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Kenneth Rappe

Kenneth Rappe

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 372-4413


Mr. Rappé joined Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in August 1996. At PNNL, he has been responsible for project management, proposal development and technical contributions in a number of different areas of environmental and energy research, primarily focused on technology development. He has been working in the field of diesel engine emission reduction since 1998, of which he has managed multiple projects and technically contributed on others. His areas of focus have included hydrocarbon-based selective catalytic reduction of NO/NO2 (HC-SCR), low-temperature CO/hydrocarbon oxidation, and integration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology with urea-SCR technology. His research is supported by the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) through the Vehicle Technologies Program. The work typically takes the form of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with engine manufacturers, who match DOE funds with work in-kind. Thus, Mr. Rappé works very closely with these CRADA partners, including companies such as Caterpillar, Ford, General Electric, and PACCAR. Mr. Rappé is also an expert at the practical application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) processing for facilitating chemical reactions. Applications have included diesel engine emission reduction, pulp and paper emission reduction, semiconductor processing emission reduction, and adipic acid chemical production via cyclohexane conversion to cyclohexanol & cyclohexanone. Mr. Rappé has also been instrumental in the development of SAMMS technology (self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports) for CO2 capture. Other research interests and projects include ammonia borane studies as hydrogen storage material, and collective protection as it applies to chemical and biological warfare agents.

Research Interests

  • Technology and scientific development for heavy-duty diesel engine emission reduction
  • Heterogeneous catalyst development, screening, and characterization for identifying structure-activity relationships
  • Non-thermal plasma (NTP) facilitated and NTP-catalytic facilitated chemical processing for environmental pollution control and chemical production

Education and Credentials

  • M.S., Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, 1996
  • B.S., Chemical Engineering with Honors, Washington State University, 1994

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • North American Catalysis Society
  • American Institute of Chemical Engineers
  • American Chemistry Society
  • Society of Automotive Engineers

Awards and Recognitions

  • Recipient of the American Chemical Society’s Team Chemistry Award, “Advanced Carbon Dioxide Removal Unit.”
  • 2012 R&D 100 Award, “Advanced Carbon Dioxide Removal Unit.”
  • 2012 Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Interagency Partnership Award, in cooperation with Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) and the Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division (NSWCCD), “Advanced Carbon Dioxide Removal Unit.”
  • 2003 Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Award for excellence in technology transfer, “Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment System Based on Non-Thermal Plasma-Assisted Catalysis.”
  • 12503-B CIP1 Processes and Apparatuses for Treating Halogen-Containing Gases (Battelle Part Interest); Pending – Filed 1/13/2003: (Handled by other Party) Inventors: Aardahl, Chris L., Kenneth G. Rappé, Rick J. Orth, Peter Porshnev, Sebastien Raoux, Michael Woolston
  • 12503-B CIP1 PCT Treatment of Effluent from a Substrate Processing Chamber (Battelle Part Interest); Pending - Filed 1/13/2003: (Handled by other Party) Inventors: Aardahl, Chris L., Kenneth G. Rappé, Rick J. Orth, Peter Porshnev, Sebastien Raoux, Michael Woolston
  • 13657: Mixture of Heavy-Duty and Light-Duty Catalysts for NOx Control Using Plasma Assisted Catalysis; Pending – Filed 8/28/02: (Handled by other Party) Inventors: Aardahl, Chris L., Charles Peden, Kenneth Rappé, Russell Tonkyn, Diana Tran
  • 14376: Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and other Logistical Fuels; Pending – Filed 5/12/05: (Handled by other Party) Inventors: Aardahl, Chris L., Darrell Herling, Jamie Holladay, Kenneth Rappé, Robert Rozmiarek, and Yong Wang

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Rappe K.G. 2024. Advanced Emission Control for High-Efficiency Engines - CRADA 362 (Abstract). PNNL-35279. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rappe K.G. 2024. Development and Optimization of a Multi-Functional SCR-DPF Aftertreatment System for Heavy-Duty NOX and Soot Emission Reduction - CRADA 368 (Abstract). PNNL-35293. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.


  • Wu Y., W. Zhao, S. Ahn, Y. Wang, E.D. Walter, Y. Chen, and M.A. Derewinski, et al. 2023. "Interplay between copper redox and transfer and support acidity and topology in low temperature NH3-SCR." Nature Communications 14. PNNL-SA-178314. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-38309-8
  • Wu Y., Y. Wang, E.D. Walter, K.G. Rappe, Y. Wang, and F. Gao. 2023. "Insights into palladium poisoning of Cu/SSZ-13 selective catalytic reduction catalysts." Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 331. PNNL-SA-177938. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2023.122673


  • Andana T., K.G. Rappe, N.C. Nelson, F. Gao, and Y. Wang. 2022. "Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 over Ce-Mn oxide and Cu-SSZ-13 composite catalysts - Low temperature enhancement." Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 316. PNNL-SA-169808. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2022.121522
  • Rappe K.G. 2022. Innovative SCR Materials and System for Low Temperature Aftertreatment - CRADA 460. PNNL-32871. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Innovative SCR Materials and System for Low Temperature Aftertreatment - CRADA 460
  • Rappe K.G. 2022. Low-Cost, Durable and Retrofittable Methane Oxidation Catalysts - CRADA 572 (Abstract). PNNL-33679. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Low-Cost, Durable and Retrofittable Methane Oxidation Catalysts - CRADA 572 (Abstract)
  • Wu Y., T. Andana, Y. Wang, Y. Chen, E.D. Walter, M.H. Engelhard, and K.G. Rappe, et al. 2022. "A Comparative Study between Real-world and Laboratory Accelerated Aging of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts." Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 318. PNNL-SA-172435. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2022.121807
  • Wu Y., Y. Ma, Y. Wang, K.G. Rappe, N.M. Washton, Y. Wang, and E.D. Walter, et al. 2022. "Rate Controlling in Low-temperature Standard NH3-SCR: Implications from Operando EPR Spectroscopy and Reaction Kinetics." Journal of the American Chemical Society 144, no. 22:9734 - 9746. PNNL-SA-170375. doi:10.1021/jacs.2c01933


  • Andana T., K.G. Rappe, F. Gao, J. Szanyi, X. Pereira Hernandez, and Y. Wang. 2021. "Recent advances in hybrid metal oxide-zeolite catalysts for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia." Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 291. PNNL-SA-160484. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2021.120054


  • Meyer P.A., L.J. Snowden-Swan, S.B. Jones, K.G. Rappe, and D.S. Hartley. 2020. "The Effect of Feedstock Composition on Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading to Transportation Fuels: Techno-Economic Analysis and Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis." Fuel 259. PNNL-SA-141518. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116218
  • Peng B., K.G. Rappe, Y. Cui, F. Gao, J. Szanyi, M.J. Olszta, and E.D. Walter, et al. 2020. "Enhancement of high-temperature selectivity on Cu-SSZ-13 towards NH3-SCR reaction from highly dispersed ZrO2." Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 263. PNNL-SA-146190. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118359


  • Rappe K.G., C.L. DiMaggio, J.A. Pihl, J.A. Pihl, J.R. Theis, S.H. Oh, and G.B. Fisher, et al. 2019. "Aftertreatment protocols for catalyst characterization and performance evaluation: low-temperature oxidation, storage, three-way, and NH3-SCR catalyst test protocols." Emission Control Science and Technology 5, no. 2:183-214. PNNL-SA-142309. doi:10.1007/s40825-019-00120-7


  • Butcher M.G., P.A. Meyer, R.T. Hallen, K.O. Albrecht, C.K. Clayton, E. Polikarpov, and K.G. Rappe, et al. 2018. "Fungal Metabolites as Precursors to Renewable Transportation Fuels." Fuel 215. PNNL-SA-126614. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2017.10.052
  • Dunn J., M.J. Biddy, S.B. Jones, H. Cai, P.T. Benavides, J. Markham, and L. Tao, et al. 2018. "Environmental, economic, and scalability considerations and trends of selected fuel economy-enhancing biomass-derived blendstocks." ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 6, no. 1:561-569. PNNL-SA-128002. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b02871
  • Lyu S., L. Wang, J. Zhang, C. Liu, J. Sun, B. Peng, and Y. Wang, et al. 2018. "Role of Active Phase in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Experimental Evidence of CO Activation over Single-phase Cobalt Catalysts." ACS Catalysis 8, no. 9:7787-7798. PNNL-SA-136500. doi:10.1021/acscatal.8b00834


  • Meyer P.A., L.J. Snowden-Swan, K.G. Rappe, S.B. Jones, T. Westover, and K.G. Cafferty. 2016. "Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks for Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading: Techno-economic Analysis and Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis." Energy and Fuels 30, no. 11:9427-9439. PNNL-SA-116938. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01643


  • Stewart M.L., A. Zelenyuk, F. Gao, G.G. Muntean, C.H. Peden, K.G. Rappe, and J. Szanyi, et al. 2014. "CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis." In FY 2014 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development, edited by G Singh. III-13 - III-18. Washington, Dc:US Department of Energy: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. PNNL-23797.


  • Rappe K.G., J.H. Lee, M.L. Stewart, M.N. Devarakonda, and G.D. Maupin. 2012. "Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR After-treatment." In 2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development. 227-230. Washington Dc:DOE Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. PNNL-21037.


  • Heldebrant D.J., A.J. Karkamkar, N.J. Hess, M.E. Bowden, S.D. Rassat, F. Zheng, and K.G. Rappe, et al. 2008. "The Effects of Chemical Additives on the Induction Phase in Solid-State Thermal Decomposition of Ammonia Borane." Chemistry of Materials 20, no. 16:5332-5336. PNNL-SA-60433. doi:10.1021/cm801253u
  • Zheng F., S.D. Rassat, D.J. Heldebrant, D.D. Caldwell, C.L. Aardahl, T. Autrey, and J.C. Linehan, et al. 2008. "Automated gas burette system for evolved hydrogen measurements." Review of Scientific Instruments 79, no. 8:Article no: 084103. PNNL-SA-60596. doi:10.1063/1.2968715


  • Rappe K.G., J. Hoard, C.L. Aardahl, P.W. Park, C.H. Peden, and D.N. Tran. 2004. "Combination of Low and High Temperature Catalytic Materials to Obtain Broad Temperature Coverage for Plasma-Facilitated NOx Reduction." Catalysis Today 89, no. 1-2:143-150. PNNL-SA-38362.
  • Tran D.N., C.L. Aardahl, K.G. Rappe, P.W. Park, and C.L. Boyer. 2004. "Reduction of NOx by plasma-facilitated catalysis over In-doped y-alumina." Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental 48, no. 2:155-164. PNNL-SA-38073.


  • Aardahl C.L., K.G. Rappe, P.W. Park, C.S. Ragle, C.L. Boyer, and S. Faulkner. 2003. "Steady-State Engine Testing of gamma-Alumina Catalysts Under Plasma Assist for NOx Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust." In Lean Engine NOx Control: SAE World Congress, SAE SP 1759, 121-128, Paper No. 2003-01-1186. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Society of Automotive Engineers. PNNL-SA-37494.


  • Aardahl C.L., J.C. Birnbaum, K.G. Rappe, and D.N. Tran. 2002. "Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control." In 2002 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Workshop. Washington, District Of Columbia:US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. PNNL-SA-37033.
  • Wang L.Q., C.F. Habeger, C.L. Aardahl, K.G. Rappe, D.N. Tran, and M. Avila. 2002. "Solid-state 27 Al nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of plasma-facilitated NOx reduction catalysts." Journal of Materials Research 17, no. 7:1843-1848. PNNL-SA-35887.


  • Aardahl C.L., C.F. Habeger, M.L. Balmer, K.G. Rappe, D.N. Tran, M. Avila, and P.W. Park, et al. 2000. "Plasma Enhanced Catalytic Reduction of Nox in Simulated Lean Exhaust." In SAE Technical Paper Series, 1-7. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. PNNL-SA-33763.


Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas