Skip to Main Content U.S. Department of Energy
Energy and Environment Directorate

Vince Sprenkle

Vince Sprenkle

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-2370

Biography

Dr. Vincent Sprenkle joined PNNL in January 2001 and is currently Technical Group Manager for the Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group at PNNL. This group is focused on the development of electrochemical materials and systems for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. He is also currently project manager for the Department of Energy - Office of Electricity Energy Storage Program at PNNL. This project is focused on the development of electrochemical energy storage technologies to enable renewable integration and to improve grid support. He previously led other projects in the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology and planar Na batteries. Prior to his arrival at PNNL, he was a senior ceramic engineer at Litton Life Support and was responsible for the development of prototype advanced electrochemical oxygen generating system. Dr. Sprenkle currently holds 14 US patents on fuel cells, batteries, and high temperature electrochemical devices with 22 pending patent applications. He was name PNNL Inventor of the Year in 2014 and has been recognized as key contributor on 4 licensing activities while at PNNL. He received a 2009 FLC award for Technology Transfer of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology to Delphi Corporation.

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Chang H., X. Lu, J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, S. Son, Y. Park, and K. Jung, et al. 2018. "“Ni-less" Cathodes for High Energy Density, Intermediate Temperature Na-NiCl2 Batteries." Advanced Materials Interfaces 5, no. 10:Article No. 1701592. PNNL-SA-130933. doi:10.1002/admi.201701592
  • Crawford A.J., Q. Huang, M. Kintner-Meyer, J. Zhang, D.M. Reed, V.L. Sprenkle, and V.V. Viswanathan, et al. 2018. "Lifecycle Comparison of Selected Li-ion Battery Chemistries under Grid and Electric Vehicle Duty Cycle Combinations." Journal of Power Sources 380. PNNL-SA-128874. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.01.080

2017

  • Chang H., N.L. Canfield, K. Jung, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2017. "Advanced Na-NiCl2 Battery using Nickel-Coated Graphite with Core-Shell Microarchitecture." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, no. 13:11609-11614. PNNL-ACT-SA-10199. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b00271
  • Chang H., X. Lu, J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, S. Son, Y. Park, and K. Jung, et al. 2017. "Development of Intermediate Temperature Sodium Nickel Chloride Rechargeable Batteries using Conventional Polymer Sealing Technologies." Journal of Power Sources 348. PNNL-ACT-SA-10210. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059
  • Li G., H. Chang, X. Lu, K. Jung, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2017. "Low Cost and Reliable Sodium-Metal Halide (Na-MH) Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage Application." In TechConnect Briefs 2017: Materials for Energy, Efficiency and Sustainability. 11th Annual TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, May 14-17, 2017, Washington DC, edited by M Laudon and B Romanowicz, 122-125. Danville, California:TechConnect. PNNL-ACT-SA-10226.
  • Lu X., H. Chang, J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, K. Jung, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2017. "Effect of Cathode Thickness on the Performance of Planar Na-NiCl2 Battery." Journal of Power Sources 365. PNNL-SA-125568. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.029
  • Pan H., B. Li, D. Mei, Z. Nie, Y. Shao, G. Li, and X.S. Li, et al. 2017. "Controlling Solid-Liquid Conversion Reactions for Highly Reversible Aqueous Zinc-Iodine Battery." ACS Energy Letters 2. PNNL-SA-128748. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00851
  • Shamie J.S., C.H. Liu, L.L. Shaw, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2017. "New Mechanism for the Reduction of Vanadyl Acetylacetonate to Vanadium Acetylacetonate for Room Temperature Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 10, no. 3:533-540. PNNL-SA-126496. doi:10.1002/cssc.201601126
  • Song J., P. Yan, L. Luo, X. Qi, X. Rong, J. Zheng, and B. Xiao, et al. 2017. "Yolk-Shell Structured Sb@C Anodes for High Energy Na-ion Batteries." Nano Letters 40. PNNL-SA-127468. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.08.051
  • Soto F.A., P. Yan, M.H. Engelhard, A. Marzouk, C. Wang, G. Xu, and Z. Chen, et al. 2017. "Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon." Advanced Materials 29, no. 18:Article No. 1606860. PNNL-SA-121033. doi:10.1002/adma.201606860
  • Wei X., W. Pan, W. Duan, A.M. Hollas, Z. Yang, B. Li, and Z. Nie, et al. 2017. "Materials and Systems for Organic Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 9:2187-2204. PNNL-SA-128015. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00650

2016

  • Cheng Y., D. Choi, K. Han, K.T. Mueller, J. Zhang, V.L. Sprenkle, and J. Liu, et al. 2016. "Toward the Design of High Voltage Magnesium-Lithium Hybrid Batteries Using Dual-Salt Electrolytes." Chemical Communications 52, no. 31:5379-5382. PNNL-SA-115745. doi:10.1039/C6CC00986G
  • Cheng Y., H. Chang, H. Dong, D. Choi, V.L. Sprenkle, J. Liu, and Y. Yao, et al. 2016. "Rechargeable MgLi Hybrid Batteries: Status and Challenges." Journal of Materials Research 31, no. 20:3125-3141. PNNL-SA-119216. doi:10.1557/jmr.2016.331
  • Cheng Y., L. Luo, L. Zhong, J. Chen, B. Li, W. Wang, and S.X. Mao, et al. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 22:13673-13677. PNNL-SA-116513. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197
  • Choi D., X. Li, W.A. Henderson, Q. Huang, S.K. Nune, J.P. Lemmon, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "LiCoPO4 Cathode from a CoHPO4xH2O Nanoplate Precursor for High Voltage Li-ion Batteries." Heliyon 2, no. 2. PNNL-SA-112654. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00081
  • Crawford A.J., E.C. Thomsen, D.M. Reed, D.E. Stephenson, V.L. Sprenkle, J. Liu, and V.V. Viswanathan. 2016. "Development and Validation of Chemistry Agnostic Flow Battery Cost Performance Model and Application to Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Systems." International Journal of Energy Research. PNNL-SA-113966. doi:10.1002/er.3526
  • Estevez L., D.M. Reed, Z. Nie, A.M. Schwarz, M.I. Nandasiri, J.P. Kizewski, and W. Wang, et al. 2016. "Tunable oxygen functional groups as electro-catalysts on graphite felt surfaces for all vanadium flow batteries." ChemSusChem 9, no. 12:1455-1461. PNNL-SA-113820. doi:10.1002/cssc.201600198
  • Li B., J. Liu, Z. Nie, W. Wang, D.M. Reed, J. Liu, and B.P. McGrail, et al. 2016. "Metal-organic frameworks as highly active electrocatalysts for high-energy density, aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow batteries." Nano Letters 16, no. 7:4335-4340. PNNL-SA-116994. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01426
  • Li G., X. Lu, J.Y. Kim, K.D. Meinhardt, H. Chang, N.L. Canfield, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Advanced Intermediate Temperature Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries with Ultra-High Energy Density." Nature Communications 7. PNNL-SA-112622. doi:10.1038/ncomms10683
  • Li X., P. Yan, M.H. Engelhard, A.J. Crawford, V.V. Viswanathan, C.M. Wang, and J. Liu, et al. 2016. "The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries." Nano Energy 27. PNNL-SA-115949. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.07.030
  • Liu T.L., X. Wei, Z. Nie, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2016. "A Total Organic Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing Low Cost and Sustainable Methyl Viologen Anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO Catholyte." Advanced Energy Materials 6, no. 3:Article No. 1501449. PNNL-SA-110796. doi:10.1002/aenm.201501449
  • Lu X., G. Li, K.D. Meinhardt, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Development of Na-beta alumina batteries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: From tubular to planar." Energy Storage Science and Technology (Chuneng Kexue yu Jishu) 5, no. 3:309-316. PNNL-SA-117915.
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B.J. Koeppel, and J.P. Kizewski, et al. 2016. "Stack Developments in a kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163, no. 1:A5211-A5219. PNNL-SA-112057. doi:10.1149/2.0281601jes
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B.J. Koeppel, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Performance of a Low Cost Interdigitated Flow Design on a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 306. PNNL-SA-112126. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.11.089
  • Shen F., W. Luo, J. Dai, Y. Yao, M. Zhu, E. Hitz, and Y. Tang, et al. 2016. "Ultra-thick, Low-Tortuosity, and Mesoporous Wood Carbon Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 6, no. 14:Article No. 1600377. PNNL-SA-115345. doi:10.1002/aenm.201600377
  • Vijayakumar M., Q. Luo, R.B. Lloyd, Z. Nie, X. Wei, B. Li, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2016. "Tuning the perfluorosulfonic acid membrane morphology for vanadium redox flow batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 50:34327-34334. PNNL-SA-115747. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b10744
  • Wang W., and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Energy storage: Redox Flow Batteries Go Organic." Nature Chemistry 8, no. 3:204-206. PNNL-SA-115256. doi:10.1038/nchem.2466
  • Wang Y., P. Yan, J. Xiao, X. Lu, J. Zhang, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Effect of Al2O3 on the Sintering of Garnet-Type Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12." Solid State Ionics 294. PNNL-SA-117511. doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2016.06.013
  • Wei X., W. Duan, J. Huang, L. Zhang, B. Li, D.M. Reed, and W. Xu, et al. 2016. "A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery." ACS Energy Letters 1, no. 4:705-711. PNNL-SA-112127. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00255

2015

  • Canfield N.L., J.Y. Kim, J.F. Bonnett, R.L. Pearson, V.L. Sprenkle, and K. Jung. 2015. "Effects of Fabrication Conditions on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Duplex ß”-Al2O3 Solid Electrolyte." Materials Science and Engineering B: Advanced Functional Solid-state Materials 197. PNNL-ACT-SA-10031. doi:10.1016/j.mseb.2015.03.009
  • Cheng Y., R.M. Stolley, K. Han, Y. Shao, B.W. Arey, N.M. Washton, and K.T. Mueller, et al. 2015. "Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(µ-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 17, no. 20:13307-13314. PNNL-SA-106553. doi:10.1039/C5CP00859J
  • Cosimbescu L., X. Wei, M. Vijayakumar, W. Xu, M.L. Helm, S.D. Burton, and C.M. Sorensen, et al. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5. PNNL-SA-104406. doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Crawford A.J., V.V. Viswanathan, D.E. Stephenson, W. Wang, E.C. Thomsen, D.M. Reed, and B. Li, et al. 2015. "Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model." Journal of Power Sources 293. PNNL-SA-108277. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.05.066
  • Kim J.Y., N.L. Canfield, J.F. Bonnett, V.L. Sprenkle, K. Jung, and I. Hong. 2015. "A Duplex ß”-Al2O3 Solid Electrolyte Consisting of A Thin Dense Layer and A Porous Substrate." Solid State Ionics 278. PNNL-ACT-SA-10030. doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2015.06.013
  • Li B., Z. Nie, M. Vijayakumar, G. Li, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6. PNNL-SA-103966. doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Li G., X. Lu, J.Y. Kim, V.V. Viswanathan, K.D. Meinhardt, M.H. Engelhard, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2015. "Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application." Advanced Energy Materials 5, no. 12:Article No.1500357. PNNL-SA-108976. doi:10.1002/aenm.201570069
  • Lu X., G. Li, J.Y. Kim, K.D. Meinhardt, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2015. "Enhanced Sintering of ß"-Al2O3/YSZ with the Sintering Aids of TiO2 and MnO2." Journal of Power Sources 295. PNNL-SA-111258. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.147
  • Lu X., M.E. Bowden, V.L. Sprenkle, and J. Liu. 2015. "A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage." Advanced Materials 27, no. 39:5915-5922. PNNL-SA-111546. doi:10.1002/adma.201502343
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B. Li, X. Wei, and B.J. Koeppel, et al. 2015. "Performance of NafionŽ N115, NafionŽ NR-212, and NafionŽ NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 285. PNNL-SA-108089. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.099
  • Shamie J.S., C.H. Liu, L.L. Shaw, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2015. "Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions." Scientific Reports 5. PNNL-SA-113345. doi:10.1038/srep11215
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, B. Li, X. Wei, Z. Nie, S. Thevuthasan, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2015. "Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with NafionŽ membranes." Frontiers in Energy Research 3. PNNL-SA-108088. doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00010
  • Vijayakumar M., Z. Nie, E.D. Walter, J.Z. Hu, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80, no. 2:428-437. PNNL-SA-102555. doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139
  • Wei X., G. Xia, B.W. Kirby, E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, Z. Nie, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163, no. 1:A5150-A5153. PNNL-SA-93471. doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
  • Wei X., L. Cosimbescu, W. Xu, J.Z. Hu, M. Vijayakumar, J. Feng, and M.Y. Hu, et al. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5, no. 1:Article No. 1400678. PNNL-SA-97506. doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Wei X., W. Xu, J. Huang, L. Zhang, E.D. Walter, C.W. Lawrence, and M. Vijayakumar, et al. 2015. "Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 127, no. 30:8808-8811. PNNL-SA-107928. doi:10.1002/ange.201501443

2014

  • Cheng Y., L.R. Parent, Y. Shao, C.M. Wang, V.L. Sprenkle, G. Li, and J. Liu. 2014. "Facile Synthesis of Chevrel Phase Nanocubes and their Applications for Multivalent Energy Storage." Chemistry of Materials 26, no. 17:4904-4907. PNNL-SA-101661. doi:10.1021/cm502306c
  • Cheng Y., Y. Shao, J. Zhang, V.L. Sprenkle, J. Liu, and G. Li. 2014. "High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry." Chemical Communications 50, no. 68:9644-9646. PNNL-SA-102822. doi:10.1039/C4CC03620D
  • Li B., M. Gu, Z. Nie, X. Wei, C.M. Wang, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2014. "Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 14, no. 1:158-165. PNNL-SA-98433. doi:10.1021/nl403674a
  • Li B., Q. Luo, X. Wei, Z. Nie, E.C. Thomsen, B. Chen, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2014. "Capacity Decay Mechanism of Microporous Separator-Based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries and its Recovery." ChemSusChem 7, no. 2:577-584. PNNL-SA-94959. doi:10.1002/cssc.201300706
  • Li G., X. Lu, J.Y. Kim, J.P. Lemmon, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C." Journal of Power Sources 249. PNNL-SA-98479. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
  • Li G., X. Lu, J.Y. Kim, M.H. Engelhard, J.P. Lemmon, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2014. "The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation of Na-NiCl2 Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 272. PNNL-SA-101665. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.106
  • Lu X., G. Li, J.Y. Kim, D. Mei, J.P. Lemmon, V.L. Sprenkle, and J. Liu. 2014. "Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage." Nature Communications 5. PNNL-SA-99549. doi:10.1038/ncomms5578
  • Viswanathan V.V., A.J. Crawford, D.E. Stephenson, S. Kim, W. Wang, B. Li, and G.W. Coffey, et al. 2014. "Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 247. PNNL-SA-91534. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.12.023
  • Wei X., W. Xu, M. Vijayakumar, L. Cosimbescu, T.L. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26, no. 45:7649-7653. PNNL-SA-105126. doi:10.1002/adma.201403746

2013

  • Chen D., S. Kim, V.L. Sprenkle, and M.A. Hickner. 2013. "Composite blend polymer membranes with increased proton selectivity and lifetime for vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Power Sources 231. PNNL-SA-89825. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.007
  • Kim S., E.C. Thomsen, G. Xia, Z. Nie, J. Bao, K.P. Recknagle, and W. Wang, et al. 2013. "1 kW / 1kWh Advanced Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Utilizing Mixed Acid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 237. PNNL-SA-92689. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.045
  • Li B., L. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B. Chen, X. Wei, and Q. Luo, et al. 2013. "Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization." Journal of Power Sources 229. PNNL-SA-89815. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.119
  • Li B., M. Gu, Z. Nie, Y. Shao, Q. Luo, X. Wei, and X. Li, et al. 2013. "Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 13, no. 3:1330-1335. PNNL-SA-92494. doi:10.1021/nl400223v
  • Li G., X. Lu, J.Y. Kim, J.P. Lemmon, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2013. "Cell Degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) Battery." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1, no. 47:14935 - 14942. PNNL-SA-98362. doi:10.1039/C3TA13644B
  • Liu J., J. Zhang, Z. Yang, J.P. Lemmon, C.H. Imhoff, G.L. Graff, and L. Li, et al. 2013. "Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid." Advanced Functional Materials 23, no. 8:929-946. PNNL-SA-87308. doi:10.1002/adfm.201200690
  • Lu X., B.W. Kirby, W. Xu, G. Li, J.Y. Kim, J.P. Lemmon, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2013. "Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6, no. 1:299 - 306. PNNL-SA-91777. doi:10.1039/C2EE23606K
  • Lu X., G. Li, J.Y. Kim, J.P. Lemmon, V.L. Sprenkle, and Z. Yang. 2013. "A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6, no. 6:1837-1843. PNNL-SA-90513. doi:10.1039/C3EE24244G
  • Lu X., J.P. Lemmon, J.Y. Kim, V.L. Sprenkle, and Z. Yang. 2013. "High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery." Journal of Power Sources 224. PNNL-SA-91778. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.108
  • Luo Q., L. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, X. Wei, B. Li, and B. Chen, et al. 2013. "Capacity Decay and Remediation of Nafion-based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 6, no. 2:268-274. PNNL-SA-89997. doi:10.1002/cssc.201200730
  • Reed D.M., G.W. Coffey, E.S. Mast, N.L. Canfield, J. Mansurov, X. Lu, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2013. "Wetting of Sodium on ß?-Al2O3/YSZ Composites for Low Temperature Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 227. PNNL-SA-89519. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.034
  • Vijayakumar M., W. Wang, Z. Nie, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.Z. Hu. 2013. "Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 241. PNNL-SA-95082. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.072
  • Wei X., Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Nie, E. Miller, J. Chambers, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2013. "Performance Evaluation of Microporous Separator in Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." ECS Transactions 45, no. 26:17-24. PNNL-SA-88565. doi:10.1149/04526.0017ecst
  • Wei X., Z. Nie, Q. Luo, B. Li, B. Chen, K.L. Simmons, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2013. "Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane." Advanced Energy Materials 3, no. 9:1215-1220. PNNL-SA-91588. doi:10.1002/aenm.201201112
  • Wei X., Z. Nie, Q. Luo, B. Li, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2013. "Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160, no. 8:A1215 - A1218. PNNL-SA-92548.

2012

  • Li G., X. Lu, C.A. Coyle, J.Y. Kim, J.P. Lemmon, V.L. Sprenkle, and Z. Yang. 2012. "Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries." Journal of Power Sources 220. PNNL-SA-85553. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.07.089
  • Lu X., G. Li, J.Y. Kim, J.P. Lemmon, V.L. Sprenkle, and Z. Yang. 2012. "The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 215. PNNL-SA-85234. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.020
  • Powell M.R., K.D. Meinhardt, V.L. Sprenkle, L.A. Chick, and G.L. Mcvay. 2012. "Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation." Journal of Power Sources 205. PNNL-SA-84732. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.01.098
  • Stephenson D.E., S. Kim, F. Chen, E.C. Thomsen, V.V. Viswanathan, W. Wang, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2012. "Electrochemical Model of the Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 159, no. 12:A1993-A2000. PNNL-SA-88363. doi:10.1149/2.052212jes

2010

  • Lu X., G.W. Coffey, K.D. Meinhardt, V.L. Sprenkle, Z. Yang, and J.P. Lemmon. 2010. "High Power Planar Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery." ECS Transactions 28, no. 22:7-13. PNNL-SA-73438. doi:10.1149/1.3492326
  • Lu X., J.P. Lemmon, V.L. Sprenkle, and Z. Yang. 2010. "Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status and Challenges." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 62, no. 9:31-36. PNNL-SA-74345.

2007

  • Mukerjee S., K. Haltiner, R. Kerr, L.A. Chick, V.L. Sprenkle, K.D. Meinhardt, and C. Lu, et al. 2007. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development: Latest Results." ECS Transactions 7, no. 1:59-65. PNWD-SA-8520. doi:10.1149/1.2729074
  • Weil K.S., E.S. Mast, and V. Sprenkle. 2007. "Agglomeration behavior of solid nickel on polycrystalline barium titanate." Materials Letters 61, no. 28:4993-4996. PNNL-SA-57240. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2007.03.088

2006

  • Kim J.Y., V.L. Sprenkle, N.L. Canfield, K.D. Meinhardt, and L.A. Chick. 2006. "Effects of Chrome Contamination on the Performance of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O-3 Cathode Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 153, no. 5:A880-A886. PNWD-SA-7101. doi:10.1149/1.2181435
  • Weil K.S., E.S. Mast, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2006. "WETTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUB-MICRON BASE METAL ELECTRODES IN BaTiO3 MULTILAYER CAPACITORS." In Advances in Dielectric Materials and Electronic Devices - Proceedings of the107th Annual Conference of the American Ceramic Society, April 10-13, 2005, Baltimore, Maryland, edited by KM Nair, et al, 174, 259-265. Westerville, Ohio:American Ceramic Society. PNWD-SA-6974.

2005

  • Kim J.Y., N.L. Canfield, L.A. Chick, K.D. Meinhardt, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2005. "CHROMIUM POISONING EFFECTS ON VARIOUS CATHODES." In Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, edited by NP Bansal, 26, 129-138. Westerville, Ohio:American Ceramic Society. PNNL-SA-43945. doi:10.1002/9780470291245.ch15
  • Mukerjee S., K. Haltiner, S. Shaffer, K.D. Meinhardt, L.A. Chick, V.L. Sprenkle, and K.S. Weil, et al. 2005. "DEVELOPMENT UPDATE ON DELPHI'S SOFC STACK." In SOFC-IX, Proceedings of the 207th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, May 15-20, 2005, Quebec City, Quebec, edited by SC Singhal and J Mitzusaki, 1, 48-58. Pennington, New Jersey:Electrochemical Society. PNWD-SA-6801.

2004

  • Simner S.P., M.D. Anderson, J.E. Coleman, J.Y. Kim, K.D. Meinhardt, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.W. Stevenson. 2004. "SOFC Cathode Interaction with Volatile Chromia Species." In 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar: November 1-5, 2004, San Antonio, Texas. Washington, District Of Columbia:Courtesy Associates. PNNL-SA-42269.

2003

  • Mukerjee S., S.J. Shaffer, J. Zizelman, L.A. Chick, S. Baskaran, Y.S. Chou, and C.A. Coyle, et al. 2003. "Development Of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack By Delphi And Battelle." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells VIII (SOFC VIII). Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, edited by S.C. Singhal; M. Kokiya, 2003-07, 88-97. Pennington, New Jersey:The Electrochemical Society, Inc. PNWD-SA-5904.
  • Simner S.P., J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, K.D. Meinhardt, J.P. Shelton, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.W. Stevenson. 2003. "Development of Lanthanum Ferrite SOFC Cathodes." Journal of Power Sources 113, no. 1:1-10. PNNL-SA-36956.
  • Stevenson J.W., S. Baskaran, L.A. Chick, Y.S. Chou, J.E. Deibler, M.A. Khaleel, and O.A. Marina, et al. 2003. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells VIII (SOFC VIII). Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, edited by S.C. Singhal; M Kokiya, 2003-07, 31-42. Pennington, New Jersey:The Electrochemical Society, Inc. PNNL-SA-36986.

2002

  • Simner S.P., J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, K.D. Meinhardt, J.P. Shelton, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.W. Stevenson. 2002. "Development of Cathode Materials for Low Temperature SOFCs." In 2002 Fuel Cell Seminar: Fuel Cells - Reliable, Clean Energy for the World, November 19-21, 2002, Palm Springs, California., 344-347. Washington, District Of Columbia:Fuel Cell Seminar. PNNL-SA-37651.
  • Simner S.P., J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, K.D. Meinhardt, V. Sprenkle, and J.W. Stevenson. 2002. "Optimized Lanthanum Ferrite-Based Cathods for Anode-Supported SOFCs." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 5, no. 7:A173-A175. PNNL-SA-52069. doi:10.1149/1.1483156
  • Simner S.P., J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, K.D. Meinhardt, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.W. Stevenson. 2002. "Optimized Lanathanum Ferrite-Based Cathodes for Anode-Supported SOFCs." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 5, no. 7:A173-A175. PNNL-SA-35877.

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas

Resources

Contacts