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Energy and Environment Directorate

Diana Bacon

Diana Bacon

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 372-6132


Dr. Bacon has 30 years of experience in vadose zone hydrology and geochemistry. She has been a research scientist at PNNL since May, 1986, and was promoted to her current position of senior research scientist in 2011. Her research involves developing and applying parallel multiphase and reactive transport simulators to understand the fate and transport of radionuclides, carbon and pollutants in groundwater. She is a member of the STOMP development team, and has contributed to the development, parallelization, and application of the code to radioactive waste form weathering, carbon sequestration, and contaminant remediation at the lab and field scale. She led the development of reduced order models of groundwater impacts related to CO2 and brine leakage from underlying formations for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Risk Assessment Program (NRAP), and is currently leading the application of the NRAP tool suite to field and synthetic datasets.

Research Interests

  • Carbon sequestration
  • Parallel computing
  • Multiphase flow and reactive transport in the vadose zone
  • Carbon cycling in the vadose zone
  • Performance assessment of radioactive waste sites

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Geology, Washington State University, 1997
  • M.S., Hydrology, New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, Hydrology, Socorro, 1986
  • B.S., Geology, George Mason University, 1983

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • Geological Society of America

PNNL Publications


  • Lawter AR, N Qafoku, RM Asmussen, RK Kukkadapu, O Qafoku, DH Bacon, and CF Brown. 2018. "Element mobilization and immobilization from carbonate rocks between CO2 storage reservoirs and the overlying aquifers during a potential CO2 leakage." Chemosphere 197:399-410.  doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.199


  • Bacon DH, R Locke, E Keating, SA Carroll, A Iranmanesh, K Mansoor, B Wimmer, L Zheng, H Shao, and S Greenberg. 2017. "Application of the Aquifer Impact Model to Support Decisions at a CO2 Sequestration Site." Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 7(6):1020-1034.  doi:10.1002/ghg.1730
  • Nguyen BN, Z Hou, DH Bacon, and MD White. 2017. "A Multiscale Hydro-Geochemical-Mechanical Approach to Analyze Faulted CO2 Reservoirs." Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 7(1):106-127.  doi:10.1002/ghg.1616
  • Nguyen BN, Z Hou, DH Bacon, GV Last, and MD White. 2017. "Analysis of a complex faulted CO2 reservoir using a three-dimensional hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach." Energy Procedia 114:3496-3506.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1479
  • Freedman VL, MJ Truex, M Rockhold, DH Bacon, MD Freshley, and DM Wellman. 2017. "Elements of complexity in subsurface modeling, exemplified with three case studies." Hydrogeology Journal 25(6):1853-1870.  doi:10.1007/s10040-017-1564-6
  • Qafoku N, AR Lawter, DH Bacon, L Zheng, JE Kyle, and CF Brown. 2017. "Review of the Impacts of Leaking CO2 Gas and Brine on Groundwater Quality"." Earth - Science Reviews 169:69-84.  doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.04.010


  • Nguyen BN, Z Hou, DH Bacon, CJ Murray, and MD White. 2016. "Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 46:100-115.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.01.004
  • Nguyen BN, Z Hou, GV Last, and DH Bacon. 2016. "Three-dimensional Analysis of a Faulted CO2 Reservoir Using an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka Approach to Rock Elastic Properties and Fault Permeability." Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 8(6):828-845.  doi:10.1016/j.jrmge.2016.06.007
  • Bacon DH, N Qafoku, Z Dai, E Keating, and CF Brown. 2016. "Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44(2016):290-299.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.04.008
  • Freedman VL, DH Bacon, and Y Fang. 2016. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2016: ILAW Verification and Validation of the eSTOMP SimulatorPNNL-25185; RPT-IGTP-010 Rev. 0, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Keating EH, DH Bacon, SA Carroll, K Mansoor, Y Sun, L Zheng, DR Harp, and Z Dai. 2016. "Applicability of Aquifer Impact Models to Support Decisions at CO2 Sequestration Sites." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 52:319-330.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.001


  • Bacon DH, CMR Yonkofski, HT Schaef, MD White, and BP McGrail. 2015. "CO2 Storage by Sorption on Organic Matter and Clay in Gas Shale." Journal of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources 12:123-133.  doi:10.1016/j.juogr.2015.09.004
  • Last GV, MMV Snyder, W Um, JR Stephenson, II Leavy, CE Strickland, DH Bacon, N Qafoku, and RJ Serne. 2015. Technetium, Iodine, and Chromium Adsorption/Desorption Kd Values for Vadose Zone Pore Water, ILAW Glass, and Cast Stone Leachates Contacting an IDF Sand Sequence PNNL-24683, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Lawter AR, N Qafoku, H Shao, DH Bacon, and CF Brown. 2015. "Evaluating Impacts of CO2 and CH4 Gas Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: Fate of As and Cd." Frontiers in Environmental Science 3:Article No. 49.  doi:10.3389/fenvs.2015.00049
  • Mukhopadhyay S, CA Doughty, DH Bacon, J Li, L Wei, H Yamamoto, SE Gasda, S Hosseini, JP Nicot, and J Birkholzer. 2015. "The Sim-SEQ Project: Comparison of Selected Flow Models for the S-3 Site." Transport in Porous Media 108(1):207-231.  doi:10.1007/s11242-014-0361-0
  • Qafoku N, L Zheng, DH Bacon, AR Lawter, and CF Brown. 2015. A Critical Review of the Impacts of Leaking CO2 Gas and Brine on Groundwater QualityPNNL-24897, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Bacon DH, Z Dai, and L Zheng. 2014. "Geochemical impacts of carbon dioxide, brine, trace metal and organic leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing limestone aquifer." Energy Procedia 63:4684-4704.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.502
  • Zhong L, KJ Cantrell, DH Bacon, and JL Shewell. 2014. "Transport of Organic Contaminants Mobilized from Coal through Sandstone Overlying a Geological Carbon Sequestration Reservoir." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 21:158-164.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.12.014
  • Bacon DH, R Ramanathan, HT Schaef, and BP McGrail. 2014. "Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 21:165-176.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.12.012
  • Carroll SA, E Keating, K Mansoor, Z Dai, Y Sun, W Trainor-Guitton, CF Brown, and DH Bacon. 2014. "Key Factors for Determining Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 29:153-168.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.07.007
  • Dai Z, E Keating, DH Bacon, H Viswanathan, P Stauffer, AB Jordan, and R Pawar. 2014. "Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at a hypothetical carbon sequestration site." Scientific Reports 4:4006.  doi:10.1038/srep04006
  • Garcia S, Q Liu, DH Bacon, and MM Maroto-Valer. 2014. "An investigation of reaction parameters on geochemical storage of non-pure CO2 streams in iron oxides-bearing formations." Fuel Processing Technology 128:402-411.  doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.07.027
  • Hou Z, DH Bacon, DW Engel, G Lin, Y Fang, H Ren, and Z Fang. 2014. "Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 27:69-80.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.05.004
  • Schaef HT, CL Davidson, AT Owen, QR Miller, JS Loring, CJ Thompson, DH Bacon, VA Glezakou, and BP McGrail. 2014. "CO2 Utilization and Storage in Shale Gas Reservoirs: Experimental Results and Economic Impacts." Energy Procedia 63:7844-7851.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.819


  • Bacon DH. 2013. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 PNNL-22285, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Bacon DH. 2013. "Modeling long-term CO2 storage, sequestration and cycling." Chapter 6 in Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Geosciences, Technologies, Environmental Aspects and Legal Frameworks, ed. J Gluyas and S Mathias, pp. 110-146.  Woodhead Publishing, Philadelphia, PA. 
  • Hou Z, M Huang, DH Bacon, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Parameter Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Earth System Models through Exploratory Data Analyses and Calibration." In MODFLOW and More 2013: Translating Science into Practice, June 2-5, 2013, Golden, Colorado, ed. R Maxwell, et al, pp. 159-163.  Integrated Ground Water Modeling Center (IGWMC), Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO. 
  • Mukhopadhyay S, CA Doughty, DH Bacon, G Bacci, R Govindan, JQ Shi, SE Gasda, R Ramanathan, JP Nicot, S Hosseini, and J Birkholzer. 2013. "Preliminary Model Comparison Results From the Sim-SEQ Project Using TOUGH2, STOMP, Eclipse, and VESA Approach." In Proceedings, TOUGH Symposium 2012, September 17-19, 2012, Berkeley, California, vol. LBNL-5808E, ed. S Finsterle, et al, pp. 718-725.  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. 
  • Mukhopadhyay S, Z Hou, LJ Gosink, DH Bacon, CA Doughty, JJ Li, L Wei, S Gasda, G Bacci, R Govindan, JQ Shi, H Yamamoto, R Ramanathan, JP Nicot, S Hosseini, J Birkholzer, and A Bonneville. 2013. "Model Comparison and Uncertainty Quantification for Geologic Carbon Storage: The Sim-SEQ Initiative." Energy Procedia 37:3867-3874.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.284
  • Rockhold ML, DH Bacon, VL Freedman, KR Parker, SR Waichler, and MD Williams. 2013. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive TransportPNNL-22886;RPT-DVZ-AFRI-019, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • White MD, DH Bacon, SK White, and ZF Zhang. 2013. "Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production." Energy Procedia 37:3960-3970.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.295
  • White SK, LJ Gosink, C Sivaramakrishnan, GD Black, S Purohit, DH Bacon, Z Hou, G Lin, I Gorton, and A Bonneville. 2013. "Implementations of a Flexible Framework for Managing Geologic Sequestration Modeling Projects." Energy Procedia 37:3971-3979.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.296



  • Bacon DH, and EM Murphy. 2011. "Managing Chemistry Underground: Is Co-Sequestration an Option in Selected Formations?" Energy Procedia 4:4457-4464.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.400
  • Bacon DH, and EM Pierce. 2011. "Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms." Chapter 14 in Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies (Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy), vol. 12, ed. MI Ojovan, p. 480.  Woodhead Publishing Limited, Philadelphia, PA. 
  • McGrail BP, FA Spane, EC Sullivan, DH Bacon, and G Hund. 2011. "The Wallula Basalt Sequestration Pilot Project." Energy Procedia 4:5653-5660.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.557
  • Pierce EM, and DH Bacon. 2011. "Combined Experimental and Computational Approach to Predict the Glass-Water Reaction." Nuclear Technology 176(1):22-39. 
  • Pierce EM, DH Bacon, SN Kerisit, CF Windisch, Jr, KJ Cantrell, MM Valenta, SD Burton, and JH Westsik, Jr. 2011. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary ReportPNNL-20781, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 



  • Bacon DH, BM Sass, M Bhargava, JR Sminchak, and N Gupta. 2009. "Reactive Transport Modeling of CO2 and SO2 Injection into Deep Saline Formations and Their Effect on the Hydraulic Properties of Host Rocks." In Energy Procedia: GHGT-9: 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3283-3290.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.114
  • Bacon DH, JR Sminchak, JL Gerst, and N Gupta. 2009. "Validation of CO2 Injection Simulations with Monitoring Well Data." In Energy Procedia: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies (GHGT-9), vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1815-1822 .  Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2009.01.237
  • Pierce EM, and DH Bacon. 2009. "Accelerated Weathering of Waste Glass at 90°C with the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) Apparatus: Implications for Predicting Glass Corrosion with a Reactive Transport Model." Chapter 14 in Environmental Issues and Waste Management Technologies in the Materials and Nuclear Industries XII, Ceramic Transactions, vol. 207, ed. Alex Cozzi, Tatsuki Ohji, pp. 141-153.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. 
  • Wellman DM, EM Pierce, DH Bacon, JS Fruchter, VR Vermeul, and SM Webb. 2009. "Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In-Situ Stabilization of Uranium." In Waste Management 2009: Waste Management for the Nuclear Renaissance, March 1-5, 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, p. Paper No. 9093.  WM Symposia, Tucson, AZ. 
  • Bacon DH, MD White, N Gupta, JR Sminchak, and ME Kelley. 2009. "CO2 Sequestration Potential in the Rose Run Formation at the Mountaineer Power Plant, New Haven, West Virginia." In Carbon dioxide sequestration in geological media- State of the science: AAPG Studies in Geology 59, pp. 553-570.  American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK. 
  • Barnes DA, DH Bacon, and SR Kelley. 2009. "Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide in the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone: Regional storage capacity,site characterization, and large-scale injection feasibility, Michigan Basin." Environmental Geosciences 16(3):163-183. 
  • Wellman DM, BK McNamara, DH Bacon, EA Cordova, RM Ermi, and LM Top. 2009. "Dissolution Kinetics of Meta-Torbernite under Circum-neutral to Alkaline Conditions." Environmental Chemistry 6(6):551-560. 



  • Bacon DH, MD White, N Gupta, JR Sminchak, and ME Kelley. 2006. "Assessment of CO2 Injection Potential and Monitoring Well Location at the Mountaineer Power Plant Site." In 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies: GHGT-8, 19-22 June, 2006, Trondheim, Norway , p. 6 pages.  Elsevier Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
  • Bacon DH, EM Pierce, DM Wellman, DM Strachan, and GB Josephson. 2006. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste PackagesPNNL-15947, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Ojovan MI, W Lee, A Barinov, IV Startsceva, DH Bacon, BP McGrail, and JD Vienna. 2006. "Corrosion of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil." Glass Technology 47(2):48-55. 
  • White MD, BP McGrail, HT Schaef, and DH Bacon. 2006. "Numerically Simulating Carbonate Mineralization of Basalt with Injection of Carbon Dioxide into Deep Saline Formations." In Proceedings of the XVI International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources (CMWR XVI), June 19-22 2006, Copenhagen, Denmark.  Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.  doi:10.4122/1.1000000368




  • McGrail BP, DH Bacon, PD Meyer, MI Ojovan, DM Strachan, N Ojovan, and IV Startsceva. 2003. "New Developments in Field Studies of Low Activity Waste Glass Corrosion and Contaminant Transport." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXVI: Materials Research Society Symposim Proceedings , vol. 757, ed. RJ Finch and DB Bullen, p. Paper No. 112.1.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Bacon DH, and BP McGrail. 2003. "Lessons Learned From Reactive Transport Modeling of a Low-Activity Waste Glass Disposal System." Computers & Geosciences 29(2003):361-370. 
  • Bacon DH, and BP McGrail. 2003. "Waste Form Release Calculations for Performance Assessment of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility Using a Parallel, Coupled Unsaturated Flow and Reactive Transport Simulator." In 26th Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 757, ed. Robert J. Finch and Daniel B. Bullen, pp. 43-48.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Bacon DH, MI Ojovan, BP McGrail, N Ojovan, and IV Startsceva. 2003. "Vitrified Waste Corrosion Rates From Field Experiment and Reactive Transport Modeling." In 9th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation, vol. 2, ed. Gary Benda and Fred Sheil, pp. 803-809.  American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Oxford, England. 
  • McGrail BP, DH Bacon, RJ Serne, and EM Pierce. 2003. A Strategy to Assess Performance of Selected Low-Activity Waste Forms in an Integrated Disposal FacilityPNNL-14362, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Bacon DH, and BP McGrail. 2002. Effect of Design Changes On Remote Handled Trench Waste Form Release CalculationsPNNL-13947, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Bacon DH, BP McGrail, VL Freedman, G Ventura, PN Risoluti, and KM Krupka. 2002. "Performance Assessment of Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Using Coupled Unsaturated Flow and Reactive Transport Simulators." In Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XXV : symposium held November 26-29, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts; Materials Research Society symposium proceedings , vol. 713, ed. McGrail, B. P.; Cragnolino, G. A., pp. 267-274.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 




Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas