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Energy and Environment Directorate

Mark Rockhold

Mark Rockhold

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-2516

Research Interests

  • Physical, chemical, and biological processes and interactions in soils and groundwater
  • Surface and interfacial phenomena
  • Development and application of numerical flow and transport models
  • Reactive transport modeling
  • Parameterization methods for field-scale applications of flow and transport models in heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media
  • Stochastic and conditional simulation methods
  • Geostatistics
  • Uncertainty analysis

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Bioresource Engineering (Water Resources), Oregon State University, 2002
  • M.S., Agronomy (Soil Physics), Kansas State University, 1988
  • B.S., Geology, Kansas State University, 1984

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member of the American Geophysical Union (AGU)
  • Soil Science Society of America
  • Reviewer for Water Resources Research, Advances in Water Resources, Vadose Zone Journal, Soil Science Society of America Journal, Journal of Environmental Quality, Hydrogeology Journal

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2001 Outstanding Student Paper Award, AGU Hydrol. Section, Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA
  • 1999 Myron G. Cropsey Agricultural Engineering Scholarship, Dept. of Bioengineering, OSU
  • Sigma Gamma Epsilon ‚Äď Honorary Earth Science Society

PNNL Publications

2017

2016

  • Gilmore TJ, AH Bonneville, EC Sullivan, ME Kelley, D Appriou, VR Vermeul, SK White, Z Zhang, BN Bjornstad, F Cornet, JL Gerst, N Gupta, G Hund, JA Horner, GV Last, DC Lanigan, M Oostrom, C McNeil, MA Moody, ML Rockhold, ML Elliott, FA Spane, CE Strickland, LL Swartz, PD Thorne, CF Brown, J Hoffmann, and KK Humphreys, JR. 2016. "Characterization and Design of the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Storage Site." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 53:1-10.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.022
  • Rockhold ML, ZF Zhang, and YJ Bott. 2016. Scale-Dependent Solute Dispersion in Variably Saturated Porous MediaPNNL-25146, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2015

2014

  • Freedman VL, X Chen, SA Finsterle, MD Freshley, I Gorton, LJ Gosink, E Keating, C Lansing, WAM Moeglein, CJ Murray, GSH Pau, EA Porter, S Purohit, ML Rockhold, KL Schuchardt, C Sivaramakrishnan, VV Vesselinov, and SR Waichler. 2014. "A high-performance workflow system for subsurface simulation." Environmental Modelling & Software 55:176-189.  doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.01.030

2013

  • Chen X, GE Hammond, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, VR Vermeul, and JM Zachara. 2013. "Applications of Ensemble-based Data Assimilation Techniques for Aquifer Characterization using Tracer Data at Hanford 300 Area." Water Resources Research 49:1-13.  doi:10.1002/2012WR013285
  • Rockhold ML, DH Bacon, VL Freedman, KR Parker, SR Waichler, and MD Williams. 2013. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive TransportPNNL-22886;RPT-DVZ-AFRI-019, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Stegen JC, X Lin, JK Fredrickson, X Chen, DW Kennedy, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, and A Konopka. 2013. "Quantifying Community Assembly Processes and Identifying Features that Impose Them." The ISME Journal 7:2069-2079.  doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.93
  • Zachara JM, PE Long, J Bargar, JA Davis, PM Fox, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, A Konopka, C Liu, JP McKinley, ML Rockhold, KH Williams, and SB Yabusaki. 2013. "Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 147:45-72.  doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.02.001

2012

  • Chen X, H Murakami, MS Hahn, GE Hammond, ML Rockhold, JM Zachara, and Y Rubin. 2012. "Three-Dimensional Bayesian Geostatistical Aquifer Characterization at the Hanford 300 Area using Tracer Test Data." Water Resources Research 48:Article No. W06501.  doi:10.1029/2011WR010675
  • Hou Z, ML Rockhold, and CJ Murray. 2012. "Evaluating the impact of caprock and reservoir properties on potential risk of CO2 leakage after injection." Environmental Earth Sciences 66(8):2403-2415.  doi:10.1007/s12665-011-1465-2
  • Johnson TC, RJ Versteeg, ML Rockhold, LD Slater, D Ntarlagiannis, WJ Greenwood, and JM Zachara. 2012. "Characterization of a contaminated wellfield using 3D electrical resistivity tomography implemented with geostatistical, discontinuous boundary, and known conductivity constraints." Geophysics 77(6):Article No. EN85.  doi:10.1190/geo2012-0121.1
  • Rockhold ML, DH Bacon, VL Freedman, MJ Lindberg, and RE Clayton. 2012. Numerical Modeling of 90Sr and 137Cs Transport from a Spill in the B-Cell of the 324 Building, Hanford Site 300 Area PNNL-21214, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Zachara JM, BN Bjornstad, JN Christensen, MS Conrad, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, R Haggerty, GE Hammond, DB Kent, A Konopka, PC Lichtner, C Liu, JP McKinley, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, Y Rubin, VR Vermeul, RJ Versteeg, and C Zheng. 2012. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanfordís 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2011 to January 2012PNNL-21169, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2011

  • Bonneville A, GD Black, I Gorton, PSY Hui, EM Murphy, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, KL Schuchardt, C Sivaramakrishnan, MD White, MD Williams, and SK Wurstner. 2011. "Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3): a collaborative approach to the management of geological GHG storage projects ." In Proceedings of the 10th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference (GHGT10), September 19-23, 2010, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Energy Procedia, vol. 4, ed. J Gale, C Hendriks W Turkenberg, pp. 3825-3832.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.318
  • Hammond GE, PC Lichtner, and ML Rockhold. 2011. "Stochastic Simulation of Uranium Migration at the Hanford 300 Area." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 120-121:115-128.  doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.04.005
  • Zachara JM, BN Bjornstad, JN Christensen, MS Conrad, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, R Haggerty, GE Hammond, DB Kent, A Konopka, PC Lichtner, C Liu, JP McKinley, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, Y Rubin, VR Vermeul, RJ Versteeg, AL Ward, and C Zheng. 2011. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanfordís 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2010 to January 2011PNNL-20257, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2010

  • Ma R, C Zheng, H Prommer, J Greskowiak, C Liu, JM Zachara, and ML Rockhold. 2010. "A Field-Scale Reactive Transport Model for U(VI) Migration Influenced by Coupled Multirate Mass Transfer and Surface Complexation Reactions." Water Resources Research 46:Art. No. W05509.  doi:10.1029/2009WR008168
  • Murakami H, X Chen, MS Hahn, Y Liu, ML Rockhold, VR Vermeul, JM Zachara, and Y Rubin. 2010. "Bayesian approach for three-dimensional aquifer characterization at the Hanford 300 Area." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 14:1989-2001.  doi:10.5194/hess-14-1989-2010
  • Rockhold ML, GV Last, and LA Middleton. 2010. Prototype Data Models and Data Dictionaries for Hanford Sediment Physical and Hydraulic PropertiesPNNL-19817, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Schuchardt KL, K Agarwal, JM Chase, ML Rockhold, VL Freedman, TO Elsethagen, TD Scheibe, G Chin, Jr, and C Sivaramakrishnan. 2010. "Task parallel sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation of groundwater simulations through the SALSSA framework." In Proceedings of the 2010 Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference, July 11-15, 2010, Cattanooga, Tennessee, pp. 233-237.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 
  • Szecsody JE, VR Vermeul, JS Fruchter, MD Williams, ML Rockhold, N Qafoku, and JL Phillips. 2010. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core AnalysisPNNL-19524, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Zachara JM, BN Bjornstad, JN Christensen, ME Conrad, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, R Haggerty, G Hammon, DB Kent, A Konopka, PC Lichtner, C Liu, JP McKinley, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, Y Rubin, VR Vermeul, RJ Versteeg, AL Ward, and C Zheng. 2010. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanfordís 300 Area Uranium PlumePNNL-19209, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2009

2008

2007

  • Gee GW, M Oostrom, MD Freshley, ML Rockhold, and JM Zachara. 2007. "Hanford Site Vadose-Zone Studies: An Overview." Vadose Zone Journal 6(4):899-905.  doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0179
  • Knight RJ, JD Irving, P Tercier, EJ Freeman, CJ Murray, and ML Rockhold. 2007. "A Comparison of the Use of Radar Images and Neutron Probe Data to Determine the Horizontal Correlation Length of Water Content ." In Subsurface Hydrology: Data Integration for Properties and Processes: Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 171, ed. David W. Hyndman, Frederick D. Day-Lewis, Kamini Singha, pp. 31-44.  American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. 
  • Last GV, CJ Murray, DA Bush, EC Sullivan, ML Rockhold, RD Mackley, and BN Bjornstad. 2007. "Standardization of Borehole Data to Support Vadose Zone Flow and Transport Modeling." Vadose Zone Journal 6(4):906-912.  doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0175
  • Meyer PD, M Ye, ML Rockhold, SP Neuman, and KJ Cantrell. 2007. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 AreaNUREG/CR-6940; PNNL-16396, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Oostrom M, ML Rockhold, PD Thorne, MJ Truex, GV Last, and VJ Rohay. 2007. "Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site." Vadose Zone Journal 6(4):971-984.  doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0166
  • Vermeul VR, MD Williams, BG Fritz, RD Mackley, DP Mendoza, DR Newcomer, ML Rockhold, BA Williams, and DM Wellman. 2007. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate InjectionPNNL-16571, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Williams BA, CF Brown, W Um, MJ Nimmons, RE Peterson, BN Bjornstad, DC Lanigan, RJ Serne, FA Spane, and ML Rockhold. 2007. Limited Field Investigation Report for Uranium Contamination in the 300 Area, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, WashingtonPNNL-16435, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2006

2005

2004

2003

  • Chen G, ML Rockhold, and KA Strevett. 2003. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Adsorption of Bacteria on Alluvial Sand and Surface Thermodynamic Interpretation." Research in Microbiology 154:175-181. 

2002

  • Rockhold ML, RR Yarwood, MR Niemet, PJ Bottomley, and JS Selker. 2002. "Considerations for Modeling Bacterial-Induced Changes in Hydraulic Properties of Variably Saturated Porous Media." Advances in Water Resources 25(5):477-495.  doi:10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00023-4
  • Yarwood R, ML Rockhold, M Niemet, JS Selker, and PJ Bottomley. 2002. "Noninvasive Quantitative Measurement of Bacterial Growth in Porous Media Under Unsaturated-Flow Conditions." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68(7):3597-3605. 

1999

  • Meyer PD, GW Gee, and ML Rockhold. 1999. "Characterization of Soil Hydraulic Parameter Uncertainty." In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Characterization and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media. Oct. 22-24, 1997, ed. M. Th. van Genuchten F. J. Leij and L. Wu, pp. 1439-1451.  U.C. Riverside Press, Riverside, CA. 
  • Rockhold ML, CJ Murray, and MJ Fayer. 1999. "Conditional simulation and upscaling of soil hydraulic properties." In Characterization and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media, vol. 2, ed. M. Th. van Genuchten, F. J. Leij, and L. Wu, pp. 1391-1401.  University of California Press, Riverside, CA. 

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