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Energy and Environment Directorate

Pete McGrail

Pete McGrail

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 371-7077

Research Interests

  • Carbon Management and Climate Change:
  • geologic sequestration
  • in situ mineralization
  • supercritical CO2-brine chemistry
  • pulsed field gradient NMR
  • Gas Hydrates:
  • dissociation kinetics and modeling
  • physical properties of hydrate-bearing porous media
  • characterization of natural hydrate core samples
  • advanced hydrate production methods
  • high-pressure scanning laser ramman spectroscopy
  • resonant ultrasound spectroscopy
  • Geochemical Modeling:
  • radionuclide geochemistry
  • Tc oxidation and transport
  • adsorption phenomena
  • EQ3NR/EQ6, PHREEQE
  • Numerical Modeling of Fluid, Heat and Mass Transfer Processes:
  • coupled flow, transport, and chemical reaction processes
  • performance assessment of waste disposal systems
  • inverse chemical transport modeling (INVERTS)
  • Nuclear Waste Forms:
  • waste glasses, ceramics, polycrystalline materials
  • dissolution kinetics (theoretical and experimental)
  • diffusion
  • ion-exchange
  • secondary phase paragenesis
  • HLW Tank Closure
  • tank fillers
  • source-term modeling from tank residuals
  • Inventions: Remote Magnetic Stirrer for Gamma Irradiation Facility; Apparatus Two-Phase Single-Pass Flow-Through System; Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) System

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Environmental Engineering
  • M.S., Nuclear Engineering
  • B.S., Nuclear Engineering
  • Japanese Program for Professionals

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • International Expert Panel Member, Glass Model for Repository (GLAMOR), SCK-CNE, Mol, Belgium
  • Session Chair, Geological Society of America Annual Conference, November 13-17, 2000. Reno, Nevada
  • Session Chair, International Topical Workshop on Glass in Its Disposal Environment, April 11-13, 2000. Burges, Belgium
  • Materials Research Society
  • American Ceramic Society
  • American Geophysical Union
  • Book Editor and Symposium Chairman, Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, Materials Research Society, November 26-30, 2001. Boston, Massachusetts

Awards and Recognitions

  • Outstanding Achievement Award, Pressurized Unsaturated Flow System Development, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 1998.
  • Outstanding Technical Achievement Award, Tank Waste Remeidation System, Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Quesiton (USQ), 1992.
  • Outstanding Speaker Award, American Society of Metals, Puget Sound Chapter, 1987.

PNNL Publications

2014

  • Jeon JW, R Sharma, P Meduri, BW Arey, HT Schaef, J Lutkenhaus, JP Lemmon, PK Thallapally, MI Nandasiri, BP McGrail, and SK Nune. 2014. "In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6(10):7214-7222.  doi:10.1021/am500339x
  • Annapureddy HV, RK Motkuri, PT Nguyen, TB Truong, PK Thallapally, BP McGrail, and LX Dang. 2014. "Computational studies of adsorption in metal organic frameworks and interaction of nanoparticles in condensed phases." Molecular Simulation 40(7-9):571-584.  doi:10.1080/08927022.2013.829224
  • Bacon DH, R Ramanathan, HT Schaef, and BP McGrail. 2014. "Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 21:165-176.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.12.012
  • Lee MS, BP McGrail, and VA Glezakou. 2014. "Microstructural Response of Variably Hydrated Ca-Rich Montmorillonite to Supercritical CO2." Environmental Science & Technology 48(15):8612-8619.  doi:10.1021/es5005889
  • Motkuri RK, J Liu, CA Fernandez, SK Nune, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2014. "Metal-Organic Frameworks - Synthesis and Applications." Chapter 3 in Industrial Catalysis and Separations: Innovations for Process Intensification, ed. KV Raghavan and BM Reddy, pp. 61-103.  Apple Academic Press Inc., Waretown, NJ. 
  • Schaef HT, JA Horner, AT Owen, CJ Thompson, JS Loring, and BP McGrail. 2014. "Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System." Environmental Science & Technology 48(9):5298-5305.  doi:10.1021/es404964j
  • Schaef HT, VA Glezakou, AT Owen, S Ramprasad, PF Martin, and BP McGrail. 2014. "Surface Condensation of CO2 onto Kaolinite." Environmental Science & Technology Letters 1(2):142-145.  doi:10.1021/ez400169b

2013

  • Glezakou VA, and BP McGrail. 2013. "Density functional simulations as a tool to probe molecular interactions in wet supercritical CO2." Chapter 3 in Application of Molecular Modeling to Challenges in Clean Energy. ACS Symposium Series, vol. 1133, ed. G Fitzgerald and N Govind, pp. 31-49.  American Chemical Society, Washington DC. 
  • McGrail BP, PK Thallapally, J Blanchard, SK Nune, JWJ Jenks, and LX Dang. 2013. "Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids." Nano Energy 2(5):845-855.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2013.02.007
  • Motkuri RK, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2013. "Porous Hexacyanometalates for CO2 capture applications." Proceedings of A.P. Akademi of Sciences XV(2):81-84. 
  • Schaef HT, BP McGrail, AT Owen, and BW Arey. 2013. "Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-H2S System." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 16:187-196.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.020
  • Schaef HT, BP McGrail, JS Loring, ME Bowden, BW Arey, and KM Rosso. 2013. "Forsterite [Mg2SiO4)] Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in situ High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Study." Environmental Science & Technology 47(1):174-181.  doi:10.1021/es301126f

2012

  • Dang LX, HV Annapureddy, X Sun, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2012. "Understanding nanofluid stability through molecular simulation." Chemical Physics Letters 551:115-120.  doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2012.09.025
  • Fernandez CA, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2012. "Insights into the Temperature-Dependent “Breathing” of a Flexible Fluorinated Metal-Organic Framework." Chemphyschem 13(14):3275-3281.  doi:10.1002/cphc.201200243
  • Glezakou VA, BP McGrail, and HT Schaef. 2012. "Molecular interactions of SO2 with carbonate minerals under co-sequestration conditions: a combined experimental and theoretical study." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 92:265-274.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.06.015
  • Liu J, PK Thallapally, BP McGrail, DR Brown, and J Liu. 2012. "Progress in Adsorption-Based CO2 Capture by Metal-Organic Frameworks." Chemical Society Reviews 41(6):2308 - 2322.  doi:10.1039/C1CS15221A
  • Liu J, J Tian, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2012. "Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal-Organic Frameworks?A Fixed Bed Study." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116(17):9575 - 9581.  doi:10.1021/jp300961j
  • McGrail BP, CJ Freeman, CF Brown, EC Sullivan, SK White, S Reddy, R Garber, D Tobin, J Gilmartin, and E Steffensen. 2012. "Overcoming Business Model Uncertainty in a Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration Project: Case Study at the Boise White Paper Mill." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 9:91-102.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.03.009
  • Tian J, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2012. "Gas Storage and Separation in Supramolecular Materials." In Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials, vol. 6, ed. JW Steed and PA Gale, pp. 3133-3152.  Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. 
  • Tian J, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2012. "Porous Organic Molecular Materials." CrystEngComm 14(6):1909 - 1919. 
  • White MD, DH Bacon, BP McGrail, DJ Watson, SK White, and ZF Zhang. 2012. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e Guide: Version 1.0PNNL-21268, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Windisch CF, Jr, BP McGrail, and GD Maupin. 2012. Soret Effect Study on High-Pressure CO2-Water Solutions Using UV-Raman Spectroscopy and a Concentric-Tube Optical CellPNNL-21156, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Windisch CF, Jr, GD Maupin, and BP McGrail. 2012. "Ultraviolet (UV) Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Soret Effect in High-Pressure CO2-Water Solutions." Applied Spectroscopy 66(7):731-739.  doi:10.1366/12-06591
  • Windisch CF, Jr, HT Schaef, PF Martin, AT Owen, and BP McGrail. 2012. "Following 18O uptake in scCO2-H2O mixtures with Raman spectroscopy." Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 94:186-191.  doi:10.1016/j.saa.2012.03.065
  • Windisch CF, Jr, VA Glezakou, PF Martin, BP McGrail, and HT Schaef. 2012. "Raman Spectrum of Supercritical C18O2 and Re-Evaluation of the Fermi Resonance." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14(8):2560-2566.  doi:10.1039/c1cp22349f

2011

  • Sullivan EC, BA Hardage, BP McGrail, and KN Davis. 2011. "Breakthroughs in Seismic and Borehole Characterization of Basalt Sequestration Targets." Energy Procedia 4:5615-5622.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.551
  • McGrail BP, FA Spane, EC Sullivan, DH Bacon, and G Hund. 2011. "The Wallula Basalt Sequestration Pilot Project." Energy Procedia 4:5653-5660.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.557
  • Motkuri RK, PK Thallapally, SK Nune, CA Fernandez, BP McGrail, and JL Atwood. 2011. "Role of hydrocarbons in pore expansion and contraction of a flexible metal-organic framework." Chemical Communications 47(25):7077-7079.  doi:10.1039/c1cc11738f
  • Schaef HT, BP McGrail, and AT Owen. 2011. " Basalt Reactivity Variability with Reservoir Depth in Supercritical CO2 and Aqueous Phases." Energy Procedia 4:4977-4984 .  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.468
  • Schaef HT, CF Windisch, Jr, BP McGrail, PF Martin, and KM Rosso. 2011. "Brucite [Mg(OH2)] Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in situ High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Study." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75(1):7458-7471.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2011.09.029
  • Sun X, CD Wick, PK Thallapally, BP McGrail, and LX Dang. 2011. "Computational study of hydrocarbon adsorption in metal-organic framework Ni2(dhtp)." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 115(12):2842-2849.  doi:10.1021/jp1115299
  • Sun X, CD Wick, PK Thallapally, BP McGrail, and LX Dang. 2011. "Molecular mechanism of hydrocarbons binding to the metal-organic framework." Chemical Physics Letters 501(4-6):455-460.  doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2010.11.070
  • Tian J, S Ma, PK Thallapally, D Fowler, BP McGrail, and JL Atwood. 2011. "Cucurbit[7]uril: an Amorphous Molecular Material for Highly Selective Carbon Dioxide Uptake." Chemical Communications 47(27):7626-7628.  doi:10.1039/C1CC12689J
  • Um W, HB Jung, PF Martin, and BP McGrail. 2011. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide ReactionPNNL-20843, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Van Iseghem P, M Aerstens, S Gin, B Grambow, DM Strachan, BP McGrail, GG Wicks, and T McMenamin. 2011. "GLAMOR - OR HOW WE ACHIEVED A COMMON UNDERSTANDING ON THE DECREASE OF GLASS DISSOLUTION KINETICS THROUGH INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION." Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science 9(1):9-12. 
  • White MD, BP McGrail, HT Schaef, JZ Hu, DW Hoyt, AR Felmy, KM Rosso, and SK Wurstner. 2011. "Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation." Energy Procedia 4:5009-5016.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.472
  • White MD, SK Wurstner, and BP McGrail. 2011. "Numerical studies of methane production from Class 1 gas hydrate accumulations enhanced with carbon dioxide injection." Marine and Petroleum Geology 28(2):546-560.  doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.06.008

2010

  • Skomurski FN, KM Rosso, KM Krupka, and BP McGrail. 2010. "Technetium incorporation into hematite (a-Fe2O3)." Environmental Science & Technology 44(15):5855-5861 . 
  • Thallapally PK, RK Motkuri, CA Fernandez, BP McGrail, and GS Behrooz. 2010. "Prussian Blue Analogues for CO2 and SO2 Capture and Separation Applications." Inorganic Chemistry 49(11):4909-4915.  doi:10.1021/ic902397w
  • Daschbach JL, X Sun, PK Thallapally, BP McGrail, and LX Dang. 2010. "Grand Canonical Monte Carlo studies of CO2 and CH4 adsorption in p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114(17):5764-5768. 
  • Fernandez CA, SK Nune, RK Motkuri, PK Thallapally, CM Wang, J Liu, GJ Exarhos, and BP McGrail. 2010. "Synthesis, characterization, and application of metal organic framework nanostructures." Langmuir 26(24):18591-18594.  doi:10.1021/la103590t
  • Glezakou VA, RJ Rousseau, LX Dang, and BP McGrail. 2010. "'Structure, Dynamics and Vibrational Spectrum of Supercritical CO2/H2O Mixtures from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics as a Function of Water Cluster Formation." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 12(31):8759-8771.  doi:10.1039/B923306G
  • Krupka KM, KJ Cantrell, and BP McGrail. 2010. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration - Literature Review PNNL-19766, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Motkuri RK, PK Thallapally, BP McGrail, and BS Ghorishi. 2010. "Dehydrated Prussian Blues for CO2 Storage and Separation Applications." CrystEngComm 12 (12):4003 - 4006.  doi:10.1039/C0CE00199F
  • Motkuri RK, J Tian, PK Thallapally, CA Fernandez, SJ Dalgarno, JE Warren, BP McGrail, and JL Atwood. 2010. "Flexible metal-organic supramolecular isomers for gas separation." Chemical Communications 46(4):538-540.  doi:10.1039/b913910a
  • Nune SK, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2010. "Metal organic gels (MOGs): a new class of sorbents for CO2 separation applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(36):7623-7625.  doi:10.1039/c0jm01907k
  • Pierce EM, LR Reed, WJ Shaw, BP McGrail, JP Icenhower, CF Windisch, Jr, EA Cordova, and JW Broady. 2010. "Experimental Determination of the Effect of the Ratio of B/Al on Glass Dissolution along the Nepheline (NaAlSiO4) - Malinkoite (NaBSiO4) Join." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74:2634-2654.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2009.09.006
  • Schaef HT, BP McGrail, and AT Owen. 2010. "Carbonate Mineralization of Volcanic Province Basalts." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 4(2 ):249-261. 
  • Tian J, RK Motkuri, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2010. "Metal-Organic Framework Isomers with Diamondoid Networks Constructed of a Semi-Rigid Tetrahedral Linker." Crystal Growth & Design 10(12):5327-5333.  doi:10.1021/cg101222w
  • Windisch CF, Jr, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2010. "Competitive Adsorption Study of CO2 and SO2 on CoII3[CoIII(CN)6]2 Using DRIFTS." Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 77(1):287-291.  doi:10.1016/j.saa.2010.05.024

2009

  • Icenhower JP, EM Pierce, and BP McGrail. 2009. "The Impact of Na-H+ Exchange on Long-Term Borosilicate Glass Corrosion: Experiments and Field Observations." In Waste Management 2009: Waste Management for the Nuclear Renaissance, March 1-5, 2009 (WM2009), Phoenix, Arizona, p. Paper No. 9404.  WM Symposia, Phoenix, AZ. 
  • McGrail BP, HT Schaef, VA Glezakou, LX Dang, and AT Owen. 2009. "Water Reactivity in the Liquid and Supercritical CO2 Phase: Has Half the Story Been Neglected?" Energy Procedia 1(1):3415-3419.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.131
  • Daschbach JL, X Sun, TM Chang, PK Thallapally, BP McGrail, and LX Dang. 2009. "Computational studies of load-dependent guest dynamics and free energies of inclusion for CO2 in low-density p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene at loadings up to 2:1 ." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 113(14):3369-3374.  doi:10.1021/jp808490g
  • Glezakou VA, LX Dang, and BP McGrail. 2009. "Spontaneous activation of CO2 and possible corrosion pathways on the low-index Iron surface Fe(100)." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(9):3691-3696. 
  • Schaef HT, BP McGrail, and AT Owen. 2009. "Basalt-CO2-H2O Interactions and Variability in Carbonate Mineralization Rates." In Energy Procedia, 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4899-4906.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
  • Schaef HT, and BP McGrail. 2009. "Dissolution of Columbia River Basalt Under Mildly Acidic Conditions as a Function of Temperature: Experimental Results Relevant to the Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide." Applied Geochemistry 24(5):980-987. 
  • Tian J, PK Thallapally, SJ Dalgarno, BP McGrail, and JL Atwood. 2009. "Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48(30):5492 -5495. 
  • Van Iseghem P, M Aerstens, S Gin, D Deneele, B Grambow, DM Strachan, BP McGrail, and GG Wicks. 2009. "GLAMOR - OR HOW WE ACHIEVED A COMMON UNDERSTANDING ON THE DECREASE OF GLASS DISSOLUTION KINETICS." Ceramic Transactions 207:115-126. 
  • Windisch CF, Jr, PK Thallapally, and BP McGrail. 2009. "Adsorption of CO2 on CoII3[CoIII(CN)6]2 Using DRIFTS." Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 74(3):629-634.  doi:10.1016/j.saa.2009.07.004

2008

  • Icenhower JP, BP McGrail, WJ Shaw, EM Pierce, P Nachimuthu, DK Shuh, EA Rodriguez, and JL Steele. 2008. "Experimentally determined dissolution kinetics of Na-rich borosilicate glass at far from equilibrium conditions: Implications for Transition State Theory." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(12):2767-2788.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.02.026
  • Pierce EM, EA Rodriguez, LJ Calligan, WJ Shaw, and BP McGrail. 2008. "An Experimental Study of the Dissolution Rates of Simulated Aluminoborosilicate Waste Glasses as a Function of pH and Temperature under Dilute Conditions." Applied Geochemistry 23(9):2559-2573.  doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2008.05.006
  • Thallapally PK, BP McGrail, SJ Dalgarno, and JL Atwood. 2008. "Gas/solvent-induced transformation and expansion of a nonporous solid to 1:1 host guest form." Crystal Growth & Design 8(7):2090-2092.  doi:10.1021/cg800347n
  • Thallapally PK, BP McGrail, SJ Dalgarno, HT Schaef, J Tian, and JL Atwood. 2008. "Gas-Induced Transformation and Expansion of a Non-Porous Organic Solid." Nature Materials 7(2):146-150.  doi:10.1038/nmat2097
  • Thallapally PK, J Tian, RK Motkuri, CA Fernandez, SJ Dalgarno, BP McGrail, JE Warren, and JL Atwood. 2008. "Flexible (Breathing) Interpenetrated Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Separation Applications." Journal of the American Chemical Society 130(50):16842-16843.  doi:10.1021/ja806391k
  • Daschbach JL, PK Thallapally, BP McGrail, and LX Dang. 2008. "Dynamics and free energies of CH4 and CO2 in the molecular solid of the p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene." Chemical Physics Letters 453(4-6):123-128.  doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2008.01.031
  • White MD, and BP McGrail. 2008. "Numerical Simulation of Methane Hydrate Production From Geologic Formations via Carbon Dioxide Injection." In Waves of Change: Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, May 5-8, 2008, Houston, TX, p. Paper No. OCT 19458.  Offshore Technology Conference, Richardson, TX. 

2007

  • McGrail BP, HT Schaef, MD White, T Zhu, AS Kulkarni, RB Hunter, SL Patil, AT Owen, and PF Martin. 2007. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary ReportPNNL-17035, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Thallapally PK, BP McGrail, and JL Atwood. 2007. "Sorption of nitrogen oxides in a nonporous crystal." Chemical Communications (15):1521-1523.  doi:10.1039/b617340c
  • Thallapally PK, BP McGrail, JL Atwood, C Gaeta, and P Neri. 2007. "Carbon Dioxide Capture in a Self-Assembled Organic Nanochannels." Chemistry of Materials 19(14):3355-3357.  doi:10.1021/cm0709121
  • Daschbach JL, PK Thallapally, JL Atwood, BP McGrail, and LX Dang. 2007. "Free energies of CO2/H-2 capture by p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene. A molecular dynamics study." Journal of Chemical Physics 127(10):Art. No. 104702. 
  • McGrail BP, S Ahmed, HT Schaef, AT Owen, PPNNL Martin, and T Zhu. 2007. "Gas Hydrate Property Measurements in Porous Sediments With Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy." Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth 112(B05202):, doi:10.1029/2005JB004084
  • Pierce EM, BP McGrail, PPNNL Martin, JC Marra, BW Arey, and KN Geiszler. 2007. "Accelerated Weathering of High-Level and Plutonium-bearing Lanthanide Borosilicate Waste Glasses under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions." Applied Geochemistry 22(9):1841-1859.  doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2007.03.056

2006

  • Icenhower JP, DM Strachan, BP McGrail, RD Scheele, EA Rodriguez, JL Steele, and VL LeGore. 2006. "Dissolution kinetics of pyrochlore ceramics for the disposition of plutonium ." American Mineralogist 91(1):39-53. 
  • Icenhower JP, DM Strachan, BP McGrail, RD Scheele, EA Rodriguez, JL Steele, and VL Legore. 2006. "Dissolution Kinetics of Pyrochlore Ceramics for the Disposition of Plutonium." American Mineralogist 91(1):39-53. 
  • Saripalli KP, VL Freedman, BP McGrail, and PD Meyer. 2006. "Characterization of the specific solid-water interfacial area-water saturation relationship and its import to reactive transport ." Vadose Zone Journal 5(2):777-783.  doi:10.2136/vzj2005.0145
  • Bagaasen LM, TM Brouns, ML Elliott, PR Hrma, DS Kim, J Matyas, EM Pierce, BP McGrail, MJ Schweiger, BE Campbell, and AE Beck. 2006. "Transport of Technetium and Rhenium into Refractory Materials during Bulk Vitrification." In Waste Management '06: Global Accomplishments in Environmental and Radioactive Waste Management: Education and Opportunity for the Next Generation of Waste Management Professionals.  WM Symposia, Tucson, AZ. 
  • Daschbach JL, TM Chang, LR Corrales, LX Dang, and BP McGrail. 2006. "Molecular mechanisms of hydrogen loaded B-hydroquinone clathrate." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 110(35):17291-17295.  doi:10.1021/jp062691c S1520-6106(06)02691-5
  • Mattigod SV, BP McGrail, DE McCready, LQ Wang, KE Parker, and JS Young. 2006. "Synthesis and Structure of Perrhenate Sodalite." Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 91(1-3):139-144. 
  • McGrail BP, HT Schaef, AM Ho, YJ Chien, JJ Dooley, and CL Davidson. 2006. "Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood Basalts." Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth 111(B12):Art. No. B12201. 
  • Ojovan MI, W Lee, A Barinov, IV Startsceva, DH Bacon, BP McGrail, and JD Vienna. 2006. "Corrosion of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil." Glass Technology 47(2):48-55. 
  • Pierce EM, BP McGrail, MM Valenta, and DM Strachan. 2006. "The Accelerated Weathering of a Radioactive Low-Activity Waste Glass Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions: Experimental Results from a Pressurized Unsaturated Flow Test." Nuclear Technology 155(2):149-165. 
  • Pierce EM, BP McGrail, LM Bagaasen, EA Rodriguez, DM Wellman, KN Geiszler, SR Baum, LR Reed, JV Crum, and HT Schaef. 2006. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance AssessmentPNNL-15126 Rev. 2, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • White MD, BP McGrail, HT Schaef, and DH Bacon. 2006. "Numerically Simulating Carbonate Mineralization of Basalt with Injection of Carbon Dioxide into Deep Saline Formations." In Proceedings of the XVI International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources (CMWR XVI), June 19-22 2006, Copenhagen, Denmark.  Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.  doi:10.4122/1.1000000368
  • White MD, and BP McGrail. 2006. "STOMP-HYD: A New Numerical Simulator for Analysis of Methane Hydrate Production from Geologic Formations." In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Gas Hydrate Technology at the 43rd Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) Annual Session, October 29 - November 3, 2006, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, ed. A Reedman, YS Park, JJ Bahk and N Chaimanee, pp. 77-86.  The Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP), Bangkok, Thailand. 

2005

2004

  • Icenhower JP, A Luttge, BP McGrail, MS Beig, RS Arvidson, EA Cordova, JL Steele, and SR Baum. 2004. "Results of Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) of Dissolved Borosilicate Glass: Evidence for Variable Surface Features and Global Surface Retreat." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXVI, vol. 757, ed. Robert J. Finch and Daniel B. Bullen, pp. 119-126.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Icenhower JP, SD Samson, A Luttge, and BP McGrail. 2004. "Towards a Consistent Rate Law: Glass Corrosion Kinetics Near Saturation." In “Energy, Waste, and the Environment - A geochemical Perspective” , ed. R. Gieré and P. Stille, pp. 579-594.  Geological Society of London, London, United Kingdom. 
  • Bacon DH, MD White, and BP McGrail. 2004. Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM): A Parallel, Coupled, Nonisothermal Multiphase Flow, Reactive Transport, and Porous Medium Alteration Simulator, Version 3.0PNNL-14783, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • McCready DE, SV Mattigod, JS Young, and BP McGrail. 2004. "X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data for Na8(AlSiO4)6(ReO4)2." In Advances in X-Ray Analysis : Proceedings of the Denver X-Ray Conference, vol. 47, International Centre for Diffraction Data, Newtown Square, PA. 
  • Pierce EM, BP McGrail, JP Icenhower, EA Cordova, JL Steele, and SR Baum. 2004. "Kinetic Rate Law Parameter Measurements on a Borosilicate Waste Glass: Effect of Temperature, pH, and Solution Composition on Alkali Ion Exchange." In American Chemical Society Division of Environmental Chemistry. Preprints of extended abstracts presented at the 228th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, PA August 22-26, 2004, vol. 44, no. 2; part 3, pp. 1151-1158.  American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 
  • Pierce EM, BP McGrail, EA Rodriguez, HT Schaef, P Saripalli, RJ Serne, KM Krupka, PF Martin, SR Baum, KN Geiszler, LR Reed, and WJ Shaw. 2004. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance AssessmentPNNL-14805, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Pierce EM, BP McGrail, LM Bagaasen, DM Wellman, JV Crum, KN Geiszler, and SR Baum. 2004. Progress Report on the Laboratory Testing of the Bulk Vitrification Cast RefractoryPNNL-14935, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Van Iseghem P, M Aetsens, K Lemmens, S Gin, D Deneele, B Grambow, BP McGrail, DM Strachan, G Wicks, and T McMenamin. 2004. "GLAMOR: A critical evaluation of the dissolution mechanisms of high-level waste glasses in conditions of relevance for geological disposal." In EURADWASTE 2004: Radioactive Waste Management Community Policy and Research Initiatives, 6th European Commission Conference on the Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste, March 29 - April 1, 2004, Luxembourg.  Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. 

2003

  • Icenhower JP, A Luttge, BP McGrail, MS Beig, RS Arvidson, EA Cordova, JL Steele, and SR Baum. 2003. "Results of Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) of Dissolved Borosilicate Glass: Evidence for Variable Surface Features and Global Surface Retreat." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Mangement XXVI: symposium held December 2-5, 2002, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 757, ed. Robert J. Finch; Daniel B. Bullen, pp. 119-126.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • McGrail BP, AM Ho, SP Reidel, and HT Schaef. 2003. "Use and Features of Basalt Formations for Geologic Sequestration." In Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, October 1-4, 2002, Kyoto, Japan , vol. II, ed. J Gale and Y Kaya, pp. 1637-1640.  Pergamon, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
  • McGrail BP, DH Bacon, PD Meyer, MI Ojovan, DM Strachan, N Ojovan, and IV Startsceva. 2003. "New Developments in Field Studies of Low Activity Waste Glass Corrosion and Contaminant Transport." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXVI: Materials Research Society Symposim Proceedings , vol. 757, ed. RJ Finch and DB Bullen, p. Paper No. 112.1.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Bacon DH, and BP McGrail. 2003. "Lessons Learned From Reactive Transport Modeling of a Low-Activity Waste Glass Disposal System." Computers & Geosciences 29(2003):361-370. 
  • Bacon DH, and BP McGrail. 2003. "Waste Form Release Calculations for Performance Assessment of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility Using a Parallel, Coupled Unsaturated Flow and Reactive Transport Simulator." In 26th Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 757, ed. Robert J. Finch and Daniel B. Bullen, pp. 43-48.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Bacon DH, MI Ojovan, BP McGrail, N Ojovan, and IV Startsceva. 2003. "Vitrified Waste Corrosion Rates From Field Experiment and Reactive Transport Modeling." In 9th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation, vol. 2, ed. Gary Benda and Fred Sheil, pp. 803-809.  American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Oxford, England. 
  • Icenhower JP, WJ Weber, NJ Hess, S Thevuthasan, BD Begg, BP McGrail, EA Cordova, JL Steele, and KN Geiszler. 2003. "Experimental Determination of Dissolution Kinetics of Zr-Substituted Gd-Ti Pyrochlore Ceramics: Influence of Chemistry on Corrosion Resistance." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXVI, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 757, ed. RJ Finch and DB Bullen, pp. 227-234, paper no. II6.1.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • McGrail BP, DH Bacon, RJ Serne, and EM Pierce. 2003. A Strategy to Assess Performance of Selected Low-Activity Waste Forms in an Integrated Disposal FacilityPNNL-14362, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • McGrail BP, EM Pierce, HT Schaef, EA Rodriguez, JL Steele, AT Owen, and DM Wellman. 2003. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified and Steam Reformed Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support A Preliminary Risk Assessment for an Integrated Disposal FacilityPNNL-14414, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • White MD, and BP McGrail. 2003. "Numerical Investigations of Multifluid Hydrodynamics During Injection of Supercritical CO2 into Porous Media." In 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-6), 30th September-4th October, 2002, vol. I, ed. J. Gale and Y. Kaya, pp. 449-456.  Pergamon, Oxford, United Kingdom. 

2002

  • Saripalli KP, RJ Serne, PD Meyer, and BP McGrail. 2002. "Prediction of Diffusion Coefficients in Porous Media using Tortuosity Factors Based on Interfacial Areas ." Ground Water 40(4):346-352. 
  • Saripalli P, and BP McGrail. 2002. "Semi-analytical approaches to modeling deep well injection of CO2 for geological sequestration." Energy Conversion and Management 43(2):185-198. 
  • Saripalli P, BP McGrail, and DC Girven. 2002. "Adsorption of Molybdenum on to Anatase from Dilute Aqueous Solutions." Applied Geochemistry 17(5):649-656. 
  • Saripalli P, BP McGrail, and DC Girvin. 2002. "Adsorption of molybdenum on to anatase from dilute aqueous solutions." Applied Geochemistry 17(5):649-656. 
  • Bacon DH, and BP McGrail. 2002. Effect of Design Changes On Remote Handled Trench Waste Form Release CalculationsPNNL-13947, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Bacon DH, BP McGrail, VL Freedman, G Ventura, PN Risoluti, and KM Krupka. 2002. "Performance Assessment of Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Using Coupled Unsaturated Flow and Reactive Transport Simulators." In Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XXV : symposium held November 26-29, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts; Materials Research Society symposium proceedings , vol. 713, ed. McGrail, B. P.; Cragnolino, G. A., pp. 267-274.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Bredt PR, CC Ainsworth, FJ Brockman, DM Camaioni, OB Egorov, AR Felmy, YA Gorby, JW Grate, MS Greenwood, BP Hay, NJ Hess, TL Hubler, JP Icenhower, SV Mattigod, BP McGrail, PD Meyer, CJ Murray, PD Panetta, DM Pfund, D Rai, Y Su, SK Sundaram, WJ Weber, and JM Zachara. 2002. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards -- Fiscal Year 2002 Mid-Year Progress ReportPNNL-13928, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Icenhower JP, BP McGrail, DM Strachan, RD Scheele, VL Legore, EA Cordova, JL Steele, CF Brown, and MJ O'Hara. 2002. "Experimental Determination of the Dissolution Kinetics of Plutonium- and Uranium-Bearing Ceramics at 90 degrees C." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 713, ed. B.P. McGrail and G.A. Cragnolino, pp. 433-440 paper no. JJ11.38.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Icenhower JP, BP McGrail, WJ Weber, BD Begg, NJ Hess, EA Cordova, JL Steele, CF Brown, and MJ O'Hara. 2002. "Dissolution of A2Ti2O7 (A = Y3?, Gd3?, or Lu3?) Pyrochlore by Experiment at pH = 2, T = 90 C: Evidence for Solubility Control Using a Linear Free Energy Model." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 713, ed. BP McGrail and GA Cragnolino, pp. 397-403 paper no. JJ6.2.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Mattigod SV, RJ Serne, BP McGrail, and VL Legore. 2002. "Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals from Chemical Weathering of Waste Glasses." In MRS Symposium , vol. 713, pp. 597-606.  Materials Research Society , Warrendale, PA. 
  • McGrail BP, JP Icenhower, and EA Cordova. 2002. "Origins of Discrepancies Between Kinetic Rate Law Theory and Experiments in the Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 System." In Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XXV: Symposium held November 26-29, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, vol. 713, ed. McGrail, B.P. and Cragnolino, G. A., pp. 537-546.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Shutthanandan V, DR Baer, S Thevuthasan, EM Adams, S Maheswaran, MH Engelhard, JP Icenhower, and BP McGrail. 2002. "High Energy Ion Beam Studies of Ion Exchange in a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass." Journal of Applied Physics 91(4):1910-1920. 

2001

  • McGrail BP. 2001. "Inverse Reactive Transport Simulator (Inverts): An Inverse Model for Contaminant Transport with Nonlinear Adsorption and Source Terms." Environmental Modelling & Software, with Environmental Data News 16(8):711-723. 
  • Bacon DH, and BP McGrail. 2001. Waste Form Release Calculations for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance AssessmentPNNL-13369, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Begg BD, NJ Hess, WJ Weber, R Devanathan, JP Icenhower, S Thevuthasan, and BP McGrail. 2001. "Heavy-Ion Irradiation Effects on Structures and Acid Dissolution of Pyrochlores." Journal of Nuclear Materials 288(2-3):208-216. 
  • McGrail BP, JP Icenhower, DK Shuh, P Liu, JG Darab, DR Baer, S Thevuthasan, V Shutthanandan, MH Engelhard, CH Booth, and P Nachimuthu. 2001. "The Structure of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass: Impact on Sodium Ion Exchange in H2O and D2O." Journal of Non-crystalline Solids 296:10-26. 
  • McGrail BP, JP Icenhower, PF Martin, HT Schaef, MJ O'Hara, E Rodriguez, and JL Steele. 2001. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance AssessmentPNNL-13043 Rev.2, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • McGrail BP, DH Bacon, JP Icenhower, FM Mann, RJ Puigh, HT Schaef, and SV Mattigod. 2001. "Near-Field Performance Assessment for a Low-Activity Waste Glass Disposal System: Laboratory Testing to Modeling Results." Journal of Nuclear Materials 298(1-2):95-111. 
  • McGrail BP, PF Martin, KP Saripalli, SL Bryant, and BM Sass. 2001. "Use of Forced Mineral Trapping for Sequestration of CO2." In First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration.  National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV. 
  • Meyer PD, BP McGrail, and DH Bacon. 2001. Test Plan for Field Experiments to Support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Performance Assessment at the Hanford SitePNNL-13670, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Nozaki A, BP McGrail, MJ Fayer, and KP Saripalli. 2001. "A Coupled Mechanical-Chemical Stability Analysis for a Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site." Computers & Structures 79(16):1503-1516. 
  • Rai D, Y Xia, NJ Hess, DM Strachan, and BP McGrail. 2001. "Hydroxo and Chloro Complexes/Ion-Interactions of Hf4+ and the Solubility Product of HfO2(am)." Journal of Solution Chemistry 30(11):949-967. 
  • Shutthanandan V, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, EM Adams, S Maheswaran, MH Engelhard, JP Icenhower, and BP McGrail. 2001. "Investigation of Alkali Ion Exchange Processes in Waste Glasses Using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Nuclear Reaction Analysis." In Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry: sixteenth international conference, Denton, Texas, 1-5 November 2000, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 576, ed. J. L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan, pp. 454-457.  American Institute of Physics, New York, NY. 

2000

  • Icenhower JP, BP McGrail, HT Schaef, and EA Cordova. 2000. "Dissolution Kinetics of Titanium Pyrochlore Ceramics at 90?C by Single-Pass Flow-Through Experiments." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXIII, vol. 23, ed. R.W. Smith and D.W. Shoesmith, pp. 373-378 .  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • McGrail BP, PF Martin, HT Schaef, CW Lindenmeier, and AT Owen. 2000. "Glass/Ceramic Interactions in the Can-In-Canister Configuration for Disposal of Excess Weapons Plutonium." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXIII, Symposium, 29 Nov.-2 Dec.1999, Boston, MA, USA. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 608, pp. 345-352.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Abraitis PK, BP McGrail, DP Trivedi, FR Livens, and DJ Vaughan. 2000. "Single-pass flow-through experiments on a simulated waste glass in alkaline media at 40 degrees C. I. Experiments conducted at variable solution flow rate to glass surface area ratio." Journal of Nuclear Materials 280(2):196-205. 
  • Abraitis PK, BP McGrail, DP Trivedi, FR Livens, and DJ Vaughan. 2000. "Single-pass flow-through experiments on a simulated waste glass in alkaline media at 40 degrees C. II. Experiments conducted with buffer solutions containing controlled quantities of Si and Al." Journal of Nuclear Materials 280(2):206-215. 
  • Bacon DH, MD White, and BP McGrail. 2000. Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM): A General, Coupled, Nonisothermal Multiphase Flow, Reactive Transport, and Porous Medium Alteration Simulator, Version 2, User's GuidePNNL-13108, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Begg BD, WJ Weber, R Devanathan, JP Icenhower, S Thevuthasan, and BP McGrail. 2000. "Heavy-Ion Irradiation Effects in Pyrochlores." In Environmental Issues and Waste Management Technologies in the Ceramic and Nuclear Industries V, Ceramic Transactions, vol. 107, ed. G.T. Chandler and X. Feng, pp. 553-560.  The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH. 
  • McGrail BP, JP Icenhower, PF Martin, DR Rector, HT Schaef, EA Rodriguez, and JL Steele. 2000. Low-Activity Waste Glass Studies: FY2000 Summary ReportPNNL-13381, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Vienna JD, A Jiricka, BP McGrail, BM Jorgensen, DE Smith, BR Allen, JC Marra, DK Peeler, KG Brown, IA Reamer, and WL Ebert. 2000. Hanford Immobilized LAW Product Acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package PNNL-13101, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Weber WJ, LR Corrales, NJ Ness, RE Williford, HL Heinisch, S Thevuthasan, JP Icenhower, BP McGrail, R Devanathan, RM Van Ginhoven, J Song, B Park, W Jiang, BD Begg, RB Birtcher, X Chen, and SD Conradson. 2000. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste MaterialsPNNL-13345, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • White MD, and BP McGrail. 2000. "Designing a Pilot-Scale Experiment for the Production of Natural Gas Hydrates and Sequestration of CO2 in Class 1 Hydrate Accumulations." In Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies 9, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-9), November 16-20 2008, Washington DC. Energy Procedia, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3099-3106.  Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.090

1999

  • McGrail BP, CW Lindenmeier, and PF Martin. 1999. "Characterization of pore structure and hydraulic property alteration in pressurized unsaturated flow tests." In Scientific Basis For Nuclear Waste Management XXII, Materials Research Society Symosium Proceedings, vol. 556, pp. 421-428.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • McGrail BP, PF Martin, CW Lindenmeier, and HT Schaef. 1999. "Application of the Pressurised Unsaturated Flow (PUF) Test for Accelerated Ageing of Waste Forms." In Ageing Studies and Lifetime Extension of Materials, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ageing Studies and Lifetime Extension of Materials, ed. Leslie G. Mallinson, pp. 313-320.  Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY. 
  • Abraitis PK, BP McGrail, and DP Trivedi. 1999. "The Effects of Silicic Acid, Aluminate Ion Activity and Hydrosilicate Gel Development on the Dissolution Rate of a Simulated British Magnox Waste Glass." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXII, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Symposium held Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1998, Boston, MA., vol. 556, ed. David J. Wronkiewicz; Joon H. Lee, pp. 401-408.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Darab JG, JC Linehan, and BP McGrail. 1999. "NMR characterization of simulated Hanford low-activity waste glasses and its use in understanding waste form chemical durability." In Scientific Basis For Nuclear Waste Management XXII, Materials Research Society Symposium Procedings, vol. 556, pp. 337-344.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale. 
  • Mattigod SV, and BP McGrail. 1999. "Estimating the standard free energy of formation of zeolites using the polymer model." Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 27(1):41-47. 

1998

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