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Energy and Environment Directorate

Publications

Coastal Modeling Group

76 publications found:

2016

  • Copping A.E., S.A. Breithaupt, J.M. Whiting, M.E. Grear, J.D. Tagestad, and G.A. Shelton. 2016. "Likelihood of a Marine Vessel Accident from Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic." Wind Energy 19, no. 9:1557-1566. PNNL-SA-108588. doi:10.1002/we.1935
  • Xuan J., Z. Yang, D. Huang, T. Wang, and F. Zhou. 2016. "Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank." Journal of Marine Systems 154, no. Part A:66-81. PNNL-SA-109787. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2015.04.005

2015

  • Copping A.E., L.A. Hanna, F.B. Van Cleve, K.M. Blake, and R.M. Anderson. 2015. "Environmental Risk Evaluation System – An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments." Estuaries and Coasts 38, no. 1:S287-S302. PNNL-SA-102166. doi:10.1007/s12237-014-9816-3
  • Wang T., and Z. Yang. 2015. "Understanding the Flushing Capability of Bellingham Bay and Its Implication on Bottom Water Hypoxia." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 165. PNNL-SA-109990. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2015.04.010
  • Wang T., Z. Yang, and A.E. Copping. 2015. "A Modeling Study of the Potential Water Quality Impacts from In-Stream Tidal Energy Extraction." Estuaries and Coasts 38, no. 1 (Supplement):173-186. PNNL-SA-97921. doi:10.1007/s12237-013-9718-9
  • Yang Z., and T. Wang. 2015. "Modeling the Effects of Tidal Energy Extraction on Estuarine Hydrodynamics in a Stratified Estuary." Estuaries and Coasts 38, no. 1 Supplement:187-202. PNNL-SA-97325. doi:10.1007/s12237-013-9684-2
  • Yang Z., T. Wang, N. Voisin, and A.E. Copping. 2015. "Estuarine Response to River Flow and Sea-Level Rise under Future Climate Change and Human Development." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 156. PNNL-SA-102982. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2014.08.015

2014

  • Copping A.E., S.H. Geerlofs, and L.A. Hanna. 2014. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices. PNNL-23412. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Li Y., J. Yi, H. Song, Q. Wang, Z. Yang, N.D. Kelley, and K. Lee. 2014. "On the Natural Frequency of Tidal Current Power Systems - A Discussion of Sea Testing." Applied Physics Letters 105, no. 2:Article No. 023902. PNNL-SA-100413. doi:10.1063/1.4886797
  • Wang T., T. Khangaonkar, W. Long, and G.A. Gill. 2014. "Development of a Kelp-type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology." Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 2, no. 1:81-92. PNNL-SA-100036. doi:10.3390/jmse2010081
  • Yang Z., and T. Wang. 2014. "Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis to Support Nearshore Restoration Projects in a Changing Climate." Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 2, no. 1:18-32. PNWD-SA-10261. doi:10.3390/jmse2010018
  • Yang Z., T. Wang, A. Copping, and S.H. Geerlofs. 2014. "Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts." In Proceedings of the 10th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 2013, n/a. London:European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. PNNL-SA-98054.
  • Yang Z., T. Wang, A.E. Copping, and S.H. Geerlofs. 2014. "Modeling of In-stream Tidal Energy Development and its Potential Effects in Tacoma Narrows, Washington, USA." Ocean and Coastal Management 99. PNNL-SA-100989. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.02.010
  • Yang Z., T. Wang, and A. Copping. 2014. "ARRAY OPTIMIZATION FOR TIDAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN A TIDAL CHANNEL – A NUMERICAL MODELING ANALYSIS." In Proceedings of the 2nd Marine Energy Technology Symposium (METS2014), April 15-28, 2014, Seattle, Washington. Gaithersburg, Maryland:Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition. PNNL-SA-102213.

2013

  • Copping A.E., S.H. Geerlofs, and L.A. Hanna. 2013. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Ocean Current Devices - Reference Model #4. PNNL-22753. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Copping A.E., S.H. Geerlofs, and L.A. Hanna. 2013. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices. PNNL-22723. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Copping A.E., Z. Yang, N. Voisin, J. Richey, T. Wang, R.Y. Taira, and M. Constans, et al. 2013. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps. PNNL-23078. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Hanna L.A., J.M. Whiting, and A.E. Copping. 2013. Visual Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME. PNNL-22982. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Hanna L.A., R.S. Butner, J.M. Whiting, and A.E. Copping. 2013. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012. PNNL-21865 Tethys. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Khangaonkar T., and T. Wang. 2013. "Potential alteration of fjordal circulation due to a large floating structure—Numerical investigation with application to Hood Canal basin in Puget Sound." Applied Ocean Research 39. PNNL-SA-71339. doi:10.1016/j.apor.2012.11.003
  • Whiting J.M., L.A. Hanna, N.L. DeChello, and A.E. Copping. 2013. Acoustic Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME. PNNL-22926. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Yang Z., and T. Wang. 2013. "Tidal Residual Eddies and their Effect on Water Exchange in Puget Sound." Ocean Dynamics 63, no. 8:995-1009. PNNL-SA-95667. doi:10.1007/s10236-013-0635-z
  • Yang Z., T. Wang, and A.E. Copping. 2013. "Modeling Tidal Stream Energy Extraction and its Effects on Transport Processes in a Tidal Channel and Bay System Using a Three-dimensional Coastal Ocean Model." Renewable Energy 50. PNNL-SA-88183. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2012.07.024
  • Yang Z., T. Wang, L.R. Leung, K.A. Hibbard, A.C. Janetos, I.P. Kraucunas, and J.S. Rice, et al. 2013. "A modeling study of coastal inundation induced by storm surge, sea-level rise, and subsidence in the Gulf of Mexico." Natural Hazards 71, no. 3:1771-1794. PNNL-SA-94696. doi:10.1007/s11069-013-0974-6

2012

  • Copping A.E., K.M. Blake, L.A. Hanna, C.A. Brandt, J.A. Ward, J.M. Brandenberger, and G.A. Gill, et al. 2012. Evaluating Effects of Stressors from Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy. PNNL-21885. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Copping A.E., L.A. Hanna, R.S. Butner, T.J. Carlson, M.B. Halvorsen, C.A. Duberstein, and S. Matzner, et al. 2012. Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Development. Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report. PNNL-21852. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Diefenderfer H.L., G.E. Johnson, J.R. Skalski, S.A. Breithaupt, and A.M. Coleman. 2012. "Application of the Diminishing Returns Concept in the Hydroecologic Restoration of Riverscapes." Landscape Ecology 27, no. 5:671-682. PNNL-SA-66973. doi:10.1007/s10980-012-9713-8
  • Geerlofs S.H., L.A. Hanna, C.R. Judd, and K.M. Blake. 2012. Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities In Support Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment: Task 2.1.7 Permitting and Planning Fiscal Year 2012 Year-End Report. PNNL-21876. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Johnson G.E., H.L. Diefenderfer, R.M. Thom, G.C. Roegner, B.D. Ebberts, J.R. Skalski, and A.B. Borde, et al. 2012. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010. PNNL-20296. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Khangaonkar T., B.S. Sackmann, W. Long, T. Mohamedali, and M. Roberts. 2012. "Simulation of annual biogeochemical cycles of nutrient balance, phytoplankton bloom(s), and DO in Puget Sound using an unstructured grid model." Ocean Dynamics 62, no. 9:1353-1379. PNNL-SA-89087. doi:10.1007/s10236-012-0562-4
  • Khangaonkar T., B.S. Sackmann, W. Long, T. Mohamedali, and M. Roberts. 2012. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model. PNNL-20384 Rev 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Wang T., and Z. Yang. 2012. "A Modeling Study of Hydrodynamic Circulation in a Fjord of the Pacific Northwest." In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, November 7-9, 2011, St. Augustine, Florida, 256-273. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineering. PNNL-SA-86494.
  • Yang Z., and T. Wang. 2012. "Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis of Tidal Wetland Restoration in Snohomish River, Washington." In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, November 7-9, 2011, St Augustine, Florida, edited by ML Spaulding, 139-155. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers. PNNL-SA-84170. doi:10.1061/9780784412411.00008
  • Yang Z., T. Wang, T. Khangaonkar, and S.A. Breithaupt. 2012. "Integrated Modeling of Flood Flows and Tidal Hydrodynamics over a Coastal Floodplain." Environmental Fluid Mechanics 12, no. 1:63-80. PNWD-SA-9428. doi:10.1007/s10652-011-9214-3

2011

  • Breithaupt S.A., and T. Khangaonkar. 2011. "Effects of Wetland Restoration on Floodplain Hydrodynamics under Extreme Flooding Conditions." Ecological Restoration 29, no. 1-2:161-172. PNWD-SA-9752. doi:10.3368/er.29.1-2.161
  • Copping A.E., and L.A. Hanna. 2011. Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System Fiscal Year 2011 Report Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy. PNNL-20962. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Copping A.E., and S.H. Geerlofs. 2011. "The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices." In Proceedings of the 9th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, September 5-9, 2011, Southampton, United Kingdom. Southampton:EWTEC. PNNL-SA-79512.
  • Geerlofs S.H., A.E. Copping, F.B. Van Cleve, K.M. Blake, and L.A. Hanna. 2011. Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities in Support of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment. PNNL-20778. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Khangaonkar T., and Z. Yang. 2011. "A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design." Ecological Restoration 29, no. 1-2:173-184. PNNL-SA-70081. doi:10.3368/er.29.1-2.173
  • Khangaonkar T., Z. Yang, T. Kim, and M. Roberts. 2011. "Tidally averaged circulation in Puget Sound sub-basins: Comparison of historical data, analytical model, and numerical model." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 93, no. 4:305-319. PNNL-SA-80338. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2011.04.016
  • Yang Z., and T. Wang. 2011. Assessment of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts on Physical Systems: Development of MHK Module and Analysis of Effects on Hydrodynamics. PNNL-20804. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Yang Z., T. Khangaonkar, and T. Wang. 2011. "Use of Advanced Meteorological Model Output for Coastal Ocean Modeling in Puget Sound." International Journal of Ocean and Climate Systems 2, no. 2:101-117. PNNL-SA-80241.

2010

  • Anderson R.M., A.E. Copping, and F.B. Van Cleve. 2010. Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) for Offshore Wind - Mock-Up of ERES, Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report. PNNL-20020. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Anderson R.M., A.E. Copping, and F.B. Van Cleve. 2010. Preliminary Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System: Task 2.1.1: Evaluating Effects of Stressors – Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy. PNNL-19990. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Anderson R.M., A.E. Copping, F.B. Van Cleve, S.D. Unwin, and E.L. Hamilton. 2010. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System. PNNL-19500. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Anderson R.M., S.D. Unwin, and F.B. Van Cleve. 2010. Identification and Prioritization of Analysis Cases for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Risk Screening. PNNL-19535. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Copping A.E., and S.H. Geerlofs. 2010. Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development Technical Support and General Environmental Studies Report on Outreach to Stakeholders for Fiscal Year 2009. PNNL-19081. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Copping A.E., R.M. Anderson, and F.B. Van Cleve. 2010. "Applying Risk Science and Stakeholder Engagement to Overcome Environmental Barriers to Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects." In Oceans 2010: MTS/IEEE Conference Proceedings, September 20-23, 2010, Seattle, WA. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-74526. doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2010.5664492
  • Khangaonkar T., Z. Yang, S.H. Geerlofs, and A. Copping. 2010. "Overland Tidal Power Generation Using Modular Tidal Prism." In Estuarine and Coastal Modeling: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference, November 4-6, 2009, Seattle, WA, edited by ML Spaulding, 466-477. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers. PNNL-SA-71118. doi:10.1061/41121(388)28
  • Kim T., R.G. Labiosa, T. Khangaonkar, Z. Yang, C. Chen, J. Qi, and C. Cerco. 2010. "Development and evaluation of a coupled hydrodynamic (FVCOM) and water quality model (CE-QUAL-ICM)." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, November 4-6, 2009, Seattle, Washington, edited by ML Spaulding, 373-388. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers. PNNL-SA-69320. doi:10.1061/41121(388)23
  • Skaggs R., S.A. Breithaupt, S.R. Waichler, T. Kim, and D.L. Ward. 2010. Analysis of Flood Hazards for the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. PNNL-20029. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Van Cleve F.B., and A.E. Copping. 2010. Offshore Wind Energy Permitting: A Survey of U.S. Project Developers. PNNL-20024. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Van Cleve F.B., and J.C. States. 2010. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development. PNNL-19971. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Wang T., Z. Yang, and T. Khangaonkar. 2010. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration. PNNL-19347. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Yang Z., and T. Khangaonkar. 2010. "Multi-scale modeling of Puget Sound using an unstructured-grid coastal ocean model: from tide flats to estuaries and coastal waters." Ocean Dynamics 60, no. 6:1621-1637. PNNL-SA-77035. doi:10.1007/s10236-010-0348-5
  • Yang Z., and T. Wang. 2010. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis of Union Slough Restoration Project in Snohomish River, Washington. PNNL-20076. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Yang Z., K.L. Sobocinski, D.W. Heatwole, T. Khangaonkar, R.M. Thom, and R. Fuller. 2010. "Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study." Ecological Modelling 221, no. 7:1043-1053. PNNL-SA-61739. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.07.011
  • Yang Z., T. Khangaonkar, and T. Wang. 2010. Assessment of Energy Removal Impacts on Physical Systems: Hydrodynamic Model Domain Expansion and Refinement, and Online Dissemination of Model Results. PNNL-19882. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Yang Z., T. Khangaonkar, M. Calvi, and K. Nelson. 2010. "Simulation of Cumulative Effects of Nearshore Restoration Projects on Estuarine Hydrodynamics." Ecological Modelling 221, no. 7:969-977. PNWD-SA-8277. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.12.006
  • Yang Z., T. Khangaonkar, R.G. Labiosa, and T. Kim. 2010. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate-Scale Hydrodynamic Model. PNNL-18484. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2009

  • Yang Z., and T.P. Khangaonkar. 2009. "Modeling Tidal Circulation and Stratification in Skagit River Estuary Using an Unstructured Grid Ocean Model." Ocean Modelling 28, no. 1-3:34-49. (special issue). PNWD-SA-8278.
  • Yang Z., T. Khangaonkar, J.M. Chase, and T. Wang. 2009. "Puget Sound Operational Forecast System - A Real-time Predictive Tool for Marine Resource Management and Emergency Responses." In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, November 4-6, 2009, Seattle, WA, edited by ML Spaulding, 356-372. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). PNNL-SA-71183. doi:10.1061/41121(388)22

2008

  • Khangaonkar T.P., and Z. Yang. 2008. "DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF STREAM TEMPERATURES TO BOUNDARY AND INFLOW PERTURBATION DUE TO RESERVOIR OPERATIONS." River Research and Applications 24, no. 4:420-433. PNNL-SA-59954. doi:10.1002/rra.1088
  • Khangaonkar T.P., Z. Yang, J. Paik, and F. Sotiropoulos. 2008. "Simulation of Hydrodynamics at Stratified Reservoirs Using a Staged Modeling Approach." Journal of Coastal Research. JCR. PNNL-SA-57677.
  • Yang Z., and T.P. Khangaonkar. 2008. "Modeling of Coastal Effluent Transport: an Approach to Linking of Far-field and Near-field Models." Acta Oceanologica Sinica 27. PNNL-SA-48553.
  • Yang Z., and T.P. Khangaonkar. 2008. "Modeling of Salt Intrusion, Intertidal Mixing, and Circulation in a Braided Estuary." In Surface Water Modeling, 52, 171-180. Boca Raton, Florida:Journal of Coastal Research. PNWD-SA-8011.

2007

  • Frick W.E., W.E. Frick, T.P. Khangaonkar, A.C. Sigleo, and Z. Yang. 2007. "Estuarine-ocean exchange in a North Pacific estuary: comparison of steady state and dynamic model." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 74, no. 1-2:1-11. PNNL-SA-49044. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2007.02.019
  • Lee C., D.J. Schwab, D. Beletsky, D. Beletsky, J. Stroud, and B.M. Lesht. 2007. "Numerical modeling of mixed sediment resuspension, transport, and deposition during the March 1998 episodic events in southern Lake Michigan." Journal of Geophysical Research. C. (Oceans) 112, no. C2:C02018. PNNL-SA-52228. doi:10.1029/2005JC003419
  • Vavrinec J., W.H. Pearson, N.P. Kohn, J.R. Skalski, C. Lee, K.D. Hall, and B.A. Romano, et al. 2007. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River. PNNL-16482. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Whelan G., W.D. Millard, G.M. Gelston, T.P. Khangaonkar, M.A. Pelton, D.L. Strenge, and Z. Yang, et al. 2007. "Using FRAMES to Manage Environmental and Water Resources." In Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring our Natural Habitat, May 15–19, 2007, Tampa, Florida, USA, edited by Karen C. Kabbes. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers. PNNL-SA-53354. doi:10.1061/40927(243)130
  • Yang Z., and T.P. Khangaonkar. 2007. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound and Northwest Straits. PNNL-17161. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2006

  • Khangaonkar T.P., S.A. Breithaupt, and F.C. Kristanovich. 2006. "Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment." In Estaurine and Coastal Modeling Proceedings of the 9th International Conference held in Charleston, SC, Oct. 31-Nov.2, 2005, edited by M.L. Spaulding, 734-751. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers. PNNL-SA-48779.
  • Lee C., Z. Yang, T.P. Khangaonkar, and A. Divers. 2006. "Application of a Hydrodynamic Model for Assessing the Hydraulic Capacity and Flow Field at Willamette Falls Dam, Oregon." In Estuarine and Coastal Modeling. Proceedings of 9th International Conference held in Charleston, SC, Oct.31-Nov. 2, 2005, edited by M.L. Spaulding, 788-805. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers. PNWD-SA-7309.
  • Whelan G., W.D. Millard, G.M. Gelston, M.A. Pelton, Z. Yang, D.L. Strenge, and C. Lee, et al. 2006. Rapid Risk Assessment: FY05 Annual Summary Report. PNNL-15697. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Yang Z., H. Liu, and T.P. Khangaonkar. 2006. "Development of a Hydrodynamic Model for Skagit River Estuary for Estuarine Restoration Feasibility Assessment." In Estuarine and Coastal Modeling: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference held in Charleston, SC, Oct. 31-Nov.2, 2005, edited by M.L. Spaulding, 752-767. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers. PNWD-SA-7307.

2005

  • Yang Z., H. Liu, and T.P. Khangaonkar. 2005. "Development of a Hydrodynamic Model for Skagit River Estuary for Estuarine Restoration Feasibility Assessment." In The 9th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers. PNWD-SA-7228.

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