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Energy and Environment Directorate

Mark White

Mark White

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 372-6070


Dr. Mark White, STOMP Simulator Development Team Lead, PNNL. Dr. White roots in numerical simulation are grounded in the development and application of codes for investigating the thermal performance of conventional and unconventional Trombé walls, including those with rotating and phase-change materials and air flow patterns within passive solar buildings, having been originally educated in computational fluid dynamics for aeronautical design. After working for a period of approximately 5 years on numerical simulation applications involving ablative materials and nuclear power plant accidents, Dr. White started the development of a multi-fluid nonisothermal numerical simulator for modeling the performance of the then proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This code was the predecessor to the STOMP suite of numerical simulators (, which Dr. White has been developing, applying, and licensing for more than 20 years to engineers and scientists internationally. Development of the STOMP simulator has been largely been driven by the needs of the U.S. Department of Energy, but also industrial and foreign governmental clients. Whereas the code architecture has remained effectively unchanged over the course of its development, the variety of problems and coupled processes modeled by the STOMP suite of simulators keeps the development work challenging, with applications in environmental restoration, nuclear waste repositories, volatile organic contamination, salt-water intrusion, mineralization of supercritical CO2 in basalts, surface covers, soil desiccation, enhanced geothermal systems, carbon sequestration, gas-hydrate production, oil shale production, enhanced oil recovery, and perhaps mine pools in the near future. A critical and enjoyable element of Dr. White’s responsibilities is in the transfer of the simulation technology, embodied in the STOMP simulator, to students, colleagues, and clients. Dr. White has been the lead instructor at 18 STOMP short courses.

Research Interests

  • Parallel implementations of subsurface flow and reactive transport simulators
  • Field application and numerical modeling of environmental remediation technologies
  • Thermodynamics of frozen soils
  • Numerical modeling of multiple-phase subsurface flow and transport
  • Theoretical and applied soil physics of fluid entrapment, mobilization and dissolution.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, 1986
  • M.S., Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, 1981
  • B.S., Biophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 1977

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Professional Engineer, Colorado State Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Professional Land Surveyors
  • American Geophysical Union

PNNL Publications


  • Nguyen BN, Z Hou, DH Bacon, and MD White. 2017. "A Multiscale Hydro-Geochemical-Mechanical Approach to Analyze Faulted CO2 Reservoirs." Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 7(1):106-127.  doi:10.1002/ghg.1616


  • Nguyen BN, Z Hou, DH Bacon, CJ Murray, and MD White. 2016. "Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 46:100-115.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.01.004
  • Zhang ZF, M Oostrom, and MD White. 2016. "Relative Permeability for Multiphase Flow for Oven-Dry to Full Saturation Conditions." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 49:259-266.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.02.029
  • Ahmmed B, MS Appold, T Fan, BJ McPherson, RB Grigg, and MD White. 2016. "Chemical effects of carbon dioxide sequestration in the Upper Morrow Sandstone in the Farnsworth, Texas, hydrocarbon unit." Environmental Geosciences 23(2):81-93.  doi:10.1306/eg.09031515006
  • Fu P, M Mcclure, S Shiozawa, and MD White. 2016. "Revisiting Fenton Hill Phase I reservoir creation and stimulation mechanisms through the GTO code comparison effort." In 50th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, June 26-29, 2016, Houston, Texas, pp. Paper No. ARMA 16-0841.  American Rock Mechanics Association, Alexandria, VA. 
  • Matos De Souza M, M Oostrom, MD White, G Cardoso Da Silva, and MC Barbosa. 2016. "Simulation of Subsurface Multiphase Contaminant Extraction using a Bioslurping Well Model." Transport in Porous Media 114(3):649-673.  doi:10.1007/s11242-016-0738-3
  • Oostrom M, MD White, SL Porse, C Krevor, and S Mathias. 2016. "Comparison of Relative Permeability-Saturation-Capillary Pressure Models for Simulation of Reservoir CO2 Injection." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 45:70-85.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.12.013
  • White MD, R Podgorney, SM Kelkar, MW McClure, G Danko, A Ghassemi, P Fu, D Bahrami, C Barbier, Q Cheng, KK Chiu, C Detournay, D Elsworth, Y Fang, JK Furtney, Q Gan, Q Gao, B Guo, Y Hao, RN Horne, K Huang, K Im, J Norbeck, J Rutqvist, MR Safari, V Sesetty, E Sonnenthal, Q Tao, SK White, Y Wong, and Y Xia. 2016. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison StudyPNNL-26016, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • White MD, and BR Phillips. 2015. "Code Comparison Study Fosters Confidence in the Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems." In Proceedings of the 40th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, January 26-28, 2015, Stanford, California, pp. Paper No. SGP-TR-204.  Stanford University, STANFORD, CA. 
  • Zhang ZF, SK White, and MD White. 2015. "Delineating the Horizontal Plume Extent and CO2 Distribution at Geologic Sequestration Sites." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 43:141-148.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.10.018
  • Bacon DH, CMR Yonkofski, HT Schaef, MD White, and BP McGrail. 2015. "CO2 Storage by Sorption on Organic Matter and Clay in Gas Shale." Journal of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources 12:123-133.  doi:10.1016/j.juogr.2015.09.004


  • White MD, and WS Lee. 2014. "Guest Molecule Exchange Kinetics for the 2012 Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Field Trial." In Offshore Technology Conference (OTC2014) , May 5-8, Houston, Texas, pp. Paper No. OTC-25374-MS.  Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX. 
  • White MD, BJ McPherson, RB Grigg, W Ampomah, and MS Appold. 2014. "Numerical Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Western Section of the Farnsworth Unit." Energy Procedia 63:7891-7912.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.825
  • Anderson B, R Boswell, TS Collett, H Farrell, S Ohtsuka, and MD White. 2014. "REVIEW OF THE FINDINGS OF THE IGNIK SIKUMI CO2-CH4 GAS HYDRATE EXCHANGE FIELD TRIAL." In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH8-2014), July 28-August 1, 2014, Beijing, China.  China Geological Survey, Beijing, China. 


  • Cheng CL, MJ Gragg, E Perfect, MD White, PJ Lemiszki, and LD McKay. 2013. "Sensitivity of injection costs to input petrophysical parameters in numerical geologic carbon sequestration models." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 18:277-284.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.07.018
  • Scheibe TD, MD White, SK White, C Sivaramakrishnan, S Purohit, GD Black, R Podgorney, LW Boyd, and BR Phillips. 2013. "Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems: A Benchmarking and Code Intercomparison Study." In MODFLOW and More 2013: Translating Science into Practice, June 2-5, Golden, Colorado.  Integrated Ground Water Modeling Center, Golden, CO. 
  • Scheibe TD, MD White, and SK White. 2013. Outcomes of the 2013 GTO Workshop on Geothermal Code ComparisonPNNL-22303, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • White MD, DH Bacon, SK White, and ZF Zhang. 2013. "Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production." Energy Procedia 37:3960-3970.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.295



  • Bonneville A, GD Black, I Gorton, PSY Hui, EM Murphy, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, KL Schuchardt, C Sivaramakrishnan, MD White, MD Williams, and SK Wurstner. 2011. "Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3): a collaborative approach to the management of geological GHG storage projects ." In Proceedings of the 10th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference (GHGT10), September 19-23, 2010, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Energy Procedia, vol. 4, ed. J Gale, C Hendriks W Turkenberg, pp. 3825-3832.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.318
  • White MD. 2011. "Impact of Kinetics on the Injectivity of Liquid CO2 into Arctic Hydrates." In Arctic Technology Conference, February 7-9, 2011, Houston, Texas.  Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX.  doi:10.4043/22151-MS
  • Anderson B, M Kurihara, MD White, GJ Moridis, SJ Wilson, M Pooladi-Darvish, M Gaddipati, Y Masuda, TS Collett, RB Hunter, H Narita, KK Rose, and R Boswell. 2011. "Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope." Marine and Petroleum Geology 28(2):493-501 .  doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2010.01.015
  • White MD, BP McGrail, HT Schaef, JZ Hu, DW Hoyt, AR Felmy, KM Rosso, and SK Wurstner. 2011. "Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation." Energy Procedia 4:5009-5016.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.472
  • White MD, SK Wurstner, and BP McGrail. 2011. "Numerical studies of methane production from Class 1 gas hydrate accumulations enhanced with carbon dioxide injection." Marine and Petroleum Geology 28(2):546-560.  doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.06.008


  • Bacon DH, MD White, N Gupta, JR Sminchak, and ME Kelley. 2009. "CO2 Sequestration Potential in the Rose Run Formation at the Mountaineer Power Plant, New Haven, West Virginia." In Carbon dioxide sequestration in geological media- State of the science: AAPG Studies in Geology 59, pp. 553-570.  American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK. 


  • White MD, and BP McGrail. 2008. "Numerical Simulation of Methane Hydrate Production From Geologic Formations via Carbon Dioxide Injection." In Waves of Change: Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, May 5-8, 2008, Houston, TX, p. Paper No. OCT 19458.  Offshore Technology Conference, Richardson, TX. 
  • White MD, M Oostrom, ML Rockhold, and M Rosing. 2008. "Scalable Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Migration at the Hanford Site Using the STOMP Simulator." Vadose Zone Journal 7(2):654-666.  doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0070



  • White MD, and M Oostrom. 2006. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases, Version 4.0, User's Guide PNNL-15782, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Bacon DH, MD White, N Gupta, JR Sminchak, and ME Kelley. 2006. "Assessment of CO2 Injection Potential and Monitoring Well Location at the Mountaineer Power Plant Site." In 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies: GHGT-8, 19-22 June, 2006, Trondheim, Norway , p. 6 pages.  Elsevier Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
  • Ward AL, ME Conrad, WD Daily, JB Fink, VL Freedman, GW Gee, GM Hoversten, JM Keller, EL Majer, CJ Murray, MD White, SB Yabusaki, and ZF Zhang. 2006. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report PNNL-15443, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • White MD, BP McGrail, HT Schaef, and DH Bacon. 2006. "Numerically Simulating Carbonate Mineralization of Basalt with Injection of Carbon Dioxide into Deep Saline Formations." In Proceedings of the XVI International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources (CMWR XVI), June 19-22 2006, Copenhagen, Denmark.  Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.  doi:10.4122/1.1000000368
  • White MD, and AL Ward. 2006. "Numerical simulation of surface barriers for shrub-steppe ecoregions." In 25th Annual American Geophysical Union Hydrology Days, March 7-9, 2005, ed. JA Ramirez, pp. 224-236.  Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 
  • White MD, and BP McGrail. 2006. "STOMP-HYD: A New Numerical Simulator for Analysis of Methane Hydrate Production from Geologic Formations." In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Gas Hydrate Technology at the 43rd Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) Annual Session, October 29 - November 3, 2006, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, ed. A Reedman, YS Park, JJ Bahk and N Chaimanee, pp. 77-86.  The Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP), Bangkok, Thailand. 






  • White MD, and M Oostrom. 2001. "NAPL migration in response to hydraulic controls at the Brooklawn Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana." In Proceedings of the 21st American Geophysical Union Hydrology Days, pp. 241-254.  Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO. 
  • Ataie-Ashtiani B, SM Hassanizadeh, M Oostrom, MA Celia, and MD White. 2001. "Effective parameters for two-phase flow in a porous medium with periodic heterogeneities." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 49(1-2):87-109. 
  • Ataie-Ashtiani B, SM Hassanizadeh, M Oostrom, MA Celia, and MD White. 2001. "Numerical simulation and homogenization of two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 49:87-109. 
  • Oostrom M, MD White, and ML Brusseau. 2001. "Theoretical Estimation of Free and Entrapped Nonwetting-Wetting Fluid Interfacial Areas in Porous Media ." Advances in Water Resources 24(8):887-898. 


  • Ataie-Ashtiani B, SM Hassanizadeh, M Oostrom, and MD White. 2000. "Numerical simulation and homogenization of two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media ." In Groundwater Updates, Proceedings of the IAHR International Symposium on Groundwater, Tokyo, Japan, ed. K. Sato, Y. Iwasa, pp. 333-338.  Springer, New York, NY. 
  • Ataie-Ashtiani B, SM Hassanizadeh, MA Celia, M Oostrom, and MD White. 2000. "Effective two-phase flow parameters for heterogeneous porous media ." In Computational methods in water resources XIII : Proceedings of the XIII International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 25-29, June 2000, ed. Laurence R. Bentley, pp. 755-762.  A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 
  • Bacon DH, MD White, and BP McGrail. 2000. Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM): A General, Coupled, Nonisothermal Multiphase Flow, Reactive Transport, and Porous Medium Alteration Simulator, Version 2, User's GuidePNNL-13108, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • White MD, and BP McGrail. 2000. "Designing a Pilot-Scale Experiment for the Production of Natural Gas Hydrates and Sequestration of CO2 in Class 1 Hydrate Accumulations." In Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies 9, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-9), November 16-20 2008, Washington DC. Energy Procedia, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3099-3106.  Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.090



  • White MD, and M Oostrom. 1998. "Modeling surfactant-enhanced nonaqueous-phase liquid remediation of porous media." Soil Science 163(12):931-940. 
  • Schroth MH, JD Istok, JS Selker, M Oostrom, and MD White. 1998. "Multifluid flow in bedded porous media: laboratory experiments and numerical simulations." Advances in Water Resources 22(2):169-183. 

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas