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Energy and Environment Directorate

Guosheng Li

Guosheng Li

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 371-6520


Dr. Guosheng Li is a Senior Scientist (S&E4) in Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group in the Energy Processes and Materials Division at PNNL. He has broad knowledge in Electrochemistry, Catalysis, Spectroscopy, and Materials Science. For past few years, he has been working on advanced electrolytes (liquid and solid-state), synthesis of cathode materials, cathode reaction mechanisms, and various interfacial problems encountered in rechargeable batteries. He is also an expert in materials characterization using various spectroscopic instruments including in situ Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy.

Before joining PNNL in 2007, he has been a postdoctoral research associate at University of Southern California from 2003. Dr. Li has more than 55 peer-reviewed journal publications, 1 book chapter and holds 5 U.S. granted patents and 10 patent applications.

Research Interests

  • Developing rechargeable battery chemistries and devices (high temperature Na batteries, Mg batteries, Mg - Li (Na) hybrid batteries, Li batteries and flow batteries, etc.) for stationary energy storage and electric vehicle applications.
  • In situ (Operando) spectroscopic characterization for catalysts and cathode materials.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry, Kyunghee University, South Korea.
  • M.S. in Physical Chemistry, Kyunghee University, South Korea.
  • B.E. in Physical Engineering, Tsing Hua University, China.

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Adjunct Professor, DGIST, South Korea, 2016-2018.
  • The Electrochemical Society.
  • Materials Research Society.
  • American Chemical Society.

Awards and Recognitions

  • PNNL 2016 Pathway to Excellence Patent Award Honoree.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate 2015 Outstanding Publication Award.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate 2015 Exceptional Performance Year Award.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate 2010-2012, 2014 Outstanding Performance Award.

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Chang HJ, X Lu, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, S Son, YC Park, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2018. "“Ni-less" Cathodes for High Energy Density, Intermediate Temperature Na-NiCl2 Batteries." Advanced Materials Interfaces 5(10):Article No. 1701592.  doi:10.1002/admi.201701592


  • Li G, HJ Chang, X Lu, K Jung, and VL Sprenkle. 2017. "Low Cost and Reliable Sodium-Metal Halide (Na-MH) Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage Application." In TechConnect Briefs 2017: Materials for Energy, Efficiency and Sustainability. 11th Annual TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, May 14-17, 2017, Washington DC, no. Chapter 3, ed. M Laudon and B Romanowicz, pp. 122-125.  TechConnect, DANVILLE, CA. 
  • Chang HJ, NL Canfield, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Advanced Na-NiCl2 Battery using Nickel-Coated Graphite with Core-Shell Microarchitecture." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9(13):11609-11614.  doi:10.1021/acsami.7b00271
  • Chang HJ, X Lu, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, S Son, YC Park, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Development of Intermediate Temperature Sodium Nickel Chloride Rechargeable Batteries using Conventional Polymer Sealing Technologies." Journal of Power Sources 348:150-157.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059
  • Howe DT, DJ Taasevigen, M Garcia-Perez, A McDonald, G Li, and MP Wolcott. 2017. "Steam Gasification of a Thermally Pretreated High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Digester Residue." Energy 119:400-407.  doi:10.1016/
  • Li Y, Q An, Y Cheng, Y Liang, Y Ren, CJ Sun, H Dong, Z Tang, G Li, and Y Yao. 2017. "A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery." Nano Energy 34:188-194.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.02.012
  • Lopez-Ruiz JA, AR Cooper, G Li, and KO Albrecht. 2017. "Enhanced Hydrothermal Stability and Catalytic Activity of LaxZryOz Mixed Oxides for the Ketonization of Acetic Acid in the Aqueous Condensed Phase." ACS Catalysis 7(10):6400-6412.  doi:10.1021/acscatal.7b01071
  • Lu X, HJ Chang, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Effect of Cathode Thickness on the Performance of Planar Na-NiCl2 Battery." Journal of Power Sources 365:456-462.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.029
  • Pan H, B Li, D Mei, Z Nie, Y Shao, G Li, XS Li, KS Han, KT Muller, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2017. "Controlling Solid-Liquid Conversion Reactions for Highly Reversible Aqueous Zinc-Iodine Battery." ACS Energy Letters 2:2674-2680.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00851


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, HJ Chang, NL Canfield, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Advanced Intermediate Temperature Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries with Ultra-High Energy Density." Nature Communications 7:Article No. 10683.  doi:10.1038/ncomms10683
  • Cheng Y, D Choi, KS Han, KT Mueller, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2016. "Toward the Design of High Voltage Magnesium-Lithium Hybrid Batteries Using Dual-Salt Electrolytes." Chemical Communications 52(31):5379-5382.  doi:10.1039/C6CC00986G
  • Cheng Y, HJ Chang, H Dong, D Choi, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, Y Yao, and G Li. 2016. "Rechargeable MgLi Hybrid Batteries: Status and Challenges." Journal of Materials Research 31(20):3125-3141.  doi:10.1557/jmr.2016.331
  • Cheng Y, L Luo, L Zhong, J Chen, B Li, W Wang, SX Mao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(22):13673-13677.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, V Raju, X Ji, BL Mehdi, KS Han, MH Engelhard, G Li, ND Browning, KT Mueller, and J Liu. 2016. "Molecular Storage of Mg Ions with Vanadium Oxide Nanoclusters." Advanced Functional Materials 26(20):3446-3453.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201505501
  • Dong H, Y Li, Y Liang, G Li, CJ Sun, Y Ren, Y Lu, and Y Yao. 2016. "A magnesium-sodium hybrid battery with high operating voltage." Chemical Communications 52(53):8263-8266.  doi:10.1039/C6CC03081E
  • Lu X, G Li, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Development of Na-beta alumina batteries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: From tubular to planar." Energy Storage Science and Technology (Chuneng Kexue yu Jishu) 5(3):309-316. 


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, VV Viswanathan, KD Meinhardt, MH Engelhard, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application." Advanced Energy Materials 5(12):Article No.1500357.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201570069
  • Cheng Y, RM Stolley, KS Han, Y Shao, BW Arey, NM Washton, KT Mueller, ML Helm, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2015. "Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(µ-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 17(20):13307-13314.  doi:10.1039/C5CP00859J
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, LR Parent, ML Sushko, G Li, P Sushko, ND Browning, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Interface Promoted Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Tin-Antimony Alloys." Advanced Materials 27(42):6598-6605.  doi:10.1002/adma.201502378
  • Li B, Z Nie, M Vijayakumar, G Li, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 6303.  doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Enhanced Sintering of ß"-Al2O3/YSZ with the Sintering Aids of TiO2 and MnO2." Journal of Power Sources 295:167-174.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.147


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C ." Journal of Power Sources 249:414-417.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C." Journal of Power Sources 249:414-417.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, MH Engelhard, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation of Na-NiCl2 Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 272:398-403.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.106
  • Cheng Y, LR Parent, Y Shao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2014. "Facile Synthesis of Chevrel Phase Nanocubes and their Applications for Multivalent Energy Storage." Chemistry of Materials 26(17):4904-4907.  doi:10.1021/cm502306c
  • Cheng Y, TL Liu, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, J Liu, and G Li. 2014. "Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(8):2473 - 2477.  doi:10.1039/C3TA15113A
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2014. "High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry." Chemical Communications 50(68):9644-9646.  doi:10.1039/C4CC03620D
  • Cui J, JP Choi, G Li, E Polikarpov, JT Darsell, MJ Kramer, N Zarkevich, LL Wang, DD Johnson, M Marinescu, Q Huang, H Wu, NV Vuong, and JP Liu. 2014. "Development of MnBi permanent magnet: neutron diffraction of MnBi powder." Journal of Applied Physics 115(17):Article No. 17A743.  doi:10.1063/1.4867230
  • Cui J, JP Choi, G Li, E Polikarpov, JT Darsell, NR Overman, MJ Olszta, DK Schreiber, ME Bowden, TC Droubay, MJ Kramer, N Zarkevich, LL Wang, DD Johnson, M Marinescu, I Takeuchi, Q Huang, H Wu, H Reeve, NV Vuong, and JP Liu. 2014. "Thermal Stability of MnBi Magnetic Materials." Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter 26(6):Article No. 064212.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/26/6/064212
  • Cui J, JP Choi, E Polikarpov, ME Bowden, W Xie, G Li, Z Nie, N Zarkevich, MJ Kramer, and DD Johnson. 2014. "Effect of Composition and Heat Treatment on MnBi Magnetic Materials." Acta Materialia 79:374-381.  doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2014.07.034
  • Du Y, TC Droubay, AV Liyu, G Li, and SA Chambers. 2014. "Self-corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy For Atom Flux Measurements In Molecular Beam Epitaxy." Applied Physics Letters 104(16):Article No. 163110.  doi:10.1063/1.4873544
  • Liu TL, Y Shao, G Li, M Gu, JZ Hu, S Xu, Z Nie, X Chen, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2014. "A Facile Approach Using MgCl2 to Formulate High Performance Mg2+ Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(10):3430 - 3438.  doi:10.1039/c3ta14825d
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, D Mei, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2014. "Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 4578.  doi:10.1038/ncomms5578
  • Shao Y, M Gu, X Li, Z Nie, P Zuo, G Li, TL Liu, J Xiao, Y Cheng, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 14(1):255-260.  doi:10.1021/nl403874y
  • Shao Y, NN Rajput, JZ Hu, MY Hu, TL Liu, Z Wei, M Gu, X Deng, S Xu, KS Han, J Wang, Z Nie, G Li, K Zavadil, J Xiao, CM Wang, WA Henderson, J Zhang, Y Wang, KT Mueller, KA Persson, and J Liu. 2014. "Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries." Nano Energy 2015(12):750-759.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.12.028


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Cell Degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) Battery." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(47):14935 - 14942.  doi:10.1039/C3TA13644B
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2013. "A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(6):1837-1843.  doi:10.1039/C3EE24244G
  • Lu X, BW Kirby, W Xu, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and ZG Yang. 2013. "Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(1):299 - 306.  doi:10.1039/C2EE23606K
  • Shao Y, TL Liu, G Li, M Gu, Z Nie, MH Engelhard, J Xiao, D Lu, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance." Scientific Reports 3:Article No. 3130.  doi:10.1038/srep03130


  • Li G, X Lu, CA Coyle, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2012. "Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries." Journal of Power Sources 220:193-198.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.07.089
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2012. "The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 215:288-295.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.020


  • Dagle RA, AM Karim, G Li, Y Su, and DL King. 2011. "Syngas Conditioning." Chapter 12 in Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing, ed. D Shekhawat, JJ Spivey and DA Berry, pp. 361-408.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
  • Pan A, J Zhang, G Cao, S Liang, CM Wang, Z Nie, BW Arey, W Xu, D Liu, J Xiao, G Li, and J Liu. 2011. "Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(27):10077-10084.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10976F
  • Su Y, HM Brown, G Li, XD Zhou, JE Amonette, JL Fulton, DM Camaioni, and ZC Zhang. 2011. "Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvent." Applied Catalysis. A, General 391(1-2):436-442.  doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2010.09.021
  • Toulemonde M, WJ Weber, G Li, V Shutthanandan, P Kluth, T Yang, Y Wang, and Y Zhang. 2011. "Synergy of Nuclear and Electronic Energy Losses in Ion-irradiation Processes: the Case of Vitreous Silicon Dioxide." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 83(5):054106- 054106-9.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.054106


  • Li G, D Hu, G Xia, and ZC Zhang. 2010. "Catalyst Structure-Performance Relationship Identified by High-Throughput Operando Method: New Insight for Silica-Supported Vanadium Oxide for Methanol Oxidation." Topics in Catalysis 53(1-2):40-48. 
  • Li G, DM Camaioni, JE Amonette, ZC Zhang, TJ Johnson, and JL Fulton. 2010. "[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization ." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114(39):12614-12622.  doi:10.1021/jp106762b
  • Pan A, J Zhang, Z Nie, GH Cao, BW Arey, G Li, S Liang, and J Liu. 2010. "Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(41):9193-9199.  doi:10.1039/C0JM01306D
  • Shao Y, S Zhang, MH Engelhard, G Li, G Shao, Y Wang, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(35):7491-7496.  doi:10.1039/c0jm00782j


  • Li G, D Hu, G Xia, and ZC Zhang. 2009. "Methanol Partial Oxidation on MoO3/SiO2 Catalysts: Application of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging Techniques in a High Throughput Operando Reactor." Topics in Catalysis 52:1381-1387. 
  • Jiang W, H Wang, I Kim, IT Bae, G Li, P Nachimuthu, Z Zhu, Y Zhang, and WJ Weber. 2009. "Response of Nanocrystalline 3C Silicon Carbide to Heavy-Ion Irradiation." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 80(16):Art. No.161301(R).  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.80.161301
  • Kim DH, JH Kwak, J Szanyi, X Wang, G Li, JC Hanson, and CHF Peden. 2009. "Characteristics of Desulfation Behavior for Pre-Sulfated Pt-BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts: The Role of the CeO2 Support." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(50):21123-21129 .  doi:10.1021/jp9062548


  • Li G, D Hu, G Xia, JM White, and ZC Zhang. 2008. "High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman Spectroscopy." Review of Scientific Instruments 79:074101.  doi:10.1063/1.2949389

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas