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Energy and Environment Directorate

Alasdair Crawford

Alasdair Crawford

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Portland Office
Portland, OR 97204
(503) 417-7551


Mr. Crawford has been at PNNL since joining as a Post-Bachelor Research Associate in 2011. As an Associate Energy Research Scientist, he has focused his efforts on building physical and economic models of redox flow batteries, allowing for economic optimization of their design. Mr. Crawford has produced similar models for batteries for the Batt500 consortium, empirical models for existing batteries systems on the grid, evaluating new battery technologies for economic viability, and analyzing battery reliability from experimental data.

Research Interests

  • Energy Storage Analysis and Optimization
  • Mathematical Modeling
  • Machine Learning
  • Data Visualization

Education and Credentials

  • M.S., Physics, Portland State University
  • B.S., Physics, Washington State University

PNNL Publications


  • Crawford A.J., Q. Huang, M. Kintner-Meyer, J. Zhang, D.M. Reed, V.L. Sprenkle, and V.V. Viswanathan, et al. 2018. "Lifecycle Comparison of Selected Li-ion Battery Chemistries under Grid and Electric Vehicle Duty Cycle Combinations." Journal of Power Sources 380. PNNL-SA-128874. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.01.080
  • Viswanathan V.V., A.J. Crawford, M.E. Alam, P.J. Balducci, D. Wu, T.D. Hardy, and K. Mongird. 2018. Snohomish Public Utility District: An Assessment of Battery Technical Performance. PNNL-27237. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.


  • Balducci P.J., M.E. Alam, V.V. Viswanathan, D. Wu, A.J. Crawford, K. Mongird, and M.R. Weimar, et al. 2017. The Salem Smart Power Center: An Assessment of Battery Performance and Economic Potential. PNNL-26858. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. doi:10.2172/1406263.


  • Conover D.R., A.J. Crawford, J.C. Fuller, S.G. Gourisetti, V.V. Viswanathan, S. Ferreira, and D. Schoenwald, et al. 2016. Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems. PNNL-22010 Rev. 2. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Crawford A.J., E.C. Thomsen, D.M. Reed, D.E. Stephenson, V.L. Sprenkle, J. Liu, and V.V. Viswanathan. 2016. "Development and Validation of Chemistry Agnostic Flow Battery Cost Performance Model and Application to Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Systems." International Journal of Energy Research. PNNL-SA-113966. doi:10.1002/er.3526
  • Li X., P. Yan, M.H. Engelhard, A.J. Crawford, V.V. Viswanathan, C.M. Wang, and J. Liu, et al. 2016. "The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries." Nano Energy 27. PNNL-SA-115949. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.07.030


  • Crawford A.J., V.V. Viswanathan, D.E. Stephenson, W. Wang, E.C. Thomsen, D.M. Reed, and B. Li, et al. 2015. "Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model." Journal of Power Sources 293. PNNL-SA-108277. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.05.066


  • Conover D.R., A.J. Crawford, V.V. Viswanathan, S. Ferreira, and D. Schoenwald. 2014. Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems. PNNL-22010 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Conover D.R., V.V. Viswanathan, and A.J. Crawford. 2014. Determination of Duty Cycle for Energy Storage Systems Integrated with Microgrids. PNNL-23390. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Viswanathan V.V., A.J. Crawford, D.E. Stephenson, S. Kim, W. Wang, B. Li, and G.W. Coffey, et al. 2014. "Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 247. PNNL-SA-91534. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.12.023


  • Kim S., E.C. Thomsen, G. Xia, Z. Nie, J. Bao, K.P. Recknagle, and W. Wang, et al. 2013. "1 kW / 1kWh Advanced Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Utilizing Mixed Acid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 237. PNNL-SA-92689. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.045

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas