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Energy and Environment Directorate

Dan Gaspar

Dan Gaspar

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-2544


Dr. Daniel Gaspar is a technical team lead for the Applied Chemistry team in the Chemical and Biological Processing Group. Dan is a member of the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) project Leadership Team, a crosscutting Department of Energy program jointly supported by the Bioenergy Technologies Office and the Vehicle Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Previously, Dan served as the Team Lead for the High Performance Fuels team for Co-Optima where he coordinated efforts of seven national laboratories aimed at elucidating the connections between biomass derived blendstocks and fuel properties, including links to production pathways, in order to increase system efficiency and reduce energy use and harmful emissions in our transportation system. Dan has served in several sector roles, and currently serves as the ARPA-E program manager for PNNL.

Dr. Gaspar was previously detailed to the DOE in multiple roles, including supporting the Scientific User Facility Division in Basic Energy Sciences, as well as the National Laboratory Task Force of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board while detailed to the Office of the Undersecretary for Science and Technology. Dr. Gaspar also served for more than seven years as manager of the Applied Materials Science Group in the Energy and Environment Directorate, and before that in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. As group manager, Dr. Gaspar focused on developing and deploying materials science capabilities to generate national impact in support of the DOE's energy mission. Dr. Gaspar has published more than 50 journal articles, books and book chapters on materials development and characterization, including a recent book on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) available here.

Research Interests

  • Apply materials and fuel chemistry principles to develop new understanding and technologies to deliver a more sustainable energy future

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Chemistry, University of Chicago - 1998
  • B.S., Chemistry, Duke University - 1992

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • 2006 – 2008 Chairman (Chair-elect, past Chair) Applied Surface Science Division, AVS
  • Member of the AVS, American Chemical Society.
  • Technical Expert, International Standards Organization (ISO), Technical Committee 201 (Surface Chemical Analysis), Subcommittee 6 (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry).
  • Member, ASTM Committee E42 on Surface Analysis.
  • Journal reviewer, Surface and Interface Analysis, JVST, Analytical Chemistry, J. Physical Chemistry
  • Proposal reviewer, American Chemical Society, National Science Foundation, ISTC.

PNNL Publications


  • Gaspar D.J., B.H. West, D. Ruddy, T.J. Wilke, E. Polikarpov, T.L. Alleman, and A. George, et al. 2019. Top Ten Blendstocks Derived From Biomass For Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines: Bio-blendstocks With Potential for Highest Engine Efficiency. PNNL-28713. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. doi:10.2172/1567705.Top Ten Blendstocks Derived From Biomass For Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines: Bio-blendstocks With Potential for Highest Engine Efficiency
  • Gaspar D.J., S.D. Phillips, E. Polikarpov, K.O. Albrecht, S.B. Jones, A. George, and A. Landera, et al. 2019. "Measuring and Predicting the Vapor Pressure of Gasoline Containing Oxygenates." Fuel 243. PNNL-SA-131615. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2019.01.137
  • Hamilton G.D., T.J. Parker, D.J. Gaspar, and T.L. Parker. 2019. Test Article. PNNL-SA-118331. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. doi:10.2174/1877944106999160317160621.
  • Olarte M.V., K.O. Albrecht, J.T. Bays, E. Polikarpov, B. Maddi, J.C. Linehan, and M.J. O'Hagan, et al. 2019. "Autoignition and Select Properties of Low Sample Volume Thermochemical Mixtures from Renewable Sources." Fuel 238. PNNL-SA-134830. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2018.10.115
  • Polikarpov E., K.O. Albrecht, J.P. Page, D. Malhotra, P.K. Koech, L. Cosimbescu, and D.J. Gaspar. 2019. "Critical Fuel Property Evaluation for Potential Gasoline and Diesel Biofuel Blendstocks with Low Sample Volume Availability." Fuel 238. PNNL-SA-134684. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2018.09.129



  • Blochwitz-Nimoth J., A. Bhandari, D. Boesch, C.R. Fincher, D.J. Gaspar, D.W. Gotthold, and M.T. Greiner, et al. 2015. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes. Boca Raton, Florida:CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group. PNNL-SA-106310.


  • Bhattacharya P., E.N. Nasybulin, M.H. Engelhard, L. Kovarik, M.E. Bowden, S. Li, and D.J. Gaspar, et al. 2014. "Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries." Advanced Functional Materials 24, no. 47:7510-7519. PNNL-SA-101221. doi:10.1002/adfm.201402701


  • Rainbolt J.E., A.B. Padmaperuma, N. Govind, and D.J. Gaspar. 2013. "Substituent effects on the geometric and electronic properties of tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ): A theoretical study." Molecular Simulation 39, no. 5:350-356. PNNL-SA-86292.
  • Rainbolt J.E., P.K. Koech, E. Polikarpov, J.S. Swensen, L. Cosimbescu, A.L. Von Ruden, and L. Wang, et al. 2013. "Synthesis and characterization of p-type conductivity dopant 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane." Journal of Materials Chemistry C 1, no. 9:1876 - 1884. PNNL-SA-77092. doi:10.1039/C3TC00068K


  • Schwenzer B., L. Wang, J.S. Swensen, A.B. Padmaperuma, G. Silverman, R. Korotkov, and D.J. Gaspar. 2012. "Tuning the Optical Properties of Mesoporous TiO2 Films by Nanoscale Engineering." Langmuir 28, no. 26:10072-10081. PNNL-SA-82922. doi:10.1021/la301450h
  • Swensen J.S., L. Wang, L. Wang, J.E. Rainbolt, P.K. Koech, E. Polikarpov, and D.J. Gaspar, et al. 2012. "Characterization of solution processed, p-doped films using hole-only devices and organic field-effect transistors." Organic Electronics 13, no. 12:3085-3090. PNNL-SA-82955. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2012.07.045


  • Cosimbescu L., A.B. Padmaperuma, and D.J. Gaspar. 2011. "7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane based molecular dopants for p-type doping of OLEDs: A theoretical investigation." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 115, no. 46:13498-13503. PNNL-SA-77394. doi:10.1021/jp2005869
  • Polikarpov E., P.K. Koech, L. Wang, J.S. Swensen, L. Cosimbescu, J.E. Rainbolt, and A.L. Von Ruden, et al. 2011. "Controlling charge transport in blue organic light-emitting devices by chemical functionalization of host materials." Journal of Photonics for Energy 1. PNNL-SA-74814. doi:10.1117/1.3528499
  • Swensen J.S., J.E. Rainbolt, L. Wang, P.K. Koech, E. Polikarpov, A.B. Padmaperuma, and D.J. Gaspar. 2011. "Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices utilizing cesium-carbonate-doped 2,4,6-tris(2',4'-difluoro-[1,1'- biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine." Journal of Photonics for Energy 1. PNNL-SA-74897. doi:10.1117/1.3528003


  • Baer D.R., D.J. Gaspar, P. Nachimuthu, S.D. Techane, and D.G. Castner. 2010. "Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 396, no. 3:983-1002. PNNL-SA-69766.
  • Gaspar D.J., and J.B. Cliff. 2010. "Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Environmental Aerosols." In Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry. 506-514. Oxford:Elsevier. PNNL-SA-66813.
  • Koech P.K., A.B. Padmaperuma, L. Wang, J.S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, J.T. Darsell, and J.E. Rainbolt, et al. 2010. "Synthesis and application of 1,3,4,5,7,8-Hexafluorotetracyanonaphtoquinodimethane (F6-TNAP): A Conductivity Dopant for Organic Light-Emitting Devices." Chemistry of Materials 22, no. 13:3926-3932. PNNL-SA-68774.
  • Wang L., J.S. Swensen, E. Polikarpov, D.W. Matson, C.C. Bonham, W.D. Bennett, and D.J. Gaspar, et al. 2010. "Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free transparent anode on flexible substrates." Organic Electronics 11, no. 9:1555-1560. PNNL-SA-70979. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2010.06.018
  • Wang L., L. Wang, D.W. Matson, E. Polikarpov, J.S. Swensen, C.C. Bonham, and L. Cosimbescu, et al. 2010. "Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating." Journal of Applied Physics 107, no. 4:043103. PNNL-SA-66289. doi:10.1063/1.3282526


  • Bhansali U.S., E. Polikarpov, J.S. Swensen, W. Chen, H. Jia, D.J. Gaspar, and B.E. Gnade, et al. 2009. "High-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex in phosphine oxide host." Applied Physics Letters 95, no. 23:Art. No. 233304. PNNL-SA-67458.
  • Koech P.K., L.S. Sapochak, J.E. Rainbolt, L. Cosimbescu, E. Polikarpov, J.S. Swensen, and L. Wang, et al. 2009. "Design of new anchored p-dopants for high power efficiency OLEDs." In Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XIII: Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by F So and C Adachi, 7415, Article No. 741505. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-67550. doi:10.1117/12.827298
  • Matson D.W., C.C. Bonham, J.S. Swensen, L. Wang, A.B. Padmaperuma, D.J. Gaspar, and J.J. Berry, et al. 2009. "Development of large area transparent conducting oxides from a combinatorial lead for organic solid state lighting." In Proceedings of the SPIE: Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XIII, edited by F So, C Adachi, 7415, Paper No. 74150X. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-67198. doi:10.1117/12.827281
  • Padmaperuma A.B., P.K. Koech, L. Cosimbescu, E. Polikarpov, J.S. Swensen, N. Chopra, and F. So, et al. 2009. "Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency." In Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XIII: Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by F So and C Adachi, 7415, Paper No. 74150H. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-68473. doi:10.1117/12.826905


  • Baer D.R., J.E. Amonette, M.H. Engelhard, D.J. Gaspar, A.S. Karakoti, S.N. Kuchibhatla, and P. Nachimuthu, et al. 2008. "Characterization Challenges for Nanomaterials." Surface and Interface Analysis 40, no. 3-4:529-537. PNNL-SA-56706. doi:10.1002/sia.2726
  • Hu J., R.A. Dagle, B.R. Johnson, H.W. Kreuzer, D.J. Gaspar, B.Q. Roberts, and M.L. Alexander. 2008. "Development of a Micropyrolyzer for Enhanced Isotope Ratio Measurement." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 47, no. 22:8625-8630. PNNL-SA-60695. doi:10.1021/ie8009236
  • Miracle A.L., A.L. Bunn, J.M. Brandenberger, D.J. Gaspar, and J.A. Ward. 2008. "Fate and transport of titania nanoparticles in freshwater mesocosms." In Proceedings of the International Environmental Nanotechnology Conference: Applications and Implications, October 7-9, 2008, Chicago, Illinois. Washington Dc:Environmental Protection Agency. PNNL-SA-62622.


  • Gaspar D., and D.R. Baer. 2007. "Thoughts on Prospects for New Characterization Tools." In Productive Nanosystems; a Technology Roadmap: Part 3 Proceedings of the Roadmap Working Group. N/A:Foresight Nanotech Institute. PNNL-SA-57250.


  • Cliff J.B., P.J. Bottomley, D.J. Gaspar, and D.D. Myrold. 2006. "Nitrogen Mineralization and Assimilation at Millimeter Scales." Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39, no. 3:823-826. PNNL-SA-48741. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.10.005


  • Alvarez J., R.G. Cooks, S.E. Barlow, D.J. Gaspar, J.H. Futrell, and J. Laskin. 2005. "Preparation and in situ Characterization of Surfaces Using Soft-Landing in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer." Analytical Chemistry 77, no. 11:3452-3460. PNNL-SA-43794.
  • Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, D.J. Gaspar, D.W. Matson, K.H. Pecher, J.R. Williams, and C.M. Wang. 2005. "Challenges in Applying Surface Analysis Methods to Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials." Journal of Surface Analysis 12, no. 2:101-108. PNNL-SA-43043.
  • Cliff J.B., K.H. Jarman, N.B. Valentine, S. Golledge, D.J. Gaspar, D.S. Wunschel, and K.L. Wahl. 2005. "Differentiation of Spores of Bacillus Subtilis Grown in Different Media by Elemental Characterization using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, no. 11:6524-6530. PNNL-SA-44084.
  • Gaspar D.J., M.H. Engelhard, M.C. Henry, and D.R. Baer. 2005. "Erosion Rate Variations during XPS Sputter Depth Profiling of Nanoporous Films." Surface and Interface Analysis 37, no. 4:417-423. PNWD-SA-6675.
  • Johnson K.S., B.M. Zuberi, L. Molina, M.J. Molina, M.J. Iedema, J.P. Cowin, and D.J. Gaspar, et al. 2005. "Processing of Soot in an Urban Environment: Case Study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5. PNNL-SA-46154.
  • Mcintire T.M., A.S. Lea, D.J. Gaspar, N. Jaitly, Y. Dubowski, Q. Li, and B.J. Finlayson-Pitts. 2005. "Unusual aggregates from the oxidation of alkene self-assembled monolayers: a previously unrecognized mechanism for SAM ozonolysis?." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 7. PNNL-SA-44568. doi:10.1039/b508147e


  • Cliff J.B., D.J. Gaspar, P.J. Bottomley, and D.D. Myrold. 2004. "Peak Fitting to Resolve CN- isotope Ratios in Biological and Environmental Samples Using TOF-SIMS." In SIMS XIV, proceedings of the fourteenth international conference on secondary ion mass spectrometry and related topics, San Diego, CA, edited by Alfred Benninghoven, 912-916. Amsterdam:Elsevier Science BV. PNNL-SA-39184.
  • Cliff J.B., D.J. Gaspar, P.J. Bottomley, and D.D. Myrold. 2004. "Peak Fitting to Resolve CN-Isotope Ratios in Biological and Environmental Samples using TOF-SIMS." Applied Surface Science 231-232, no. Sp. Iss. SI:912-916. PNNL-SA-42830.
  • Dubowski Y., A. Sumner, E.J. Menke, D.J. Gaspar, J.T. Newberg, R.C. Hoffman, and R.M. Penner, et al. 2004. "Interactions of Gaseous Nitric Acid with Surfaces of Environmental Interest." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 6, no. 14:3879-3888. PNNL-SA-42874.
  • Gaspar D.J., A. Laskin, W. Wang, S.W. Hunt, and B.J. Finlayson-Pitts. 2004. "TOF-SIMS Analysis of Sea Salt Particles: Imaging and Depth Profiling in the Discovery of an Unrecogized Mechanism for pH Buffering." Applied Surface Science 231-232. PNNL-SA-39483. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.03.046
  • Gaspar D.J., A. Laskin, W. Wang, S.W. Hunt, and B.J. Finlayson-Pitts. 2004. "TOF-SIMS Analysis of Sea Salt Particles: Imaging and Depth Profiling in the Discovery of an Unrecognized Mechanism for pH Buffering." Applied Surface Science 231-2, no. Sp. Iss. SI:520-523. PNNL-SA-41113.
  • Tuan A.C., J.D. Bryan, A. Pakhomov, V. Shutthanandan, S. Thevuthasan, D.E. McCready, and D.J. Gaspar, et al. 2004. "Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Cobalt-doped ZnO on a-Al2O3 Single-Crystal Substrates." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 70, no. 5:054424. PNNL-SA-38883.


  • Baer D.R., D.J. Gaspar, M.H. Engelhard, and A.S. Lea. 2003. "Beam Effects During AES and XPS Analysis." In Surface Analysis by Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Chichester:IM Publications. PNNL-SA-38633.
  • Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, A.S. Lea, and D.J. Gaspar. 2003. "Appendix F: Comparing Beam Damage Rates Using Susceptibility Tables." In Surface Analysis by Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, edited by D. Briggs and J.T. Grant. 845-856. Manchester:SurfaceSpectra Ltd. & IM Publications. PNNL-SA-38715.
  • Donley M.S., R.A. Mantz, A.N. Khramov, V. Balbyshev, L.S. Kasten, and D.J. Gaspar. 2003. "The Self-Assembled Nanophase Particle (SNAP) Process: A Nanoscience Approach to Coatings." Progress in Organic Coatings 47, no. 3-4:401-415. PNNL-SA-40538.
  • Laskin A., D.J. Gaspar, W. Wang, S.W. Hunt, J.P. Cowin, S.D. Colson, and B.J. Finlayson-Pitts. 2003. "Reactions at Interfaces As a Source of Sulfate Formation In Sea-Salt Particles." Science 301, no. 5631:340-344. PNNL-SA-39605.


  • Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, D.J. Gaspar, A.S. Lea, and C.F. Windisch. 2002. "Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types." Surface and Interface Analysis 33. PNNL-SA-36726.
  • Batzill M., B. Katsiev, D.J. Gaspar, and U. Diebold. 2002. "Variations of the Local Electronic Surface Properties of TiO2(110) Induced By Intrinsic and Extrinsic Defects." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 6623, no. 23:621-630. PNNL-SA-36718.
  • Cliff J.B., D.J. Gaspar, P.J. Bottomley, and D.D. Myrold. 2002. "Exploration of Inorganic C and N Assimilation by Soil Microbes with Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, no. 8:4067-4073. PNNL-SA-35798.
  • Gaspar D.J., A.S. Lea, M.H. Engelhard, D.R. Baer, R. Miehr, and P.G. Tratnyek. 2002. "Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron." Langmuir 18, no. 20:7688-7693. PNNL-SA-36208.
  • Moeller T.M., M.L. Alexander, M.H. Engelhard, D.J. Gaspar, M.L. Luna, and P.M. Irving. 2002. "Surface Decontamination of Simulated Chemical Warfare Agents Using a Nonequilibrium Plasma with Off-Gas Monitoring." IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 30, no. 4:1454-1459. PNNL-SA-35333.
  • Rouse A.A., C. Szeles, J. Ndap, S. Soldner, K.B. Parnham, D.J. Gaspar, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2002. "Interfacial Chemistry and the Performance of Bromine-etched CdZnTe Radiation Detector Devices." IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 49, no. 4:2005-2009. PNNL-SA-35472.

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas