM Wang, JE Evans, J Liu, J Zhang, KT Mueller, and ND Browning. 2015. "Observation and Quantification of Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries by Operando Electrochemical (S)TEM." Nano Letters 15(3):2168-2176.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00175
  • Mehdi BL, J Qian, E Nasybulin, DA Welch, C Park, R Faller, HS Mehta, WA Henderson, W Xu, JE Evans, J Liu, J Zhang, KT Mueller, and ND Browning. 2015. "Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM." In ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV, July 26-31, 2015, Glasgow, Scotland, vol. MA2015-03, p. Abstract No. 432.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Pan H, X Wei, WA Henderson, Y Shao, J Chen, P Bhattacharya, J Xiao, and J Liu. 2015. "On the way toward understanding solution chemistry of lithium polysulfides for high energy Li-S redox flow batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1500113.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201500113
  • Parent LR, Y Cheng, P Sushko, Y Shao, J Liu, CM Wang, and ND Browning. 2015. "Realizing the Full Potential of Insertion Anodes for Mg-ion Batteries Through the Nano-Structuring of Sn." Nano Letters 15(2):1177-1182.  doi:10.1021/nl5042534
  • Shao Y, Y Cheng, W Duan, W Wang, Y Lin, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells and Redox Flow Batteries: a Selected Review." ACS Catalysis 5(12):7288-7298.  doi:10.1021/acscatal.5b01737
  • Vijayakumar M, Z Nie, ED Walter, JZ Hu, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80(2):428-437.  doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139
  • Wang Q, J Zheng, ED Walter, H Pan, D Lu, P Zuo, H Chen, Z Deng, BY Liaw, X Yu, X Yang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 162(3):A474-A478.  doi:10.1149/2.0851503jes
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, H Chen, M Vijayakumar, J Zheng, H Pan, ED Walter, MY Hu, X Deng, J Feng, BY Liaw, M Gu, Z Deng, D Lu, S Xu, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using In an In Situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique." Nano Letters 15(5):3309-3316.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00521
  • Yan P, A Nie, J Zheng, Y Zhou, D Lu, X Zhang, R Xu, I Belharouak, X Zu, J Xiao, K Amine, J Liu, F Gao, R Shahbazian-Yassar, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2015. "Evolution Of Lattice Structure And Chemical Composition Of The Surface Reconstruction Layer In Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Cathode Material For Lithium Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 15(1):514-522.  doi:10.1021/nl5038598
  • Yan P, J Zheng, D Lv, Y Wei, J Zheng, Z Wang, S Kuppan, J Yu, L Luo, DJ Edwards, MJ Olszta, K Amine, J Liu, J Xiao, F Pan, G Chen, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2015. "Atomic-Resolution Visualization of Distinctive Chemical Mixing Behavior of Ni, Co and Mn with Li in Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathode Materials." Chemistry of Materials 27(15):5393-5401.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b02016
  • Yu X, H Pan, Y Zhou, P Northrup, J Xiao, S Bak, M Liu, KW Nam, D Qu, J Liu, T Wu, and XQ Yang. 2015. "Direct Observation of the Redistribution of Sulfur and Polysufides in Li-S Batteries During the First Cycle by In Situ X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):, doi:10.1002/aenm.201500072


  • Liu J. 2014. "Charging Graphene for Energy Storage." Nature Nanotechnology 9(10):739-741.  doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.233
  • Vijayakumar M, B Schwenzer, V Shutthanandan, JZ Hu, J Liu, and IA Aksay. 2014. "Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study." Nano Energy 3:152-158.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2012.09.014
  • Zheng J, J Tian, D Wu, M Gu, W Xu, CM Wang, F Gao, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2014. "Lewis Acid-Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic Framework in Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Nano Letters 14(5):2345-2352.  doi:10.1021/nl404721h
  • Cheng Y, LR Parent, Y Shao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2014. "Facile Synthesis of Chevrel Phase Nanocubes and their Applications for Multivalent Energy Storage." Chemistry of Materials 26(17):4904-4907.  doi:10.1021/cm502306c
  • Cheng Y, TL Liu, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, J Liu, and G Li. 2014. "Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(8):2473 - 2477.  doi:10.1039/C3TA15113A
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2014. "High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry." Chemical Communications 50(68):9644-9646.  doi:10.1039/C4CC03620D
  • Darkins R, ML Sushko, J Liu, and DM Duffy. 2014. "Stress in titania nanoparticles: An atomistic study." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 16(20):9441-9447.  doi:10.1039/c3cp54357a
  • Gu M, X Xiao, G Liu, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, J Zhang, J Liu, ND Browning, and CM Wang. 2014. "Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries." Scientific Reports 4:Article No. 3684.  doi:10.1038/srep03684
  • He Y, DM Piper, M Gu, JJ Travis, SM George, SH Lee, A Genc, L Pullan, J Liu, SX Mao, J Zhang, C Ban, and CM Wang. 2014. "In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries." ACS Nano 8(11):11816-11823.  doi:10.1021/nn505523c
  • Huang C, J Xiao, Y Shao, J Zheng, WD Bennett, D Lu, LV Saraf, MH Engelhard, L Ji, J Zhang, X Li, GL Graff, and J Liu. 2014. "Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 3015.  doi:10.1038/ncomms4015
  • Ji L, M Gu, Y Shao, X Li, MH Engelhard, BW Arey, W Wang, Z Nie, J Xiao, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage." Advanced Materials 26(18):2901-2908.  doi:10.1002/adma.201304962
  • Li B, Y Zhang, R Krishna, K Yao, Y Han, Z Wu, D Ma, Z Shi, T Pham, B Space, J Liu, PK Thallapally, J Liu, C Matthew, and S Ma. 2014. "Introduction of p-Complexation into Porous Aromatic Framework for Highly Selective Adsorption of Ethylene over Ethane." Journal of the American Chemical Society 136(24):8654-8660.  doi:10.1021/ja502119z
  • Li WZ, L Kovarik, D Mei, MH Engelhard, F Gao, J Liu, Y Wang, and CHF Peden. 2014. "A general mechanism for stabilizing the small sizes of precious metal nanoparticles on oxide supports." Chemistry of Materials 26(19):5475-5481.  doi:10.1021/cm5013203
  • Li X, M Gu, SY Hu, R Kennard, P Yan, X Chen, CM Wang, MJ Sailor, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 4105.  doi:10.1038/ncomms5105
  • Liu TL, Y Shao, G Li, M Gu, JZ Hu, S Xu, Z Nie, X Chen, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2014. "A Facile Approach Using MgCl2 to Formulate High Performance Mg2+ Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(10):3430 - 3438.  doi:10.1039/c3ta14825d
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, D Mei, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2014. "Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 4578.  doi:10.1038/ncomms5578
  • Mehdi BL, M Gu, LR Parent, W Xu, EN Nasybulin, X Chen, RR Unocic, P Xu, DA Welch, P Abellan, J Zhang, J Liu, CM Wang, I Arslan, JE Evans, and ND Browning. 2014. "In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research." Microscopy and Microanalysis 20(2):484-492.  doi:10.1017/S1431927614000488
  • Shao Y, M Gu, X Li, Z Nie, P Zuo, G Li, TL Liu, J Xiao, Y Cheng, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 14(1):255-260.  doi:10.1021/nl403874y
  • Shao Y, NN Rajput, JZ Hu, MY Hu, TL Liu, Z Wei, M Gu, X Deng, S Xu, KS Han, J Wang, Z Nie, G Li, K Zavadil, J Xiao, CM Wang, WA Henderson, J Zhang, Y Wang, KT Mueller, KA Persson, and J Liu. 2014. "Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries." Nano Energy 2015(12):750-759.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.12.028
  • Vijayakumar M, N Govind, ED Walter, SD Burton, AK Shukla, A Devaraj, J Xiao, J Liu, CM Wang, AM Karim, and S Thevuthasan. 2014. "Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 16(22):10923-10932.  doi:10.1039/c4cp00889H
  • Xiao J, P Meduri, H Chen, Z Wang, F Gao, JZ Hu, J Feng, MY Hu, S Dai, S Brown, JL Adcock, Z Deng, J Liu, GL Graff, IA Aksay, and J Zhang. 2014. "Energetics of Defects on Graphene through Fluorination." ChemSusChem 7(5):1295-1300.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201301066


  • Liu J. 2013. "Addressing the Grand Challenges in Energy Storage." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):924-928.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201203058
  • Nie Z, X Zhou, Q Zhang, G Cao, and J Liu. 2013. "Aggregated TiO2 Based Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells." Science of Advanced Materials 5(11):1750-1755.  doi:10.1166/sam.2013.1622
  • Zheng J, D Lu, M Gu, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2013. "How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(11):A2288-A2292.  doi:10.1149/2.106311jes
  • Zheng J, M Gu, CM Wang, P Zuo, PK Koech, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2013. "Controlled Nucleation and Growth Process of Li2S2/Li2S in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(11):A1992-A1996.  doi:10.1149/2.032311jes
  • Zheng J, M Gu, H Chen, P Meduri, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2013. "Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(29):8464-8470.  doi:10.1039/C3TA11553D
  • Zheng J, M Gu, MJ Wagner, K Hays, XS Li, P Zuo, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2013. "Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(10):A1624-A1628.  doi:10.1149/2.013310jes
  • Chen B, WN Qi, X Li, C Lei, and J Liu. 2013. "Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support." Small 9(13):2228-2232.  doi:10.1002/smll.201202409
  • Darkins R, ML Sushko, J Liu, and DM Duffy. 2013. "Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO2 (rutile and anatase) surfaces." Langmuir 29(37):11609-11614.  doi:10.1021/la401469f
  • Ding F, W Xu, GL Graff, J Zhang, ML Sushko, X Chen, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, J Xiao, X Liu, PV Sushko, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 135(11):4450-4456.  doi:10.1021/ja312241y
  • Gu M, A Genc, I Belharouak, D Wang, K Amine, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, J Zhang, ND Browning, J Liu, and CM Wang. 2013. "Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries." Chemistry of Materials 25(11):2319-2236.  doi:10.1021/cm4009392
  • Gu M, A Kushima, Y Shao, J Zhang, J Liu, ND Browning, J Li, and CM Wang. 2013. "Probing the Failure Mechanism of SnO2 Nanowires for Sodium-ion Batteries." Nano Letters 13(11):5203-5211.  doi:10.1021/nl402633n
  • Gu M, I Belharouak, J Zheng, H Wu, J Xiao, A Genc, K Amine, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, J Zhang, ND Browning, J Liu, and CM Wang. 2013. "Formation Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode Used In Li-Ion Batteries." ACS Nano 7(1):760-767.  doi:10.1021/nn305065u
  • Gu M, LR Parent, BL Mehdi, RR Unocic, MT Mcdowell, RL Sacci, W Xu, JG Connell, P Xu, P Abellan Baeza, X Chen, Y Zhang, DE Perea, JE Evans, L Lauhon, J Zhang, J Liu, ND Browning, Y Cui, I Arslan, and CM Wang. 2013. "Demonstration of an Electrochemical Liquid Cell for Operando Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of the Lithiation/Delithiation Behavior of Si Nanowire Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 13(12):6106-6112.  doi:10.1021/nl403402q
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  • Li WZ, L Kovarik, D Mei, J Liu, Y Wang, and CHF Peden. 2013. "Stable platinum nanoparticles on specific MgAl2O4 spinel facets at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres." Nature Communications 4:Article No. 2481.  doi:10.1038/ncomms3481
  • Liu J, J Zhang, Z Yang, JP Lemmon, CH Imhoff, GL Graff, L Li, JZ Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, G Xia, VV Viswanathan, S Baskaran, VL Sprenkle, X Li, Y Shao, and B Schwenzer. 2013. "Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):929-946.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200690
  • Moon GH, Y Shin, D Choi, BW Arey, GJ Exarhos, CM Wang, W Choi, and J Liu. 2013. "Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures." Nanoscale 5(14):6291-6296.  doi:10.1039/C3NR01387A
  • Shao Y, F Ding, J Xiao, J Zhang, W Xu, SK Park, J Zhang, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2013. "Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):987-1004.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200688
  • Shao Y, J Xiao, W Wang, MH Engelhard, X Chen, Z Nie, M Gu, LV Saraf, GJ Exarhos, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams." Nano Letters 13(8):3909-3914.  doi:10.1021/nl401995a
  • Shao Y, TL Liu, G Li, M Gu, Z Nie, MH Engelhard, J Xiao, D Lu, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance." Scientific Reports 3:Article No. 3130.  doi:10.1038/srep03130
  • Sushko PV, KM Rosso, J Zhang, J Liu, and ML Sushko. 2013. "Oxygen vacancies and ordering of d-levels control voltage suppression in oxide cathodes: the case of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-d ." Advanced Functional Materials 23(44):5530-5535.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201301205
  • Tian J, J Liu, J Liu, and PK Thallapally. 2013. "Identification of solid-state forms of cucurbit[6]uril for carbon dioxide capture." CrystEngComm 15(8):1528-1531.  doi:10.1039/C3CE27017C
  • Wang Z, X Niu, J Xiao, CM Wang, J Liu, and F Gao. 2013. "First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Batteries." RSC Advances 3(37):16775-16780.  doi:10.1039/C3RA41333K
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, J Xiao, B Schwenzer, MH Engelhard, LV Saraf, Z Nie, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 2013. "Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(33):9517-9526.  doi:10.1039/C3TA10865A
  • Zhan H, J Xiao, Z Nie, X Li, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Nanostructured materials for rechargeable batteries: synthesis, fundamental understanding and limitations." Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 2(2):151-159.  doi:10.1016/j.coche.2013.03.007


  • Li X, WN Qi, D Mei, ML Sushko, IA Aksay, and J Liu. 2012. "Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites." Advanced Materials 24(37):5136-5141.  doi:10.1002/adma.201202189
  • Xu W, AL Read, PK Koech, D Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, AB Padmaperuma, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2012. "Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(9):4032-4039.  doi:10.1039/c2jm15764k
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, X Yu, L Kovarik, M Gu, F Omenya, X Chen, XQ Yang, J Liu, GL Graff, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2012. "Enhanced Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control of Site Disorder." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14(39):13515-13521. 
  • Cao Y, L Xiao, ML Sushko, W Wang, B Schwenzer, J Xiao, Z Nie, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2012. "Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications." Nano Letters 12(7):3783-3787.  doi:10.1021/nl3016957
  • Chen X, X Li, F Ding, W Xu, J Xiao, Y Cao, P Meduri, J Liu, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2012. "Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 12(8):4124-4130.  doi:10.1021/nl301657y
  • Chen Z, M Zhou, Y Cao, X Ai, H Yang, and J Liu. 2012. "In Situ Generation of Few-Layer Graphene Coatings on SnO2-SiC Core-Shell Nanoparticles for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 2(1):95-102.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201100464
  • Gu M, I Belharouak, A Genc, Z Wang, D Wang, K Amine, F Gao, G Zhou, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, J Zhang, ND Browning, J Liu, and CM Wang. 2012. "Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries." Nano Letters 12(10):5186-5191.  doi:10.1021/nl302249v
  • Guan J, G Yan, W Wang, and J Liu. 2012. "External field-assisted solution synthesis and selectively catalytic properties of amorphous iron nanoplatelets." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(9): 3909-3915.  doi:10.1039/C2JM15000J
  • Hu JZ, JA Sears, Jr, HS Mehta, JJ Ford, JH Kwak, K Zhu, Y Wang, J Liu, DW Hoyt, and CHF Peden. 2012. "A Large Sample Volume Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe for In-Situ Investigations with Constant Flow of Reactants." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14(7):2137-2143.  doi:10.1039/c1cp22692d
  • Li J, K Zhu, J Shang, D Wang, Z Nie, R Guo, C Liu, Z Wang, X Li, and J Liu. 2012. "Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction." Separation Science and Technology 47(10):1507-1513. 
  • Li X, P Meduri, X Chen, WN Qi, MH Engelhard, W Xu, F Ding, J Xiao, W Wang, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2012. "Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(22):11014-11017.  doi:10.1039/C2JM31286G
  • Liu D, Y Liu, SL Candelaria, G Cao, J Liu, and YH Jeong. 2012. "Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on V2O5 xerogel film for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation stability." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 30(1):Article No. 01A123.  doi:10.1116/1.3664115
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  • Moon GH, Y Shin, BW Arey, CM Wang, GJ Exarhos, W Choi, and J Liu. 2012. "Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron-sized colloidal carbon spheres via hydrothermal carbonization using soft drink." Colloid and Polymer Science 290(15):1567-1573.  doi:10.1007/s00396-012-2729-4
  • Park SK, Y Shao, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2012. "Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Water Electrolyzers and Reversible Fuel Cells: Status and Perspective." Energy & Environmental Science 5(11):9331-9344.  doi:10.1039/c2ee22554a
  • Park SK, Y Shao, VV Viswanathan, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2012. "Non-Kinetic Losses Caused by Electrochemical Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cells." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 37(10):8451-8458.  doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.02.097
  • Shao Y, SK Park, J Xiao, J Zhang, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2012. "Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium-Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective." ACS Catalysis 2(5):844-857.  doi:10.1021/cs300036v
  • Song Z, TT Xu, M Gordin, Y Jiang, IT Bae, Q Xiao, H Zhan, J Liu, and D Wang. 2012. "Polymer-Graphene Nanocomposites as Ultrafast-Charge and -Discharge Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries." Nano Letters 12(5):2205-2211.  doi:10.1021/nl2039666
  • Tam TK, B Chen, C Lei, and J Liu. 2012. "In situ Regeneration of NADH via Lipoamide Dehydrogenase-catalyzed Electron Transfer Reaction Evidenced by Spectroelectrochemistry." Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 86:92-96.  doi:10.1016/j.bioelechem.2012.03.002
  • Tian J, LV Saraf, B Schwenzer, SM Taylor, EK Brechin, J Liu, SJ Dalgarno, and PK Thallapally. 2012. "Selective Metal Cation Capture by Soft Anionic Metal-Organic Frameworks via Drastic Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations." Journal of the American Chemical Society 134(23):9581-9584.  doi:10.1021/ja303092m
  • Vijayakumar M, B Schwenzer, S Kim, Z Yang, S Thevuthasan, J Liu, GL Graff, and JZ Hu. 2012. "Investigation of Local Environments in Nafion-SiO2 Composite Membranes used in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 42:71-80.  doi:10.1016/j.ssnmr.2011.11.005
  • Wang CM, X Li, Z Wang, W Xu, J Liu, F Gao, L Kovarik, J Zhang, J Howe, DJ Burton, Z Liu, X Xiao, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2012. "In Situ TEM Investigation of Congruent Phase Transition and Structural Evolution of Nanostructured Silicon/Carbon Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 12(3):1624-1632.  doi:10.1021/nl204559u
  • Wang LQ, D Wang, J Liu, and GJ Exarhos. 2012. "Probing Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Self-Assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116(1):22-29.  doi:10.1021/jp2047008
  • Wen Q, X Li, B Chen, P Yao, C Lei, and J Liu. 2012. "Intramesoporous Silica Structure Differentiating Protein Loading Density." Materials Letters 75:102-106.  doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2012.01.128
  • Xiao J, X Chen, PV Sushko, ML Sushko, L Kovarik, J Feng, Z Deng, J Zheng, GL Graff, Z Nie, D Choi, J Liu, J Zhang, and MS Whittingham. 2012. "High-Performance LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Spinel Controlled by Mn3+ Concentration and Site Disorder." Advanced Materials 24(16):2109-2116.  doi:10.1002/adma.201104767
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  • Kim S, TB Tighe, B Schwenzer, J Yan, J Zhang, J Liu, Z Yang, and MA Hickner. 2011. "Chemical and Mechanical Degradation of Sulfonated Poly(sulfone) Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 41(10):1201-1213.  doi:10.1007/s10800-011-0313-0
  • Liu W, Y Rao, H Wan, AJ Karkamkar, J Liu, and LQ Wang. 2011. "Bubbling Reactor Technology for Rapid Synthesis of Uniform, Small MFI-Type Zeolite Crystals ." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 50(12):7241-7250.  doi:10.1021/ie102069z
  • Vijayakumar M, SN Kerisit, KM Rosso, SD Burton, JA Sears, Jr, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, and JZ Hu. 2011. "Lithium Diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 at High Temperatures." Journal of Power Sources 196(4):2211-2220. 
  • Zhang J, and J Liu. 2011. "Development of High Energy Cathode (PNNL)." In FISCAL YEAR 2010 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR ENERGY STORAGE R&D, vol. V.B.10, pp. 366-369.  U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.. 
  • Cao Y, L Xiao, W Wang, D Choi, Z Nie, J Yu, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2011. "Reversible Sodium Ion Insertion in Single Crystalline Manganese Oxide Nanowires with Long Cycle Life." Advanced Materials 23(28):3155-3160.  doi:10.1002/adma.201100904
  • Cao Y, X Li, IA Aksay, JP Lemmon, Z Nie, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2011. "Sandwich-Type Functionalized Graphene Sheet-Sulfur Nanocomposite for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(17):7660-7665.  doi:10.1039/C0CP02477E
  • Chen B, SS Shah, Y Shin, C Lei, and J Liu. 2011. "In vitro release of organophosphorus acid anhydrolase from functionalized mesoporous silica against nerve agents." Analytical Biochemistry 421(2):477-81.  doi:10.1016/j.ab.2011.09.024
  • Choi D, J Xiao, YJ Choi, JS Hardy, M Vijayakumar, MS Bhuvaneswari, J Liu, W Xu, W Wang, Z Yang, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2011. "Thermal Stability and Phase Transformation of Electrochemically Charged/Discharged LiMnPO4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 4(11):4560-4566.  doi:10.1039/C1EE01501J
  • Kou R, Y Shao, D Mei, Z Nie, D Wang, CM Wang, VV Viswanathan, SK Park, IA Aksay, Y Lin, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2011. "Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points." Journal of the American Chemical Society 133(8):2541-2547.  doi:10.1021/ja107719u
  • Li L, S Kim, W Wang, M Vijayakumar, Z Nie, B Chen, J Zhang, G Xia, JZ Hu, GL Graff, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2011. "A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 1(3):394-400. 
  • Li X, Y Cao, WN Qi, LV Saraf, J Xiao, Z Nie, J Mietek, J Zhang, B Schwenzer, and J Liu. 2011. "Optimization of mesoporous carbon structures for lithium-sulfur battery applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(41):16603-16610.  doi:10.1039/C1JM12979A
  • Liu Y, D Liu, Q Zhang, D Yu, J Liu, and G Cao. 2011. "Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries ." Electrochimica Acta 56(5):2559-2565 .  doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2010.11.050
  • Pan A, D Choi, J Zhang, S Liang, G Cao, Z Nie, BW Arey, and J Liu. 2011. "High-Rate Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via Surfactant-Assisted Fabrication." Journal of Power Sources 196(7):3646-3649.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.12.067
  • Pan A, J Zhang, G Cao, S Liang, CM Wang, Z Nie, BW Arey, W Xu, D Liu, J Xiao, G Li, and J Liu. 2011. "Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(27):10077-10084.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10976F
  • Park SK, Y Shao, R Kou, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, PC Rieke, J Liu, Y Lin, and Y Wang. 2011. "Polarization Losses under Accelerated Stress Test Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Supported Pt Catalyst in PEM Fuel Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 158(3):B297-302.  doi:10.1149/1.3530843
  • Park SK, Y Shao, H Wan, PC Rieke, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, LV Saraf, J Liu, Y Lin, and Y Wang. 2011. "Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells." Electrochemistry Communications 13(3):258-261.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.12.028
  • Park SK, Y Shao, H Wan, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, PC Rieke, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2011. "Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115(45):22633-22639.  doi:10.1021/jp2068599
  • Schwenzer B, S Kim, M Vijayakumar, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2011. "Correlation of Structural Differences between Nafion/Polyaniline and Nafion/Polypyrrole Composite Membranes and Observed Transport Properties." Journal of Membrane Science 372(1-2):11-19 .  doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2011.01.025
  • Schwenzer B, J Zhang, S Kim, L Li, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2011. "Membrane Development for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 4(10):1388 - 1406.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201100068
  • Sun J, K Zhu, F Gao, CM Wang, J Liu, CHF Peden, and Y Wang. 2011. "Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz Mixed Oxides with Balanced Acid-Base Sites." Journal of the American Chemical Society 133(29):11096-11099.  doi:10.1021/ja204235v
  • Sushko ML, and J Liu. 2011. "Surfactant Two-Dimensional Self-Assembly under Confinement." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 115(15):4322-4328.  doi:10.1021/jp2003497
  • Sushko ML, KM Rosso, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2011. "Multiscale Simulations of Li Ion Conductivity in Solid Electrolyte." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2(18):2352-2356.  doi:10.1021/jz201032w
  • Tian J, PK Thallapally, J Liu, GJ Exarhos, and JL Atwood. 2011. "Gas-induced solid state transformation of an organic lattice: from nonporous to nanoporous." Chemical Communications 47(2):701-703.  doi:10.1039/C0CC04260A
  • Vijayakumar M, L Li, GL Graff, J Liu, H Zhang, Z Yang, and JZ Hu. 2011. "Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196(7):3669-3672.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.126
  • Vijayakumar M, BM Sivakumar, P Nachimuthu, B Schwenzer, S Kim, Z Yang, J Liu, GL Graff, S Thevuthasan, and JZ Hu. 2011. "Spectroscopic Investigations of the Fouling Process on Nafion Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Membrane Science 366(1-2):325-334.  doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2010.10.018
  • Wang CM, W Xu, J Liu, J Zhang, LV Saraf, BW Arey, D Choi, Z Yang, J Xiao, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2011. "In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Microstructure and Phase Evolution in a SnO2 Nanowire during Lithium Intercalation." Nano Letters 11(5):1874-1880.  doi:10.1021/nl200272n
  • Xiao J, D Mei, X Li, W Xu, D Wang, GL Graff, WD Bennett, Z Nie, LV Saraf, IA Aksay, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode." Nano Letters 11(11):5071-5078.  doi:10.1021/nl203332e
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, D Wang, D Hu, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Nie, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 196(13):5674-5678. 
  • Xiao J, N Chernova, S Upreti, X Chen, Z Li, Z Deng, D Choi, W Xu, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2011. "Electrochemical Performances of LiMnPO4 Synthesized from Non-Stoichiometric Li/Mn Ratio." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(40):18099-18106.  doi:10.1039/C1CP22658D
  • Xiao J, X Wang, XQ Yang, S Xun, G Liu, PK Koech, J Liu, and JP Lemmon. 2011. "Electrochemically Induced High Capacity Displacement Reaction of PEO/MoS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Lithium." Advanced Functional Materials 21(15):2840-2846.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201002752
  • Yang Z, J Zhang, MCW Kintner-Meyer, X Lu, D Choi, JP Lemmon, and J Liu. 2011. "Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid." Chemical Reviews 111(5):3577-3613.  doi:10.1021/cr100290v
  • Yu J, KM Rosso, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2011. "Ab initio study of lithium transition metal fluorophosphate cathodes for rechargeable batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(32):12054-12058.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10900F
  • Yu J, KM Rosso, and J Liu. 2011. "Charge Localization and Transport in Lithiated Olivine Phosphate Materials." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115(50):25001-25006.  doi:10.1021/jp204188g
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  • Zhang S, Y Shao, H Liao, J Liu, IA Aksay, G Yin, and Y Lin. 2011. "Graphene decorated with PtAu alloy nanoparticles: facile synthesis and promising application for formic acid oxidation." Chemistry of Materials 23(5):1079-1081. 
  • Zhang S, Y Shao, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2011. "Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite as a Highly Efficient and Low Cost Electrically Switched Ion Exchanger for Removing ClO4- from Wastewater." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 3(9):3633-3637.  doi:10.1021/am200839m
  • Zhu K, J Sun, J Liu, LQ Wang, H Wan, JZ Hu, Y Wang, CHF Peden, and Z Nie. 2011. "Solvent Evaporation Assisted Preparation of Oriented Nanocrystalline Mesoporous MFI Zeolites." ACS Catalysis 1(7):682-690.  doi:10.1021/cs200085e


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  • Shao Y, S Zhang, R Kou, X Wang, CM Wang, S Dai, VV Viswanathan, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2010. "Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction." Journal of Power Sources 195(7 SP ISS):1805-1811. 
  • Shao Y, X Wang, MH Engelhard, CM Wang, S Dai, J Liu, Z Yang, and Y Lin. 2010. "Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195(13):4375-4379. 
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  • Chi F, YN Guo, J Liu, Y Liu, and Q Huo. 2010. "Size-Tunable and Functional Core-Shell Structured Silica Nanoparticles for Drug Release." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114(6):2519-2523.  doi:10.1021/jp910460j
  • Choi D, D Wang, IT Bae, J Xiao, Z Nie, W Wang, VV Viswanathan, YJ Lee, J Zhang, GL Graff, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2010. "LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode." Nano Letters 10(8):2799-2805.  doi:10.1021/nl1007085
  • Du D, Z Zou, Y Shin, J Wang, H Wu, MH Engelhard, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "Sensitive Immunosensor for Cancer Biomarker Based on Dual Signal Amplification Strategy of Graphene Sheets and Multi-Enzyme Functionalized Carbon Nanospheres ." Analytical Chemistry 82(7):2989-2995.  doi:10.1021/ac100036p
  • Fang HC, JQ Zhu, LJ Zhou, HY Jia, SS Li, X Gong, SB Li, YP Cai, PK Thallapally, J Liu, and GJ Exarhos. 2010. "pH-Dependent Assembly and Conversions of Six Cadmium(II)-Based Coordination Complexes." Crystal Growth & Design 10(7):3277-3284.  doi:10.1021/cg1004598
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  • Gu ZG, YP Cai, HC Fang, ZY Zhou, PK Thallapally, J Tian, J Liu, and GJ Exarhos. 2010. "Conversion of Nonporous Helical Cadmium Organic Famework to a Porous Form." Chemical Communications 46(29):5373-5375. 
  • Kang X, J Wang, H Wu, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "A graphene-based electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of paracetamol ." Talanta 81(3):754-759. 
  • Kerisit SN, KM Rosso, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2010. "Computer Simulation of the Phase Stabilities of Lithiated TiO2 Polymorphs." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114(44):19096-19107.  doi:10.1021/jp103809s
  • Lei C, P Liu, B Chen, Y Mao, HE Engelmann, Y Shin, J Jaffar, I Hellstrom, J Liu, and KE Hellstrom. 2010. "Local Release of Highly Loaded Antibodies from Functionalized Nanoporous Support for Cancer Immunotherapy." Journal of the American Chemical Society 132(20):6906-6907. 
  • Li J, J Liu, D Wang, R Guo, X Li, and WN Qi. 2010. "Interfacially Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Spheres with Radially Oriented Pore Structures." Langmuir 26(14):12267-12272.  doi:10.1021/la101225j
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  • Pan A, D Liu, X Zhou, BB Garcia, S Liang, J Liu, and G Cao. 2010. "Enhanced Lithium-ion intercalation properties of coherent hydrous vanadium pentoxide-carbon cryogels nanocomposites." Journal of Power Sources 195(12):3893-3899.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.12.120
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  • Pan A, J Liu, J Zhang, GH Cao, W Xu, Z Nie, J Xiao, D Choi, BW Arey, CM Wang, and S Liang. 2010. "Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for High-Rate Secondary Lithium Batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(4):1153-1161.  doi:10.1039/c0jm02810j
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  • Shao Y, S Zhang, MH Engelhard, G Li, G Shao, Y Wang, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(35):7491-7496.  doi:10.1039/c0jm00782j
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  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Wang, D Choi, W Wang, X Li, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Stabilization of Silicon Anode for Li-Ion Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(10):A1047-A1051.  doi:10.1149/1.3464767
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  • Shin Y, J Liu, LQ Wang, Z Nie, WD Samuels, GE Fryxell, and GJ Exarhos. 2000. "Ordered Hierarchical Porous Materials: Towards Tunable Size- and Shape-Selective Microcavities in Nanoporous Channels." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 39(15):2702-2707. 
  • Shin Y, TS Zemanian, GE Fryxell, LQ Wang, and J Liu. 2000. "Supercritical Processing of Functionalized Size Selective Microporous Materials." Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 37(1-2):49-56. 
  • Smith BA, JZ Zhang, AG Joly, and J Liu. 2000. "Luminescence Decay Kinetics of Mn2+ Doped ZnS Nanoclusters Grown in Reverse Micelles." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 62(3):2021-2028. 
  • Thevuthasan S, S Baskaran, K Domansky, J Liu, and MH Engelhard. 2000. "Effectiveness of High Energy Ion Beam Techniques for the Characterization of Mesoporous Low Dielectric-Constant Materials." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 161-163:476-481. 
  • Wang LQ, J Liu, GJ Exarhos, K Flanigan, and R Bordia. 2000. "Conformation Heterogeneity and Mobility of Surfactant Molecules in intercalated Clay Minerals Studied by Solid-State NMR." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104(13)(April 6, 2000):2810-2816. 


  • Fryxell GE, J Liu, and SV Mattigod. 1999. "Self-assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS) - An Innovative Environmental Sorbent." Materials Technology 14(4):188-191. 
  • Fryxell GE, J Liu, TA Hauser, Z Nie, KF Ferris, SV Mattigod, M Gong, and RT Hallen. 1999. "Design and Synthesis of Selective Mesoporous Anion Types ." Chemistry of Materials 11(8):2148-2154. 
  • Kemner KM, X Feng, J Liu, GE Fryxell, LQ Wang, AY Kim, M Gong, and SV Mattigod. 1999. "Investigation of the local chemical interactions between Hg and self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports." Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 6(3):633-635. 
  • Mattigod SV, X Feng, GE Fryxell, J Liu, and M Gong. 1999. "Separation of Complexed Mercury from Aqueous Wastes Using Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica." Separation Science and Technology 34(12):2329-2345. 
  • Palmer BJ, J Liu, and JW Virden. 1999. "Simulations of the Effect of Diblock Surfactant Spacer Molecules on Micelle Structure and Function." Langmuir 15(22):7426-7431. 
  • Wang LQ, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 1999. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Characterization of Self-Assembled Nanostructural Materials." Advanced Materials 11(16):1331-1341. 
  • Wang LQ, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 1999. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Characterization of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials." Advanced Materials 11(16):1331-1340. 


  • Elder SH, Y Gao, XS Li, J Liu, DE McCready, and CF Windisch, Jr. 1998. "Zirconia-Stabilized 25-AngstromTiO2 Anatase Crystallites in a Mesoporous Structure." Chemistry of Materials 10(10):3140-3145. 
  • Windisch CF, Jr, JW Virden, SH Elder, J Liu, and MH Engelhard. 1998. "Electrochemistry of TiN in 6M KOH Solution." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 145(4):1211-1218. 

Energy and Environment

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