Skip to Main Content U.S. Department of Energy
Energy and Environment Directorate

Carlos Fernandez

Carlos Fernandez

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 371-7020


Dr. Fernandez worked at the Center of Excellence for Products and Processes of Cordoba (CEPROCOR) in Argentina from 1997 to 2002 as a Research Chemist on the development and validation of analytical methods for the industry and governmental sectors. After completing his PhD under the direction of Prof. Chien M. Wai on 2006 he was hired as a post-doctoral associate at the Laboratory with Dr. Shane Addleman (Mid-2006 to Mid-2008) where he developed the synthesis and separation/ purification of metallic nanocrystals using environmentally amenable supercritical solvents (J. Phys Chem C 2008, Small 2008, Langmuir 2009). Dr. Fernandez is currently a Senior Research Scientist working on the engineering, characterization and scaling up of nanoporous crystalline supramolecular structures for a number of applications including gas capture/separation, sensing and catalysis. He currently has 17 publications in international per-reviewed journals, he is a per-reviewer of a number of international articles and his work has been featured in the cover of two journal magazines of the Royal Chemical Society.

Research Interests

  • Carbon management and global warming
  • Porous organic,inorganic and metal-organichybrid structures
  • Gas storage and separation
  • Nanomaterials for sensing and catalysis
  • Hierarchically ordered structures
  • High pressure subcritical and supercritical fluids.
  • Lignocellulosic biomass processing for renewable energy technology
  • Powder X-ray diffraction
  • Electron and optical microscopy
  • IR and UV-Vis Absorption and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy
  • Gas chromatography coupled to Mass and FTIR spectroscopy
  • Multi-gas thermogravimetric and volumetric analysis

Education and Credentials

  • Postdoctoral Research Associate, Nanomaterials Processing in Supercritical Fluids, PNNL, 2006-2008
  • Ph.D., Nanotechnology and Supercritical Fluids, University of Idaho, 2006
  • B.S. Physical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, 1997

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member of American Chemical Society
  • Member of Materials Research Society
  • Peer reviewer for Langmuir (ACS), Chemical Communications (RSC), Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (RSC), Journal of Materials Chemistry (RSC), Crystal Growth and Design (ACS), Green Chemistry (RSC), and Journal of Solid State Chemistry (Elsevier)

Awards and Recognitions

  • Outstanding Publication Award, June, 2009
  • Outstanding Publication Award, May, 2009
  • Outstanding Publication Award, January, 2009
  • Outstanding Performance Award, November, 2008
  • Department of Energy, DOE-EPSCoR, Fellowship for “Synthesis and Characterization of Metallic and Semiconductor Nanoparticles in Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide.” 2004-2006.
  • Cordoba Council for Scientific Research fellowship for the “Study of the mechanism and dynamics of Atmospheric reactions with molecular lasers and plasma laser spectroscopy.” 1996

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Liu J., M.D. Bearden, C.A. Fernandez, L.S. Fifield, S.K. Nune, R.K. Motkuri, and P.K. Koech, et al. 2018. "Techno-economic analysis of magnesium extraction from seawater via a catalyzed organo-metathetical process." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 70, no. 3:431-435. PNNL-SA-119113. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2735-6


  • Childers M.I., M. Nguyen, K.A. Rod, P.K. Koech, W. Um, J. Chun, and V. Glezakou, et al. 2017. "Polymer-Cement Composites with Self-Healing Ability for Geothermal and Fossil Energy Applications." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 11:4708-4718. PNNL-SA-127162. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00344
  • Childers M.I., M.C. Endres, C.A. Burns, B.J. Garcia, J. Liu, T.W. Wietsma, and A.H. Bonneville, et al. 2017. "Novel Highly Dispersible, Thermally Stable Core/Shell Proppants for Geothermal Applications." Geothermics 70. PNNL-SA-121506. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2017.05.013
  • Dettmer A., R. Ball, T.B. Boving, N.A. Khan, T. Schaub, N. Sudasinghe, and C.A. Fernandez, et al. 2017. "Stabilization and prolonged reactivity of aqueous-phase ozone with cyclodextrin." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 196. PNNL-SA-124769. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2016.11.003


  • Fernandez C.A., H. Shao, A. Bonneville, T. Varga, and L. Zhong. 2016. "On the Versatility of Rheoreversible, Stimuli-responsive Hydraulic-Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Effect of Reservoir pH." In Proceedings of the 41st Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, February 22-24, 2016, Stanford, California, Paper No SGP-TR-209. Red Hook, New York:Curran Associates Inc. PNNL-SA-116023.
  • Kabilan S., H.B. Jung, A.P. Kuprat, A. Beck, T. Varga, C.A. Fernandez, and W. Um. 2016. "Numerical Simulation of Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement Fractures after Geomechanical Stress and Geochemical Reactions Using X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging." Environmental Science & Technology 50, no. 12:6180-6188. PNNL-SA-115077. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b00159
  • Zhang W., D. Banerjee, J. Liu, H.T. Schaef, J.V. Crum, C.A. Fernandez, and R.K. Kukkadapu, et al. 2016. "Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications." Advanced Materials 28, no. 18:3572-3577. PNNL-SA-112948. doi:10.1002/adma.201600259


  • Banerjee D., A. Cairns, J. Liu, R.K. Motkuri, S.K. Nune, C.A. Fernandez, and R. Krishna, et al. 2015. "Potential of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Separation of Xenon and Krypton." Accounts of Chemical Research 48, no. 2:211-219. PNNL-SA-104995. doi:10.1021/ar5003126
  • Fernandez C.A., S.K. Nune, H.V. Annapureddy, L.X. Dang, B.P. McGrail, F. Zheng, and E. Polikarpov, et al. 2015. "Hydrophobic and moisture-stable metal-organic frameworks." Dalton Transactions 44, no. 30:13490 - 13497. PNNL-SA-106696. doi:10.1039/C5DT00606F
  • Howe D.T., D.J. Taasevigen, M.A. Gerber, M.J. Gray, C.A. Fernandez, L. Saraf, and M. Garcia-Perez, et al. 2015. "Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue." Energy and Fuels 29, no. 12:8035-8046. PNNL-SA-112332. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01808
  • Jeon J., L. Zhang, J. Lutkenhaus, D.D. Laskar, J.P. Lemmon, D. Choi, and M.I. Nandasiri, et al. 2015. "Controlling Porosity in Lignin-Derived Nanoporous Carbon for Supercapacitor Applications." ChemSusChem 8, no. 3:428-432. PNNL-SA-106038. doi:10.1002/cssc.201402621
  • Jung H., K. Carroll, S. Kabilan, D.J. Heldebrant, D.W. Hoyt, L. Zhong, and T. Varga, et al. 2015. "Stimuli-Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids as a Greener Alternative to Support Geothermal and Fossil Energy Production." Green Chemistry 17, no. 5:2799-2812. PNNL-SA-106027. doi:10.1039/c4gc01917b
  • Polikarpov E., D. Catalini, A.B. Padmaperuma, P. Das, T.L. Lemmon, B.W. Arey, and C.A. Fernandez. 2015. "A High Efficiency Rare Earth-Free Orange Emitting Phosphor." Optical Materials 46. PNNL-SA-104437. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2015.04.013
  • Shao H., S. Kabilan, S.A. Stephens, N. Suresh, A. Beck, T. Varga, and P.F. Martin, et al. 2015. "Environmentally Friendly, Rheoreversible, Hydraulic-fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems." Geothermics 58. PNNL-SA-105984. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2015.07.010


  • Bonneville A., H. Jung, H. Shao, S. Kabilan, W. Um, K.C. Carroll, and T. Varga, et al. 2014. "Stimuli Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Energy Production (Part II)." In American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting, December 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, California, Abstract #H43A-0934. Washington, Dc:American Geophysical Union. PNNL-SA-104641.
  • Fernandez C.A., P.F. Martin, H.T. Schaef, M.E. Bowden, P.K. Thallapally, L.X. Dang, and W. Xu, et al. 2014. "An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework." Scientific Reports 12, no. 3:Article No. 6114. PNNL-SA-105621. doi:10.1038/srep06114
  • Jung H., S. Kabilan, J.P. Carson, A.P. Kuprat, W. Um, P.F. Martin, and M.E. Dahl, et al. 2014. "Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement-basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration." Applied Geochemistry 47. PNNL-SA-106261. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.04.010
  • Liu J., C.A. Fernandez, P.F. Martin, P.K. Thallapally, and D.M. Strachan. 2014. "A Two-Column Method for the Separation of Kr and Xe from Process Off-Gases." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 53, no. 32:12893-12899. PNNL-SA-100864. doi:10.1021/ie502156h
  • Motkuri R.K., J. Liu, C.A. Fernandez, S.K. Nune, P.K. Thallapally, and B.P. McGrail. 2014. "Metal-Organic Frameworks - Synthesis and Applications." In Industrial Catalysis and Separations: Innovations for Process Intensification, edited by KV Raghavan and BM Reddy. 61-103. Waretown, New Jersey:Apple Academic Press Inc. PNNL-SA-97713.
  • Um W., H. Jung, S. Kabilan, C.A. Fernandez, and C.F. Brown. 2014. "Geochemical and geomechanical effects on wellbore cement fractures." Energy Procedia 63. PNNL-SA-105137. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.613
  • Um W., H. Jung, S. Kabilan, D. Suh, and C.A. Fernandez. 2014. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures: Data Information for Wellbore Reduced Order Model. PNNL-23148. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.


  • Fernandez C.A., J. Liu, P.K. Thallapally, and D.M. Strachan. 2012. "Switching Kr/Xe Selectivity with Temperature in a Metal-Organic Framework." Journal of the American Chemical Society 134, no. 22:9046-9049. PNNL-SA-85894. doi:10.1021/ja302071t
  • Fernandez C.A., P.K. Thallapally, and B.P. McGrail. 2012. "Insights into the Temperature-Dependent “Breathing” of a Flexible Fluorinated Metal-Organic Framework." ChemPhysChem 13, no. 14:3275-3281. PNNL-SA-88461. doi:10.1002/cphc.201200243
  • Padmaperuma A.B., and C.A. Fernandez. 2012. "Heteroleptic cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes with charge transporting groups: A theoretical study." In Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XVI, August 12, 2012, San Diego, California. Proceedings of the SPIE, 8476. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-88459. doi:10.1117/12.949510


  • Motkuri R.K., P.K. Thallapally, S.K. Nune, C.A. Fernandez, B.P. McGrail, J.L. Atwood, and J.L. Atwood. 2011. "Role of hydrocarbons in pore expansion and contraction of a flexible metal-organic framework." Chemical Communications 47, no. 25:7077-7079. PNNL-SA-77576. doi:10.1039/c1cc11738f


  • Fernandez C.A., P.K. Thallapally, J. Liu, and C.H. Peden. 2010. "Effect of Produced HCl during the Catalysis on Micro- and Mesoporous MOFs." Crystal Growth & Design 10, no. 9:4118-4122. PNNL-SA-70760. doi:10.1021/cg100796e
  • Fernandez C.A., P.K. Thallapally, R.K. Motkuri, S.K. Nune, J.C. Sumrak, J. Tian, and J. Liu. 2010. "Gas-Induced Expansion and Contraction of a Fluorinated Metal-Organic Framework." Crystal Growth & Design 10, no. 3:1037-1039. PNNL-SA-68508. doi:10.1021/cg9014948
  • Fernandez C.A., S.K. Nune, R.K. Motkuri, P.K. Thallapally, C.M. Wang, J. Liu, and G.J. Exarhos, et al. 2010. "Synthesis, characterization, and application of metal organic framework nanostructures." Langmuir 26, no. 24:18591-18594. PNNL-SA-75145. doi:10.1021/la103590t
  • Motkuri R.K., J. Tian, P.K. Thallapally, C.A. Fernandez, S.J. Dalgarno, J.E. Warren, and J.E. Warren, et al. 2010. "Flexible metal-organic supramolecular isomers for gas separation." Chemical Communications 46, no. 4:538-540. PNNL-SA-65215. doi:10.1039/b913910a
  • Thallapally P.K., C.A. Fernandez, R.K. Motkuri, S.K. Nune, J. Liu, and C.H. Peden. 2010. "Micro and Mesoporous Metal Organic Frameworks for Catalysis Applications." Dalton Transactions 39, no. 7:1692 - 1694. PNNL-SA-68558. doi:10.1039/b921118g
  • Thallapally P.K., R.K. Motkuri, C.A. Fernandez, B.P. McGrail, and G.s. Behrooz. 2010. "Prussian Blue Analogues for CO2 and SO2 Capture and Separation Applications." Inorganic Chemistry 49, no. 11:4909-4915. PNWD-SA-8578. doi:10.1021/ic902397w


  • Fernandez C.A., J. Roberts, E.M. Hoppes, G.E. Fryxell, C.M. Wang, J.T. Bays, and M.G. Warner, et al. 2009. "Effect of the Ligand Shell Composition on the Dispersibility and Transport of Gold Nanocrystals in Near Critical Solvents." Langmuir 25, no. 9:4900-4906. PNWD-SA-8342. doi:10.1021/la804058x
  • Fernandez C.A., J. Roberts, E.M. Hoppes, R.J. Wiacek, G.E. Fryxell, J.T. Bays, and M.G. Warner, et al. 2009. "Advancements Toward the Greener Processing of Engineered Nanomaterials -- Effect of Core Size on the Dispersibility and Transport of Gold Nanocrystals in Near-Critical Solvents." Small 5, no. 8:961-969. PNWD-SA-8223. doi:10.1002/smll.200801207


  • Fernandez C.A., E.M. Hoppes, J.G. Bekhazi, C.M. Wang, R.J. Wiacek, M.G. Warner, and G.E. Fryxell, et al. 2008. "Tuning and Quantifying the Dispersibility of Gold Nanocrystals in Liquid and Supercritical Solvents." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112, no. 36:13947-13957. PNWD-SA-8129. doi:10.1021/jp8038237
  • Fernandez C.A., R.J. Wiacek, P. Nachimuthu, G.E. Fryxell, A.M. Pierson, C.L. Warner, and M.G. Warner, et al. 2008. "A Simple Method for the Prevention of Non-Specific Adsorption by Nanocrystals onto Surfaces." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 8, no. 11:5781-5786. PNWD-SA-7926. doi:10.1166/jnn.2008.320
  • Thallapally P.K., J. Tian, R.K. Motkuri, C.A. Fernandez, S.J. Dalgarno, B.P. McGrail, and J.E. Warren, et al. 2008. "Flexible (Breathing) Interpenetrated Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Separation Applications." Journal of the American Chemical Society 130, no. 50:16842-16843. PNNL-SA-61822. doi:10.1021/ja806391k

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas