Skip to Main Content U.S. Department of Energy
Energy and Environment Directorate

Technologies & Products

ReActive Flow and Transport of Groundwater Contaminants (RAFT )

RAFT is a three-dimensional numerical model for studying the fate and transport of reactive solutes in the saturated zone. RAFT is modular so that user-specified reaction systems can be incorporated into the code. RAFT is integrated with the symbolic computational language MAPLE, to automate code generation for arbitrary reaction systems, so that different reaction models can be evaluated quickly. The reactions can be any combination of equilibrium, kinetic, homogeneous and heterogeneous. Examples include biological, geochemical, or coupled biogeochemical reaction systems. In addition to solving the forward problem, RAFT also can be used in the inverse mode, to estimate process parameters such as reaction rate constants, effective dispersivity and porosity from experimental results.

RAFT has been used extensively in the design/analysis of batch/column laboratory experiments, for the development of reaction models and estimation of reaction parameters. RAFT also has been used in the design of intermediate scale experiments to study the effect of physical and chemical heterogeneities on reactive transport. As an engineering design tool, RAFT is being used in the design of active groundwater remediation systems like permeable reactive barriers, bioremediation and redox manipulation.

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas