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Energy and Environment Directorate

Dan Gaspar

Dan Gaspar

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-2544


Dr. Daniel Gaspar is a project manager in the Energy Processes and Division at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Currently, Dan serves as the Team Lead for the High Performance Fuels team within the Co-optimization of Fuels and Engines project, a crosscutting Department of Energy program jointly supported by the Bioenergy Technologies Office and the Vehicle Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. In this role, Dr. Gaspar coordinates the efforts of seven national laboratories aimed at elucidating the connections between biomass derived blendstocks and fuel properties, including links to production pathways, in order to increase system efficiency and reduce energy use and harmful emissions in our transportation system. Dan also serves as PNNL's account manager for EERE Solar Energy Technology Office programs as PNNL, in which role he helps match PNNL capabilities and innovations to solar energy program needs at DOE.

Dr. Gaspar was previously detailed to the DOE in multiple roles, including supporting the Scientific User Facility Division in Basic Energy Sciences, as well as the National Laboratory Task Force of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board while detailed to the Office of the Undersecretary for Science and Technology. Dr. Gaspar also served for more than seven years as manager of the Applied Materials Science Group in the Energy and Environment Directorate, and before that in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. As group manager, Dr. Gaspar focused on developing and deploying materials science capabilities to generate national impact in support of the DOE's energy mission. Dr. Gaspar has published more than 50 journal articles, books and book chapters on materials development and characterization, including a recent book on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) available here.

Research Interests

  • Dr. Gaspar’s personal research interests are focused on the application of surface analysis methods to solve challenging real world problems. Through the application and development of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopy and other techniques, he has contributed to research across a wide spectrum of subjects including the analysis of nanoscale materials, the chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles and environmentally relevant surfaces, TOF-SIMS analysis of bacteria, semiconductor processing, and metal-semiconductor interfaces, leading to the publication of approximately 30 publications.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Chemistry, University of Chicago - 1998
  • B.S., Chemistry, Duke University - 1992

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • 2006 – 2008 Chairman (Chair-elect, past Chair) Applied Surface Science Division, AVS
  • Member of the AVS, American Chemical Society.
  • Technical Expert, International Standards Organization (ISO), Technical Committee 201 (Surface Chemical Analysis), Subcommittee 6 (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry).
  • Member, ASTM Committee E42 on Surface Analysis.
  • Journal reviewer, Surface and Interface Analysis, JVST, Analytical Chemistry, J. Physical Chemistry
  • Proposal reviewer, American Chemical Society, National Science Foundation, ISTC.

PNNL Publications



  • Blochwitz-Nimoth J, A Bhandari, D Boesch, CR Fincher, DJ Gaspar, DW Gotthold, MT Greiner, J Kido, D Kondakov, R Korotkov, VA Krylova, F Loeser, MH Lu, ZH Lu, B Lussem, L Moro, AB Padmaperuma, E Polikarpov, VV Rostovtsev, H Sasabe, G Silverman, ME Thompson, M Tietze, YS Tyan, M Weaver, X Xin , and X Zeng. 2015. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes , ed. Dan Gaspar, Evgueni Polikarpov.  CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. 


  • Bhattacharya P, EN Nasybulin, MH Engelhard, L Kovarik, ME Bowden, S Li, DJ Gaspar, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries." Advanced Functional Materials 24(47):7510-7519.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201402701


  • Rainbolt JE, AB Padmaperuma, N Govind, and DJ Gaspar. 2013. "Substituent effects on the geometric and electronic properties of tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ): A theoretical study." Molecular Simulation 39(5):350-356. 
  • Rainbolt JE, PK Koech, E Polikarpov, JS Swensen, L Cosimbescu, AL Von Ruden, L Wang, LS Sapochak, AB Padmaperuma, and DJ Gaspar. 2013. "Synthesis and characterization of p-type conductivity dopant 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane." Journal of Materials Chemistry C 1(9):1876 - 1884.  doi:10.1039/C3TC00068K


  • Schwenzer B, L Wang, JS Swensen, AB Padmaperuma, G Silverman, R Korotkov, and DJ Gaspar. 2012. "Tuning the Optical Properties of Mesoporous TiO2 Films by Nanoscale Engineering." Langmuir 28(26):10072-10081.  doi:10.1021/la301450h
  • Swensen JS, LF Wang, JE Rainbolt, PK Koech, E Polikarpov, DJ Gaspar, and AB Padmaperuma. 2012. "Characterization of solution processed, p-doped films using hole-only devices and organic field-effect transistors." Organic Electronics 13(12):3085-3090.  doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2012.07.045


  • Cosimbescu L, AB Padmaperuma, and DJ Gaspar. 2011. "7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane based molecular dopants for p-type doping of OLEDs: A theoretical investigation." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 115(46):13498-13503.  doi:10.1021/jp2005869
  • Polikarpov E, PK Koech, L Wang, JS Swensen, L Cosimbescu, JE Rainbolt, AL Von Ruden, DJ Gaspar, and AB Padmaperuma. 2011. "Controlling charge transport in blue organic light-emitting devices by chemical functionalization of host materials." Journal of Photonics for Energy 1:Art. No. 011007.  doi:10.1117/1.3528499


  • Gaspar DJ, and JB Cliff. 2010. "Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Environmental Aerosols." In Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 5, pp. 506-514.  Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom. 
  • Baer DR, DJ Gaspar, P Nachimuthu, SD Techane, and DG Castner. 2010. "Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 396(3):983-1002. 
  • Koech PK, AB Padmaperuma, L Wang, JS Swensen, E Polikarpov, JT Darsell, JE Rainbolt, and DJ Gaspar. 2010. "Synthesis and application of 1,3,4,5,7,8-Hexafluorotetracyanonaphtoquinodimethane (F6-TNAP): A Conductivity Dopant for Organic Light-Emitting Devices." Chemistry of Materials 22(13):3926-3932. 
  • Wang L, JS Swensen, E Polikarpov, DW Matson, CC Bonham, WD Bennett, DJ Gaspar, and AB Padmaperuma. 2010. "Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free transparent anode on flexible substrates." Organic Electronics 11(9):1555-1560.  doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2010.06.018
  • Wang LF, DW Matson, E Polikarpov, JS Swensen, CC Bonham, L Cosimbescu, JJ Berry, DS Ginley, DJ Gaspar, and AB Padmaperuma. 2010. "Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating." Journal of Applied Physics 107(4):043103.  doi:10.1063/1.3282526


  • Bhansali US, E Polikarpov, JS Swensen, W Chen, H Jia, DJ Gaspar, BE Gnade, AB Padmaperuma, and MA Omary. 2009. "High-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex in phosphine oxide host." Applied Physics Letters 95(23):Art. No. 233304. 
  • Koech PK, LS Sapochak, JE Rainbolt, L Cosimbescu, E Polikarpov, JS Swensen, LF Wang, AB Padmaperuma, and DJ Gaspar. 2009. "Design of new anchored p-dopants for high power efficiency OLEDs ." In Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XIII: Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 7415, ed. F So and C Adachi, p. Article No. 741505.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.827298
  • Matson DW, CC Bonham, JS Swensen, L Wang, AB Padmaperuma, DJ Gaspar, JJ Berry, AK Sigdel, CW Gorrie, and DS Ginley. 2009. "Development of large area transparent conducting oxides from a combinatorial lead for organic solid state lighting." In Proceedings of the SPIE: Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XIII, vol. 7415, ed. F So, C Adachi, p. Paper No. 74150X.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.827281
  • Padmaperuma AB, PK Koech, L Cosimbescu, E Polikarpov, JS Swensen, N Chopra, F So, LS Sapochak, and DJ Gaspar. 2009. "Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency." In Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XIII: Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 7415, ed. F So and C Adachi, p. Paper No. 74150H.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.826905


  • Miracle AL, AL Bunn, JM Brandenberger, DJ Gaspar, and JA Ward. 2008. "Fate and transport of titania nanoparticles in freshwater mesocosms." In Proceedings of the International Environmental Nanotechnology Conference: Applications and Implications, October 7-9, 2008, Chicago, Illinois.  Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC. 
  • Baer DR, JE Amonette, MH Engelhard, DJ Gaspar, AS Karakoti, SVNT Kuchibhatla, P Nachimuthu, J Nurmi, Y Qiang, V Sarathy, S Seal, AM Sharma, PG Tratnyek, and CM Wang. 2008. "Characterization Challenges for Nanomaterials." Surface and Interface Analysis 40(3-4):529-537.  doi:10.1002/sia.2726


  • Gaspar D, and DR Baer. 2007. "Thoughts on Prospects for New Characterization Tools." Chapter paper 27 in Productive Nanosystems; a Technology Roadmap: Part 3 Proceedings of the Roadmap Working Group.  Foresight Nanotech Institute, n/a. 


  • Cliff JB, PJ Bottomley, DJ Gaspar, and DD Myrold. 2006. "Nitrogen Mineralization and Assimilation at Millimeter Scales." Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39(3):823-826.  doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.10.005


  • Gaspar DJ, MH Engelhard, MC Henry, and DR Baer. 2005. "Erosion Rate Variations during XPS Sputter Depth Profiling of Nanoporous Films." Surface and Interface Analysis 37(4):417-423. 
  • Alvarez J, RG Cooks, SE Barlow, DJ Gaspar, JH Futrell, and J Laskin. 2005. "Preparation and in situ Characterization of Surfaces Using Soft-Landing in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer." Analytical Chemistry 77(11):3452-3460. 
  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, DJ Gaspar, DW Matson, KH Pecher, JR Williams, and CM Wang. 2005. "Challenges in Applying Surface Analysis Methods to Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials." Journal of Surface Analysis 12(2):101-108. 
  • Cliff JB, KH Jarman, NB Valentine, S Golledge, DJ Gaspar, DS Wunschel, and KL Wahl. 2005. "Differentiation of Spores of Bacillus Subtilis Grown in Different Media by Elemental Characterization using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(11):6524-6530. 
  • Mcintire TM, AS Lea, DJ Gaspar, N Jaitly, Y Dubowski, Q Li, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2005. "Unusual aggregates from the oxidation of alkene self-assembled monolayers: a previously unrecognized mechanism for SAM ozonolysis?" Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 7:3605-3609.  doi:10.1039/b508147e


  • Gaspar DJ, A Laskin, W Wang, SW Hunt, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2004. "TOF-SIMS Analysis of Sea Salt Particles: Imaging and Depth Profiling in the Discovery of an Unrecogized Mechanism for pH Buffering." Applied Surface Science 231-232:520-523.  doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.03.046
  • Gaspar DJ, A Laskin, W Wang, SW Hunt, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2004. "TOF-SIMS Analysis of Sea Salt Particles: Imaging and Depth Profiling in the Discovery of an Unrecognized Mechanism for pH Buffering." Applied Surface Science 231-2(Sp. Iss. SI):520-523. 
  • Cliff JB, DJ Gaspar, PJ Bottomley, and DD Myrold. 2004. "Peak Fitting to Resolve CN- isotope Ratios in Biological and Environmental Samples Using TOF-SIMS. ." In SIMS XIV, proceedings of the fourteenth international conference on secondary ion mass spectrometry and related topics, San Diego, CA, ed. Alfred Benninghoven, pp. 912-916.  Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
  • Cliff JB, DJ Gaspar, PJ Bottomley, and DD Myrold. 2004. "Peak Fitting to Resolve CN-Isotope Ratios in Biological and Environmental Samples using TOF-SIMS." Applied Surface Science 231-232(Sp. Iss. SI):912-916. 
  • Dubowski Y, AL Sumner, EJ Menke, DJ Gaspar, JT Newberg, RC Hoffman, RM Penner, JC Hemminger, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2004. "Interactions of Gaseous Nitric Acid with Surfaces of Environmental Interest." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 6(14):3879-3888. 
  • Tuan AC, JD Bryan, A Pakhomov, V Shutthanandan, S Thevuthasan, DE McCready, DJ Gaspar, MH Engelhard, JW Rogers, Jr, KM Krishnan, DR Gamelin, and SA Chambers. 2004. "Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Cobalt-doped ZnO on a-Al2O3 Single-Crystal Substrates." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 70(5):054424. 


  • Baer DR, DJ Gaspar, MH Engelhard, and AS Lea. 2003. "Beam Effects During AES and XPS Analysis." Chapter 9 in Surface Analysis by Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.  IM Publications, Chichester, United Kingdom. 
  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, and DJ Gaspar. 2003. "Appendix F: Comparing Beam Damage Rates Using Susceptibility Tables." In Surface Analysis by Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, ed. D. Briggs and J.T. Grant, pp. 845-856.  SurfaceSpectra Ltd. & IM Publications, Manchester, United Kingdom. 
  • Donley MS, RA Mantz, AN Khramov, V Balbyshev, LS Kasten, and DJ Gaspar. 2003. "The Self-Assembled Nanophase Particle (SNAP) Process: A Nanoscience Approach to Coatings." Progress in Organic Coatings 47(3-4):401-415. 
  • Laskin A, DJ Gaspar, W Wang, SW Hunt, JP Cowin, SD Colson, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2003. "Reactions at Interfaces As a Source of Sulfate Formation In Sea-Salt Particles." Science 301(5631):340-344. 


  • Gaspar DJ, AS Lea, MH Engelhard, DR Baer, R Miehr, and PG Tratnyek. 2002. "Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron." Langmuir 18(20):7688-7693. 
  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, DJ Gaspar, AS Lea, and CF Windisch, Jr. 2002. "Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types." Surface and Interface Analysis 33:781-790. 
  • Batzill M, B Katsiev, DJ Gaspar, and U Diebold. 2002. "Variations of the Local Electronic Surface Properties of TiO2(110) Induced By Intrinsic and Extrinsic Defects." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 6623(23):621-630. 
  • Cliff JB, DJ Gaspar, PJ Bottomley, and DD Myrold. 2002. "Exploration of Inorganic C and N Assimilation by Soil Microbes with Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68(8):4067-4073. 
  • Moeller TM, ML Alexander, MH Engelhard, DJ Gaspar, ML Luna, and PM Irving. 2002. "Surface Decontamination of Simulated Chemical Warfare Agents Using a Nonequilibrium Plasma with Off-Gas Monitoring." IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 30(4):1454-1459. 
  • Rouse AA, C Szeles, JO Ndap, S Soldner, KB Parnham, DJ Gaspar, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, V Shutthanandan, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2002. "Interfacial Chemistry and the Performance of Bromine-etched CdZnTe Radiation Detector Devices." IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 49(4):2005-2009. 

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas