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Energy and Environment Directorate

Jun Liu

Jun Liu

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-4443


Dr. Liu possesses a strong background in materials synthesis, colloidal and surface science, and high-resolution electron microscopy. He joined PNNL in 1992, became a Laboratory Fellow in 2000, and over time initiated and led a broad range of basic and applied research programs in materials science.

In 2001, he left PNNL for a position with Lucent Bell Laboratories, and later Sandia National Laboratories, where he served as manager of the Chemical Synthesis and Nanomaterials Department, and as a thrust leader in the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies. Dr. Liu returned to PNNL in 2005 to head the synthesis task within the catalysis initiative, and also led the Transformational Materials Science Initiative, as well as energy storage research. In addition, he served as the Director of the Energy Processes and Materials Division, and currently serves as the Cross-Science Lead on the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub in which PNNL is a partner.

Dr. Liu has more than 400 peer reviewed publications, has received more than 55 U.S. patents. He was named a Distinguished Inventor of Battelle in 2007 and was selected as PNNL's 2012 Inventor of the Year. He holds a bachelor's degree in Chemical Engineering from Hunan University, a master's degree in Ceramic Engineering from the University of Washington, and a doctorate in Materials Science and Engineering, also from the University of Washington.

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Hu JZ, NN Rajput, C Wan, Y Shao, X Deng, NR Jaegers, MY Hu, Y Chen, Y Shin, J Monk, Z Chen, Z Qin, KT Mueller, J Liu, and KA Persson. 2018. "25Mg NMR and Computational Modeling Studies of the Solvation Structures and Molecular Dynamics in Magnesium Based Liquid Electrolytes." Nano Energy 46:436-446.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.01.051
  • Terban MW, D Banerjee, S Ghose, BK Medasani, AK Shukla, BA Legg, Y Zhou, Z Zhu, ML Sushko, JJ De Yoreo, J Liu, PK Thallapally, and SL Billinge. 2018. "Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution." Nanoscale 10(9):4291-4300.  doi:10.1039/C7NR07949D
  • Wang Y, D Lu, ME Bowden, PZ El-Khoury, KS Han, Z Deng, J Xiao, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2018. "Mechanism of Formation of Li7P3S11 Solid Electrolytes through Liquid Phase Synthesis." Chemistry of Materials 30(3):990-997.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b04842
  • Yu L, NL Canfield, S Chen, H Lee, X Ren, MH Engelhard, Q Li, J Liu, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2018. "Enhanced Stability of Lithium Metal Anode by using a 3D Porous Nickel Substrate." ChemElectroChem 5(5):761-769.  doi:10.1002/celc.201701250


  • Li B, and J Liu. 2017. "Progress and directions in low-cost redox-flow batteries for large-scale energy storage." National Science Review 4(1):91-105.  doi:10.1093/nsr/nww098
  • Lu D, J Tao, P Yan, WA Henderson, Q Li, Y Shao, ML Helm, O Borodin, GL Graff, B Polzin, CM Wang, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, JJ De Yoreo, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2017. "Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes." Nano Letters 17(3):1602-1609.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04766
  • Chen J, WA Henderson, H Pan, BR Perdue, R Cao, JZ Hu, C Wan, KS Han, KT Mueller, J Zhang, Y Shao, and J Liu. 2017. "Improving Lithium-sulfur Battery Performance under Lean Electrolyte through Nanoscale Confinement in Soft Swellable Gels." Nano Letters 17(5):3061-3067.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00417
  • Duan W, J Huang, JA Kowalski, IA Shkrob, V Murugesan, ED Walter, B Pan, Z Yang, JD Milshtein, B Li, C Liao, Z Zhang, W Wang, J Liu, JS Moore, F Brushett, L Zhang, and X Wei. 2017. "“Wine-Dark Sea” in An Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability." ACS Energy Letters 2(5):1156-1161.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00261
  • Han KS, J Chen, R Cao, NN Rajput, V Murugesan, L Shi, H Pan, J Zhang, J Liu, KA Persson, and KT Mueller. 2017. "Effects of Anion Mobility on Electrochemical Behaviors of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Chemistry of Materials 29(21):9023-9029.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02105
  • Lee H, X Ren, C Niu, L Yu, MH Engelhard, I Cho, MH Ryou, HS Jin, HT Kim, J Liu, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2017. "Suppressing Lithium Dendrite Growth by Metallic Coating on Separator." Advanced Functional Materials 27(45):Article No. 1704391.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201704391
  • Li W, L Nie, Y Chen, L Kovarik, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2017. "Surface Enrichment of Pt in Stable Pt-Ir Nano-alloy Particles on MgAl2O4 Spinel in oxidizing atmosphere." Catalysis Communications 93:57-61.  doi:10.1016/j.catcom.2017.01.012
  • Li W, L Kovarik, Y Cheng, L Nie, ME Bowden, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2017. "Stabilization and Transformation of Pt Nanocrystals Supported on ZnAl2O4 Spinel." RSC Advances 7(6):3282-3286.  doi:10.1039/C6RA26159K
  • Ma T, GL Xu, Y Li, L Wang, X He, J Zheng, J Liu, MH Engelhard, P Zapol, LA Curtiss, J Jorne, K Amine, and Z Chen. 2017. "Revisiting the Corrosion of Aluminum Current Collector in Lithium-Ion Batteries." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 8(5):1072-1077.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b02933
  • Medasani BK, J Liu, and ML Sushko. 2017. "Stable Pt clusters anchored to monovacancies on graphene sheets." MRS Communications 7(4):891-895.  doi:10.1557/mrc.2017.112
  • Pan H, B Li, D Mei, Z Nie, Y Shao, G Li, XS Li, KS Han, KT Muller, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2017. "Controlling Solid-Liquid Conversion Reactions for Highly Reversible Aqueous Zinc-Iodine Battery." ACS Energy Letters 2:2674-2680.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00851
  • Pan H, J Chen, R Cao, V Murugesan, NN Rajput, KS Han, KA Persson, L Estevez, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, KT Mueller, Y Cui, Y Shao, and J Liu. 2017. "Non Encapsulation Approach for High Performance Li-S Batteries through Controlled Nucleation and Growth." Nature Energy 2:813-820.  doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0005-z
  • Pan H, KS Han, M Vijayakumar, J Xiao, R Cao, J Chen, J Zhang, KT Mueller, Y Shao, and J Liu. 2017. "Ammonium additives to dissolve lithium sulfide through hydrogen binding for high energy lithium-sulfur batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9(5):4290-4295.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b04158
  • Qiu S, L Xiao, ML Sushko, KS Han, Y Shao, M Yan, X Liang, L Mai, J Feng, Y Cao, X Ai, H Yang, and J Liu. 2017. "Manipulating Adsorption-Insertion Mechanisms in Nanostructured Carbon Materials for High-Efficiency Sodium Ion Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 7(17):Article No. 1700403.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201700403
  • Rajput NN, V Murugesan, Y Shin, KS Han, KC Lau, J Chen, J Liu, LA Curtiss, KT Mueller, and KA Persson. 2017. "Elucidating the Solvation Structure and Dynamics of Lithium Polysulfides resulting from Competitive Salt and Solvent Interactions." Chemistry of Materials 29(8):3375-3379.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00068
  • Soto FA, P Yan, MH Engelhard, A Marzouk, C Wang, GL Xu, Z Chen, K Amine, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, F El-Mellouhi, PB Balbuena, and X Li. 2017. "Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon." Advanced Materials 29(18):Article No. 1606860.  doi:10.1002/adma.201606860
  • Wan C, S Xu, MY Hu, R Cao, J Qian, Z Qin, J Liu, KT Mueller, J Zhang, and JZ Hu. 2017. "Multinuclear NMR Study of the Solid Electrolyte Interface Formed in Lithium Metal Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9(17):14741-14748.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b15383
  • Wang X, M Zhang, J Alvarado, S Wang, M Sina, B Lu, J Bouwer, W Xu, J Xiao, J Zhang, J Liu, and YS Meng. 2017. "New Insights on the Structure of Electrochemically Deposited Lithium Metal and Its Solid Electrolyte Interphases via Cryogenic TEM." Nano Letters 17(12):7606-7612.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03606
  • Wei X, W Pan, W Duan, AM Hollas, Z Yang, B Li, Z Nie, J Liu, DM Reed, W Wang, and VL Sprenkle. 2017. "Materials and Systems for Organic Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges." ACS Energy Letters 2(9):2187-2204.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00650


  • Bhattacharya P, MI Nandasiri, D Lv, AM Schwarz, JT Darsell, WA Henderson, DA Tomalia, J Liu, J Zhang, and J Xiao. 2016. "Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes." Nano Energy 19:176-186.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.11.012
  • Cao R, J Chen, KS Han, W Xu, D Mei, P Bhattacharya, MH Engelhard, KT Mueller, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2016. "Effect of the Anion Activity on the Stability of Li Metal Anodes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Advanced Functional Materials 26(18):3059-3066.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201505074
  • Chen J, KS Han, WA Henderson, KC Lau, M Vijayakumar, T Dzwiniel, H Pan, LA Curtiss, J Xiao, KT Mueller, Y Shao, and J Liu. 2016. "Restricting the Solubility of Polysulfides in Li-S Batteries Via Electrolyte Salt Selection." Advanced Energy Materials 6(11):Article No. 1600160.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201600160
  • Cheng Y, D Choi, KS Han, KT Mueller, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2016. "Toward the Design of High Voltage Magnesium-Lithium Hybrid Batteries Using Dual-Salt Electrolytes." Chemical Communications 52(31):5379-5382.  doi:10.1039/C6CC00986G
  • Cheng Y, HJ Chang, H Dong, D Choi, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, Y Yao, and G Li. 2016. "Rechargeable MgLi Hybrid Batteries: Status and Challenges." Journal of Materials Research 31(20):3125-3141.  doi:10.1557/jmr.2016.331
  • Cheng Y, L Luo, L Zhong, J Chen, B Li, W Wang, SX Mao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(22):13673-13677.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, V Raju, X Ji, BL Mehdi, KS Han, MH Engelhard, G Li, ND Browning, KT Mueller, and J Liu. 2016. "Molecular Storage of Mg Ions with Vanadium Oxide Nanoclusters." Advanced Functional Materials 26(20):3446-3453.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201505501
  • Crawford AJ, EC Thomsen, DM Reed, DE Stephenson, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and VV Viswanathan. 2016. "Development and Validation of Chemistry Agnostic Flow Battery Cost Performance Model and Application to Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Systems." International Journal of Energy Research doi:10.1002/er.3526
  • Du L, Y Shao, J Sun, G Yin, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2016. "Advanced catalyst supports for PEM fuel cell cathodes." Nano Energy 29:314-322.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.03.016
  • Duan W, VRS Vemuri, JD Milshtein, S Laramie, RD Dmello, J Huang, L Zhang, D Hu, M Vijayakumar, W Wang, J Liu, RE Darling, L Thompson, KC Smith, JS Moore, F Brushett, and X Wei. 2016. "A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4(15):5448-5456.  doi:10.1039/c6ta01177b
  • Estevez L, DM Reed, Z Nie, AM Schwarz, MI Nandasiri, JP Kizewski, W Wang, EC Thomsen, J Liu, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, and B Li. 2016. " Tunable oxygen functional groups as electro-catalysts on graphite felt surfaces for all vanadium flow batteries." ChemSusChem 9(12):1455-1461.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201600198
  • Jeong S, X Li, J Zheng, P Yan, R Cao, HJ Jung, CM Wang, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2016. "Hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 329:323-329.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.08.089
  • Li B, J Liu, Z Nie, W Wang, DM Reed, J Liu, BP McGrail, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Metal-organic frameworks as highly active electrocatalysts for high-energy density, aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow batteries." Nano Letters 16(7):4335-4340.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01426
  • Li X, P Yan, MH Engelhard, AJ Crawford, VV Viswanathan, CM Wang, J Liu, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries." Nano Energy 27:664-672.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.07.030
  • Pan H, Y Shao, P Yan, Y Cheng, KS Han, Z Nie, CM Wang, J Yang, X Li, P Bhattacharya, KT Mueller, and J Liu. 2016. "Reversible aqueous zinc/manganese oxide energy storage from conversion reactions." Nature Energy 1(5):Article No. 16039.  doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.39
  • Park SK, Y Shao, VV Viswanathan, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2016. "Electrochemical study of highly durable cathode with Pt supported on ITO-CNT composite for proton exchange membrane fuel cells." Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 42:81-86.  doi:10.1016/j.jiec.2016.07.039
  • Shin Y, J Tao, BW Arey, C Wang, GJ Exarhos, JJ De Yoreo, ML Sushko, and J Liu. 2016. "Double epitaxy as a paradigm for templated growth of highly ordered three-dimensional mesophase crystals." ACS Nano 10(9):8670-8675.  doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b03999
  • Vissers DR, Z Chen, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, U Das, PC Redfern, LA Curtiss, B Pan, J Liu, and K Amine. 2016. "Role of Manganese Deposition on Graphite in the Capacity Fading of Lithium Ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(22):14244-14251.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b02061
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, WA Henderson, ML Sushko, Y Shao, J Xiao, W Wang, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, and J Liu. 2016. "Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries." Nano Energy 19:279-288.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.10.034
  • Zhang W, D Banerjee, J Liu, HT Schaef, JV Crum, CA Fernandez, RK Kukkadapu, Z Nie, SK Nune, RK Motkuri, KW Chapman, MH Engelhard, JC Hayes, KL Silvers, R Krishna, BP McGrail, J Liu, and PK Thallapally. 2016. "Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications." Advanced Materials 28(18):3572-3577.  doi:10.1002/adma.201600259


  • Lu D, P Yan, Y Shao, Q Li, SA Ferrara, H Pan, GL Graff, B Polzin, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Performance Li-ion Sulfur Batteries Enabled by Intercalation Chemistry." Chemical Communications 51(70):13454-13457.  doi:10.1039/C5CC05171A
  • Lu D, Y Shao, TJ Lozano, WD Bennett, GL Graff, B Polzin, J Zhang, MH Engelhard, NT Saenz, WA Henderson, P Bhattacharya, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte." Advanced Energy Materials 5(3):Article No. 1400993.  doi:10.1002/AENM.201400993
  • Lu X, ME Bowden, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2015. "A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage." Advanced Materials 27(39):5915-5922.  doi:10.1002/adma.201502343
  • Wei X, G Xia, BW Kirby, EC Thomsen, B Li, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(1):A5150-A5153.  doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
  • Wei X, L Cosimbescu, W Xu, JZ Hu, M Vijayakumar, J Feng, MY Hu, X Deng, J Xiao, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5(1):Article No. 1400678.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Zheng J, P Yan, M Gu, MJ Wagner, K Hays, J Chen, XS Li, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Interfacial Reaction Dependent Performance of Hollow Carbon NanoSphere - Sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery." Frontiers in Energy Research 3:Article No. 25.  doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00025
  • Banerjee D, J Liu, and PK Thallapally. 2015. "Separation of C2 Hydrocarbons by Porous Materials: Metal Organic Frameworks as Platform." Comments on Inorganic Chemistry 35(1):18-38.  doi:10.1080/02603594.2014.976704
  • Chen J, D Wu, ED Walter, MH Engelhard, P Bhattacharya, H Pan, Y Shao, F Gao, J Xiao, and J Liu. 2015. "Molecular-Confinement of Polysulfide within Mesoscale Electrodes for the Practical Application of Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Nano Energy 13:267-274.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.01.031
  • Cheng Y, RM Stolley, KS Han, Y Shao, BW Arey, NM Washton, KT Mueller, ML Helm, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2015. "Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(µ-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 17(20):13307-13314.  doi:10.1039/C5CP00859J
  • Cheng Y, Y Shao, LR Parent, ML Sushko, G Li, P Sushko, ND Browning, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Interface Promoted Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Tin-Antimony Alloys." Advanced Materials 27(42):6598-6605.  doi:10.1002/adma.201502378
  • Cosimbescu L, X Wei, M Vijayakumar, W Xu, ML Helm, SD Burton, CM Sorensen, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5:14117.  doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Darkins R, ML Sushko, J Liu, and DM Duffy. 2015. "The effect of surface topography on the micellisation of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride at the silicon-aqueous interface." Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 27(5):Article No. 054008.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/27/5/054008
  • Deng X, MY Hu, X Wei, W Wang, Z Chen, J Liu, and JZ Hu. 2015. "Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 285:146-155.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.091
  • Lee YJ, L Huang, H Wang, ML Sushko, B Schwenzer, IA Aksay, and J Liu. 2015. "Structural rearrangement and dispersion of functionalized graphene sheets in aqueous solutions." Colloids and Interface Science Communications 8:1-5.  doi:10.1016/j.colcom.2015.12.002
  • Li B, Z Nie, M Vijayakumar, G Li, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 6303.  doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Li WZ, F Gao, Y Li, ED Walter, J Liu, CHF Peden, and Y Wang. 2015. "Nanocrystalline Anatase Titania Supported Vanadia Catalysts: Facet-dependent Structure of Vanadia." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119(27):15094-15102.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b01486
  • Liu TL, JT Cox, D Hu, X Deng, JZ Hu, MY Hu, J Xiao, Y Shao, K Tang, and J Liu. 2015. "A Fundamental Study on the [(µ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+ Dimer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries." Chemical Communications 51(12):2312-2315.  doi:10.1039/c4cc07621d
  • Lu D, J Zheng, Q Li, X Xie, SA Ferrara, Z Nie, BL Mehdi, ND Browning, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Challenges of Thick Sulfur Cathodes." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1402290.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201402290
  • Lu PJ, JN Liu, S Liang, J Liu, WJ Wang, M Lei, S Tang, and Q Yang. 2015. "Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties." Nano Energy 12:709-724.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.12.019
  • Mehdi BL, J Qian, E Nasybulin, C Park, DA Welch, R Faller, HS Mehta, WA Henderson, W Xu, CM Wang, JE Evans, J Liu, J Zhang, KT Mueller, and ND Browning. 2015. "Observation and Quantification of Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries by Operando Electrochemical (S)TEM." Nano Letters 15(3):2168-2176.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00175
  • Mehdi BL, J Qian, E Nasybulin, DA Welch, C Park, R Faller, HS Mehta, WA Henderson, W Xu, JE Evans, J Liu, J Zhang, KT Mueller, and ND Browning. 2015. "Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM." In ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV, July 26-31, 2015, Glasgow, Scotland, vol. MA2015-03, p. Abstract No. 432.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Pan H, X Wei, WA Henderson, Y Shao, J Chen, P Bhattacharya, J Xiao, and J Liu. 2015. "On the way toward understanding solution chemistry of lithium polysulfides for high energy Li-S redox flow batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1500113.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201500113
  • Parent LR, Y Cheng, P Sushko, Y Shao, J Liu, CM Wang, and ND Browning. 2015. "Realizing the Full Potential of Insertion Anodes for Mg-ion Batteries Through the Nano-Structuring of Sn." Nano Letters 15(2):1177-1182.  doi:10.1021/nl5042534
  • Shao Y, Y Cheng, W Duan, W Wang, Y Lin, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells and Redox Flow Batteries: a Selected Review." ACS Catalysis 5(12):7288-7298.  doi:10.1021/acscatal.5b01737
  • Vijayakumar M, Z Nie, ED Walter, JZ Hu, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80(2):428-437.  doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139
  • Wang Q, J Zheng, ED Walter, H Pan, D Lu, P Zuo, H Chen, Z Deng, BY Liaw, X Yu, X Yang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 162(3):A474-A478.  doi:10.1149/2.0851503jes
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, H Chen, M Vijayakumar, J Zheng, H Pan, ED Walter, MY Hu, X Deng, J Feng, BY Liaw, M Gu, Z Deng, D Lu, S Xu, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using In an In Situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique." Nano Letters 15(5):3309-3316.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00521
  • Yan P, J Zheng, D Lv, Y Wei, J Zheng, Z Wang, S Kuppan, J Yu, L Luo, DJ Edwards, MJ Olszta, K Amine, J Liu, J Xiao, F Pan, G Chen, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2015. "Atomic-Resolution Visualization of Distinctive Chemical Mixing Behavior of Ni, Co and Mn with Li in Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathode Materials." Chemistry of Materials 27(15):5393-5401.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b02016
  • Yan P, A Nie, J Zheng, Y Zhou, D Lu, X Zhang, R Xu, I Belharouak, X Zu, J Xiao, K Amine, J Liu, F Gao, R Shahbazian-Yassar, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2015. "Evolution Of Lattice Structure And Chemical Composition Of The Surface Reconstruction Layer In Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Cathode Material For Lithium Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 15(1):514-522.  doi:10.1021/nl5038598
  • Yu X, H Pan, Y Zhou, P Northrup, J Xiao, S Bak, M Liu, KW Nam, D Qu, J Liu, T Wu, and XQ Yang. 2015. "Direct Observation of the Redistribution of Sulfur and Polysufides in Li-S Batteries During the First Cycle by In Situ X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):, doi:10.1002/aenm.201500072


  • Liu J. 2014. "Charging Graphene for Energy Storage." Nature Nanotechnology 9(10):739-741.  doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.233
  • Vijayakumar M, B Schwenzer, V Shutthanandan, JZ Hu, J Liu, and IA Aksay. 2014. "Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study." Nano Energy 3:152-158.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2012.09.014
  • Zheng J, J Tian, D Wu, M Gu, W Xu, CM Wang, F Gao, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2014. "Lewis Acid-Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic Framework in Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Nano Letters 14(5):2345-2352.  doi:10.1021/nl404721h
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  • Pan A, D Choi, J Zhang, S Liang, G Cao, Z Nie, BW Arey, and J Liu. 2011. "High-Rate Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via Surfactant-Assisted Fabrication." Journal of Power Sources 196(7):3646-3649.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.12.067
  • Pan A, J Zhang, G Cao, S Liang, CM Wang, Z Nie, BW Arey, W Xu, D Liu, J Xiao, G Li, and J Liu. 2011. "Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(27):10077-10084.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10976F
  • Park SK, Y Shao, R Kou, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, PC Rieke, J Liu, Y Lin, and Y Wang. 2011. "Polarization Losses under Accelerated Stress Test Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Supported Pt Catalyst in PEM Fuel Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 158(3):B297-302.  doi:10.1149/1.3530843
  • Park SK, Y Shao, H Wan, PC Rieke, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, LV Saraf, J Liu, Y Lin, and Y Wang. 2011. "Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells." Electrochemistry Communications 13(3):258-261.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.12.028
  • Park SK, Y Shao, H Wan, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, PC Rieke, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2011. "Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115(45):22633-22639.  doi:10.1021/jp2068599
  • Schwenzer B, S Kim, M Vijayakumar, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2011. "Correlation of Structural Differences between Nafion/Polyaniline and Nafion/Polypyrrole Composite Membranes and Observed Transport Properties." Journal of Membrane Science 372(1-2):11-19 .  doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2011.01.025
  • Schwenzer B, J Zhang, S Kim, L Li, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2011. "Membrane Development for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 4(10):1388 - 1406.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201100068
  • Sun J, K Zhu, F Gao, CM Wang, J Liu, CHF Peden, and Y Wang. 2011. "Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz Mixed Oxides with Balanced Acid-Base Sites." Journal of the American Chemical Society 133(29):11096-11099.  doi:10.1021/ja204235v
  • Sushko ML, and J Liu. 2011. "Surfactant Two-Dimensional Self-Assembly under Confinement." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 115(15):4322-4328.  doi:10.1021/jp2003497
  • Sushko ML, KM Rosso, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2011. "Multiscale Simulations of Li Ion Conductivity in Solid Electrolyte." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2(18):2352-2356.  doi:10.1021/jz201032w
  • Tian J, PK Thallapally, J Liu, GJ Exarhos, and JL Atwood. 2011. "Gas-induced solid state transformation of an organic lattice: from nonporous to nanoporous." Chemical Communications 47(2):701-703.  doi:10.1039/C0CC04260A
  • Vijayakumar M, L Li, GL Graff, J Liu, H Zhang, Z Yang, and JZ Hu. 2011. "Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196(7):3669-3672.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.126
  • Vijayakumar M, BM Sivakumar, P Nachimuthu, B Schwenzer, S Kim, Z Yang, J Liu, GL Graff, S Thevuthasan, and JZ Hu. 2011. "Spectroscopic Investigations of the Fouling Process on Nafion Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Membrane Science 366(1-2):325-334.  doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2010.10.018
  • Wang CM, W Xu, J Liu, J Zhang, LV Saraf, BW Arey, D Choi, Z Yang, J Xiao, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2011. "In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Microstructure and Phase Evolution in a SnO2 Nanowire during Lithium Intercalation." Nano Letters 11(5):1874-1880.  doi:10.1021/nl200272n
  • Xiao J, D Mei, X Li, W Xu, D Wang, GL Graff, WD Bennett, Z Nie, LV Saraf, IA Aksay, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode." Nano Letters 11(11):5071-5078.  doi:10.1021/nl203332e
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, D Wang, D Hu, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Nie, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 196(13):5674-5678. 
  • Xiao J, N Chernova, S Upreti, X Chen, Z Li, Z Deng, D Choi, W Xu, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2011. "Electrochemical Performances of LiMnPO4 Synthesized from Non-Stoichiometric Li/Mn Ratio." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(40):18099-18106.  doi:10.1039/C1CP22658D
  • Xiao J, X Wang, XQ Yang, S Xun, G Liu, PK Koech, J Liu, and JP Lemmon. 2011. "Electrochemically Induced High Capacity Displacement Reaction of PEO/MoS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Lithium." Advanced Functional Materials 21(15):2840-2846.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201002752
  • Yang Z, J Zhang, MCW Kintner-Meyer, X Lu, D Choi, JP Lemmon, and J Liu. 2011. "Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid." Chemical Reviews 111(5):3577-3613.  doi:10.1021/cr100290v
  • Yu J, KM Rosso, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2011. "Ab initio study of lithium transition metal fluorophosphate cathodes for rechargeable batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(32):12054-12058.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10900F
  • Yu J, KM Rosso, and J Liu. 2011. "Charge Localization and Transport in Lithiated Olivine Phosphate Materials." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115(50):25001-25006.  doi:10.1021/jp204188g
  • Zhang J, L Li, Z Nie, B Chen, M Vijayakumar, S Kim, W Wang, B Schwenzer, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2011. "Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 41(10 - Special Issue S1):1215-1221.  doi:10.1007/s10800-011-0312-1
  • Zhang S, Y Shao, H Liao, J Liu, IA Aksay, G Yin, and Y Lin. 2011. "Graphene decorated with PtAu alloy nanoparticles: facile synthesis and promising application for formic acid oxidation." Chemistry of Materials 23(5):1079-1081. 
  • Zhang S, Y Shao, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2011. "Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite as a Highly Efficient and Low Cost Electrically Switched Ion Exchanger for Removing ClO4- from Wastewater." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 3(9):3633-3637.  doi:10.1021/am200839m
  • Zhu K, J Sun, J Liu, LQ Wang, H Wan, JZ Hu, Y Wang, CHF Peden, and Z Nie. 2011. "Solvent Evaporation Assisted Preparation of Oriented Nanocrystalline Mesoporous MFI Zeolites." ACS Catalysis 1(7):682-690.  doi:10.1021/cs200085e


  • Kim S, J Yan, B Schwenzer, J Zhang, L Li, J Liu, Z Yang, and MA Hickner. 2010. "Cycling performance and efficiency of sulfonated poly(sulfone) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries ." Electrochemistry Communications 12(11):1650-1653.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.09.018
  • Shao Y, S Zhang, CM Wang, Z Nie, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2010. "Highly durable graphene nanoplatelets supported Pt nanocatalysts for oxygen reduction ." Journal of Power Sources 195(15):4600-4605. 
  • Shao Y, S Zhang, R Kou, X Wang, CM Wang, S Dai, VV Viswanathan, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2010. "Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction." Journal of Power Sources 195(7 SP ISS):1805-1811. 
  • Shao Y, X Wang, MH Engelhard, CM Wang, S Dai, J Liu, Z Yang, and Y Lin. 2010. "Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195(13):4375-4379. 
  • Thallapally PK, CA Fernandez, RK Motkuri, SK Nune, J Liu, and CHF Peden. 2010. "Micro and Mesoporous Metal Organic Frameworks for Catalysis Applications." Dalton Transactions 39(7):1692 - 1694.  doi:10.1039/b921118g
  • Yang Z, J Liu, S Baskaran, CH Imhoff, and JD Holladay. 2010. "Enabling Renewable Energy and the Future Grid with Advanced Electricity Storage." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 62(9):14-23. 
  • Chi F, YN Guo, J Liu, Y Liu, and Q Huo. 2010. "Size-Tunable and Functional Core-Shell Structured Silica Nanoparticles for Drug Release." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114(6):2519-2523.  doi:10.1021/jp910460j
  • Choi D, D Wang, IT Bae, J Xiao, Z Nie, W Wang, VV Viswanathan, YJ Lee, J Zhang, GL Graff, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2010. "LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode." Nano Letters 10(8):2799-2805.  doi:10.1021/nl1007085
  • Du D, Z Zou, Y Shin, J Wang, H Wu, MH Engelhard, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "Sensitive Immunosensor for Cancer Biomarker Based on Dual Signal Amplification Strategy of Graphene Sheets and Multi-Enzyme Functionalized Carbon Nanospheres ." Analytical Chemistry 82(7):2989-2995.  doi:10.1021/ac100036p
  • Fang HC, JQ Zhu, LJ Zhou, HY Jia, SS Li, X Gong, SB Li, YP Cai, PK Thallapally, J Liu, and GJ Exarhos. 2010. "pH-Dependent Assembly and Conversions of Six Cadmium(II)-Based Coordination Complexes." Crystal Growth & Design 10(7):3277-3284.  doi:10.1021/cg1004598
  • Fernandez CA, PK Thallapally, RK Motkuri, SK Nune, JC Sumrak, J Tian, and J Liu. 2010. "Gas-Induced Expansion and Contraction of a Fluorinated Metal-Organic Framework." Crystal Growth & Design 10(3):1037-1039.  doi:10.1021/cg9014948
  • Fernandez CA, SK Nune, RK Motkuri, PK Thallapally, CM Wang, J Liu, GJ Exarhos, and BP McGrail. 2010. "Synthesis, characterization, and application of metal organic framework nanostructures." Langmuir 26(24):18591-18594.  doi:10.1021/la103590t
  • Gu ZG, YP Cai, HC Fang, ZY Zhou, PK Thallapally, J Tian, J Liu, and GJ Exarhos. 2010. "Conversion of Nonporous Helical Cadmium Organic Famework to a Porous Form." Chemical Communications 46(29):5373-5375. 
  • Kang X, J Wang, H Wu, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "A graphene-based electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of paracetamol ." Talanta 81(3):754-759. 
  • Kerisit SN, KM Rosso, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2010. "Computer Simulation of the Phase Stabilities of Lithiated TiO2 Polymorphs." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114(44):19096-19107.  doi:10.1021/jp103809s
  • Lei C, P Liu, B Chen, Y Mao, HE Engelmann, Y Shin, J Jaffar, I Hellstrom, J Liu, and KE Hellstrom. 2010. "Local Release of Highly Loaded Antibodies from Functionalized Nanoporous Support for Cancer Immunotherapy." Journal of the American Chemical Society 132(20):6906-6907. 
  • Li J, J Liu, D Wang, R Guo, X Li, and WN Qi. 2010. "Interfacially Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Spheres with Radially Oriented Pore Structures." Langmuir 26(14):12267-12272.  doi:10.1021/la101225j
  • Liao H, H Wu, J Wang, J Liu, Y Jiang, S Sun, and Y Lin. 2010. "Direct Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Myoglobin Immobilized on Graphene-CTAB-Ionic Liquid Nanocomposite Film." Electroanalysis 22(19):2297-2302.  doi:10.1002/elan.201000044
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  • Nune SK, PK Thallapally, A Dohnalkova, CM Wang, J Liu, and GJ Exarhos. 2010. "Synthesis and Properties of Nano Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks." Chemical Communications 46(27):4878-4880. 
  • Pan A, D Liu, X Zhou, BB Garcia, S Liang, J Liu, and G Cao. 2010. "Enhanced Lithium-ion intercalation properties of coherent hydrous vanadium pentoxide-carbon cryogels nanocomposites." Journal of Power Sources 195(12):3893-3899.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.12.120
  • Pan A, J Liu, J Zhang, W Xu, GH Cao, Z Nie, BW Arey, and S Liang. 2010. "Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 /Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries." Electrochemistry Communications 12(12):1674-1677.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.09.014
  • Pan A, J Liu, J Zhang, GH Cao, W Xu, Z Nie, J Xiao, D Choi, BW Arey, CM Wang, and S Liang. 2010. "Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for High-Rate Secondary Lithium Batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(4):1153-1161.  doi:10.1039/c0jm02810j
  • Pan A, J Zhang, Z Nie, GH Cao, BW Arey, G Li, S Liang, and J Liu. 2010. "Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(41):9193-9199.  doi:10.1039/C0JM01306D
  • Punckt C, MA Pope, J Liu, Y Lin, and IA Aksay. 2010. "Electrochemical Performance of Graphene as Effected by Electrode Porosity and Graphene Functionalization." Electroanalysis 22(23):2834-2841. 
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  • Shang J, C Liu, Z Wang, H Wu, K Zhu, J Li, and J Liu. 2010. "In-Situ Measurements of Engineered Nanoporous Particle Transport in Saturated Porous Media." Environmental Science & Technology 44(21):8190-8195.  doi:10.1021/es1015586
  • Shao Y, J Wang, H Wu, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review." Electroanalysis 22(10):1027-1036.  doi:10.1002/elan.200900571
  • Shao Y, S Zhang, MH Engelhard, G Li, G Shao, Y Wang, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2010. "Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(35):7491-7496.  doi:10.1039/c0jm00782j
  • Sushko ML, and J Liu. 2010. "Structural rearrangements in self-assembled surfactant layers at surfaces." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114(11):3847-3854.  doi:10.1021/jp910927b
  • Sushko ML, KM Rosso, and J Liu. 2010. "Mechanism of Li+/electron conductivity in rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114(47):20277-20283.  doi:10.1021/jp107982c
  • Sushko ML, KM Rosso, and J Liu. 2010. "Size Effects on Li+/Electron Conductivity in TiO2 Nanoparticles." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1(13):1967-1972.  doi:10.1021/jz100520c
  • Tang Z, H Wu, JR Cort, GW Buchko, Y Zhang, Y Shao, IA Aksay, J Liu, and Y Lin. 2010. "Constraint of DNA on Functionalized Graphene Improves Its Biostability and Specificity." Small 6(11):1205-1209.  doi:10.1002/smll.201000024
  • Vijayakumar M, SD Burton, C Huang, L Li, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, JZ Hu, and M Skyllas-Kazacos. 2010. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ." Journal of Power Sources 195(22 SP ISS):7709-7717. 
  • Viswanathan VV, D Choi, D Wang, W Xu, SA Towne, RE Williford, J Zhang, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2010. "Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management." Journal of Power Sources 195(11):3720-3729.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.11.103
  • Wang CM, W Xu, J Liu, D Choi, BW Arey, LV Saraf, J Zhang, Z Yang, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, and N Salmon. 2010. "In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and Opportunities." Journal of Materials Research 25(8):1541-1547.  doi:10.1557/JMR.2010.0198
  • Wang D, R Kou, D Choi, Z Yang, Z Nie, J Li, LV Saraf, D Hu, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, MA Pope, and IA Aksay. 2010. "Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage ." ACS Nano 4(3):1587-1595.  doi:10.1021/nn901819n
  • Wang X, JS Lee, Q Zhu, J Liu, Y Wang, and S Dai. 2010. "Ammonia-treated Ordered Mesoporous Carbons as Catalytic Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reaction." Chemistry of Materials 22(7):2178-2180.  doi:10.1021/cm100139d
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Wang, D Choi, W Wang, X Li, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Stabilization of Silicon Anode for Li-Ion Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(10):A1047-A1051.  doi:10.1149/1.3464767
  • Xiao J, D Choi, L Cosimbescu, PK Koech, J Liu, and JP Lemmon. 2010. "Exfoliated MoS2 Nanocomposite as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries." Chemistry of Materials 22(16):4522-4524. 
  • Xiao J, D Wang, W Xu, D Wang, RE Williford, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Optimization of Air Electrode for Li/Air Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(4):A487-A492.  doi:10.1149/1.3314375
  • Zhang S, Y Shao, X Li, Z Nie, Y Wang, J Liu, G Yin, and Y Lin. 2010. "Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles." Journal of Power Sources 195(2):457-460.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.08.012


  • Shao Y, J Wang, R Kou, MH Engelhard, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2009. "The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications for Developing Durable Catalysts." Electrochimica Acta 54:3109-3114. 
  • Shao Y, R Kou, J Wang, CM Wang, VV Vishwanathan, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2009. "The durability dependence of Pt/CNT electrocatalysts on the nanostructures of carbon nanotubes: hollow- and bamboo-CNTs." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 9(10):5811-5815. 
  • Vijayakumar M, SN Kerisit, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, JA Sears, Jr, SD Burton, KM Rosso, and JZ Hu. 2009. "A Combined 6,7Li NMR and Molecular Dynamics Study of Li Diffusion in Li2TiO3." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(46):20108-20116.  doi:10.1021/jp9072125
  • Wu H, J Wang, X Kang, CM Wang, D Wang, J Liu, IA Aksay, and Y Lin. 2009. "Glucose Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Nanocomposite Film." Talanta 80(1):403-406.  doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2009.06.054
  • Cai YP, XX Zhout, ZY Zhout, SZ Zhu, PK Thallapally, and J Liu. 2009. "Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations in One Dimensional Ag-Eu Helical System." Inorganic Chemistry 48:6341-6343.  doi:10.1021/ic9007125
  • Chen B, C Lei, Y Shin, and J Liu. 2009. "Probing Mechanisms for Enzymatic Activity Enhancement of Organophosphorus Hydrolase in Functionalized Mesoporous Silica." Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 390(4):1177-1181.  doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.10.112
  • Choi D, D Wang, VV Viswanathan, IT Bae, W Wang, Z Nie, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, Z Yang, and TQ Duong. 2009. "Li-Ion Batteries from LiFePO4 Cathode and Anatase/Graphene Composite Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Electrochemistry Communications 12(3):378-381.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2009.12.039
  • Kang X, J Wang, H Wu, IA Aksay, J Liu, and Y Lin. 2009. "Glucose oxidase-graphene-chitosan modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and glucose sensing." Biosensors and Bioelectronics 25(4):901-905.  doi:10.1016/j.bios.2009.09.004
  • Kerisit SN, KM Rosso, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2009. "Dynamics of coupled lithium/electron diffusion in TiO2 polymorphs." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(49):20998-21007. 
  • Kou R, Y Shao, D Wang, MH Engelhard, JH Kwak, J Wang, VV Viswanathan, CM Wang, Y Lin, Y Wang, IA Aksay, and J Liu. 2009. "Enhanced Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts on Functionalized Graphene Sheets for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction ." Electrochemistry Communications 11(5):954-957. 
  • Li L, DL King, J Liu, Q Huo, K Zhu, CM Wang, MA Gerber, DJ Stevens, and Y Wang. 2009. "Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles in Cubic Mesostructured Silica and Its Application in Regenerable Deep Desulfurization of Warm Syngas." Chemistry of Materials 21(22):5358-5364. 
  • Liu W, DL King, J Liu, BR Johnson , Y Wang, and Z Yang. 2009. "Critical Material and Process Issues for CO2 Separation from Coal-Powered Plants." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 61(4):36-44. 
  • Vijayakumar M, SN Kerisit, CM Wang, Z Nie, KM Rosso, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, and JZ Hu. 2009. "Effect of Chemical Lithium Intercalation into Rutile TiO2 Nanorods." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(32):14567-14574.  doi:10.1021/jp904148z
  • Wang CM, Z Yang, S Thevuthasan, J Liu, DR Baer, D Choi, D Wang, J Zhang, LV Saraf, and Z Nie. 2009. "Crystal and Electronic Structure of Lithiated Nanosized RutileTiO2 by Electron Diffraction and Electron Energy-loss Spectroscopy." Applied Physics Letters 94(23):Art. No.: 233116.  doi:10.1063/1.3152783
  • Wang D, D Choi, J Li, Z Yang, Z Nie, R Kou, D Hu, CM Wang, LV Saraf, J Zhang, IA Aksay, and J Liu. 2009. "Self-assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Li-ion Insertion ." ACS Nano 3(4):907-914. 
  • Wang LQ, D Wang, J Liu, GJ Exarhos, S Pawsey, and IL Moudrakovski. 2009. "Probing Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Crystalline Mesoporous TiO2 Using Hyperpolarized Xe-129 NMR." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(16):6577-6583. 
  • Zhu K, D Wang, and J Liu. 2009. "Self-assembled Materials for Catalysis." Nano Research 2(1):1-29. 
  • Zhu K, JZ Hu, X She, J Liu, Z Nie, Y Wang, CHF Peden, and JH Kwak. 2009. "Characterization of Dispersed Heteropoly Acid on Mesoporous Zeolite Using Solid-State P-31 NMR Spin-Lattice Relaxation." Journal of the American Chemical Society 131(28):9715-9721.  doi:10.1021/ja901317r


  • Shao Y, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2008. "Novel Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects." Journal of Materials Chemistry 19(1):46-59.  doi:10.1039/b808370c
  • Shao Y, R Kou, J Wang, JH Kwak, VV Viswanathan, Y Wang, J Liu, and Y Lin. 2008. "Fast test for the durability of PEM fuel cell catalysts." In Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 8. ECS Transactions, vol. 16, no. 2, ed. T. Fuller, et al, pp. 361-366.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ.  doi:10.1149/1.2981870
  • Shao Y, R Kou, J Wang, VV Viswanathan, JH Kwak, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2008. "The influence of the electrochemical stressing (potential step and potential-static holding) on the degradation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts." Journal of Power Sources 185(1):280-286.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.07.008
  • Wu H, Q Huo, SM Varnum, G Liu, J Wang, Z Nie, J Liu, and Y Lin. 2008. "Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticle Labels/Protein Microarray for Detection of Protein Biomarkers." The Analyst 133:1550 - 1555.  doi:10.1039/b719810h
  • Lei C, TA Soares, Y Shin, J Liu, and EJ Ackerman. 2008. "Enzyme Specific Activity in Functionalized Nanoporous Supports." Nanotechnology 19(12):Art. No. 125102.  doi:10.1088/0957-4484/19/12/125102
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  • Wang D, D Choi, Z Yang, VV Viswanathan, Z Nie, CM Wang, Y Song, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2008. "Synthesis and Li-ion Insertion Properties of Highly Crystalline Mesoporous Rutile TiO2." Chemistry of Materials 20(10):3435-3442. 
  • Wang D, Z Ma, S Dai, J Liu, Z Nie, MH Engelhard, Q Huo, CM Wang, and R Kou. 2008. "Low-Temperature Synthesis of Tunable Mesoporous Crystalline Transition Metal Oxides and Applications as Au Catalyst Supports." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112(35):13499-13509.  doi:10.1021/jp804250f


  • Wang Y, KY Lee, S Choi, J Liu, LQ Wang, and CHF Peden. 2007. "Grafting Sulfated Zirconia on Mesoporous Silica." Green Chemistry 9(6):540-544.  doi:10.1039/b614928f
  • Dixon DA, Z Dohnalek, MS Gutowski, JZ Hu, E Iglesia, BD Kay, J Liu, CHF Peden, L Wang, Y Wang, JM White, OA Bondarchuk, JE Herrera, J Kim, JH Kwak, T Stuchinskaya, HJ Zhai, CN Chisolm, and J Macht. 2007. "Early Transition Metal Oxides as Catalysts: Crossing Scales from Clusters to Single Crystals to Functioning Materials." In Frontiers in Catalysis Science. Meeting of the Catalysis and Chemical Transformations Program Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy Rockville, MD May 23-26, 2004, pp. 389-392.  Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 
  • Fryxell GE, SV Mattigod, Y Lin, H Wu, SK Fiskum, KE Parker, F Zheng, W Yantasee, TS Zemanian, RS Addleman, J Liu, J Xu, KM Kemner, S Kelly, and X Feng. 2007. "Design and Synthesis of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS): The Importance of Ligand Posture in Functional Nanomaterials." Journal of Materials Chemistry 17:2863-2874.  doi:10.1039/b702422c
  • Lei C, Y Shin, J Liu, and EJ Ackerman. 2007. "Synergetic Effects of Nanoporous Support and Urea on Enzyme Activity." Nano Letters 7(4):1050-53.  doi:10.1021/nl070255b
  • Zhang P, F Xu, A Navrotsky, JS Lee, S Kim, and J Liu. 2007. "Surface Enthalpies of Nanophase ZnO with Different Morphologies." Chemistry of Materials 19(23):5687-5693.  doi:10.1021/cm0711919


  • Huo Q, J Liu, LQ Wang, Y Jiang, TN Lambert, and E Fang. 2006. "A New Class of Silica Crosslinked Micellar Core-Shell /nanoparticles." ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 128(19):6447-6453 .  doi:10.1021/ja060367p
  • Lei C, Y Shin, JK Magnuson, GE Fryxell, LL Lasure, DC Elliott, J Liu, and EJ Ackerman. 2006. "Characterization of Functionalized Nanoporous Supports for Protein Confinement ." Nanotechnology 17(22):5531-5538.  doi:10.1088/0957-4484/17/22/001
  • Wang D, J Liu, Q Huo, Z Nie, W Lu, RE Williford, and Y Jiang. 2006. "Surface-Mediated Growth of Transparent, Oriented, and Well-Defined Nanocrystalline Anatase Titania Films ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 128(42):13670-13671.  doi:10.1021/ja0655993


  • Dabbs DM, U Ramachandran, S Lu, J Liu, LQ Wang, and IA Aksay. 2005. "Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid." Langmuir 21(25):11690-11695.  doi:10.1021/la050822f
  • Dixon DA, Z Dohnalek, MS Gutowski, JZ Hu, E Iglesia, BD Kay, J Liu, CHF Peden, LS Wang, Y Wang, JM White, OA Bondarchuk, H Fan, JE Herrera Perea, X Huang, J Kim, JH Kwak, T Stuchinskaya, HJ Zhai, CN Chisolm, and J Macht. 2005. "Early Transition Metal Oxides as Catalysts: Crossing Scales from Clusters to Single Crystals to Functioning Materials." In Frontiers in Catalysis Science: Proceedings of the 12th DOE/BES Heterogeneous Catalysis & Surface Science Meeting, pp. 389-392.  Frontiers in Catalysis Science, Upton, NY. 


  • Lei C, Y Shin, J Liu, and EJ Ackerman. 2002. "Entrapping Enzyme in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support." Journal of the American Chemical Society 124(38):11242-3. 


  • Domansky K, J Liu, LQ Wang, MH Engelhard, and S Baskaran. 2001. "Chemical Sensors Based on Dielectric Response of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Films." Journal of Materials Research 16(10):2810-2816. 
  • Kelly SD, KM Kemner, GE Fryxell, J Liu, and SV Mattigod. 2001. "X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy Determination of the Binding Mechanism of Tetrahedral Anions to Self Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support." Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 8(Pt 2):922-924. 
  • Shin Y, II, J Liu, JH Chang, II, Z Nie, and GJ Exarhos. 2001. "Hierarchically Ordered Ceramics through Surfactant-Templated Sol-Gel Mineralization of Biological Cellular Structures." Advanced Materials 13(10):728-732. 
  • Zemanian TS, GE Fryxell, J Liu, SV Mattigod, JA Franz, and Z Nie. 2001. "Deposition of Self-Assembled Monolayers in Mesoporous Silica from Supercritical Fluids." Langmuir 17(26):8172-8177. 
  • Zemanian TS, GE Fryxell, J Liu, SV Mattigod, Y Shin, JA Franz, OA Ustyugov, and Z Nie. 2001. "Chemical Functionalization of Nanostructured Materials Using Supercritical Reaction Media." In IEEE-NANO 2001 : proceedings of the 2001 1st IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, October, 28-30, 2001, Maui, Hawaii / , pp. 288-292.  IEEE, New York, NY. 


  • Fryxell GE, and J Liu. 2000. "Designing Surface Chemistry in Mesoporous Silica." Chapter 21 in Adsorption on Silica Surfaces, Surfactant Science Series, vol. 90, ed. Eugene Papirer, pp. 665-687.  Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. 
  • Fryxell GE, J Liu, SV Mattigod, LQ Wang, Y Lin, X Feng, TA Hauser, and M Gong. 2000. "Environmental Applications of Interfacially Modified Mesoporous Ceramics." In Environmental Issues and Waste Management Technologies in the Ceramic and Nuclear Industries V, vol. 107, ed. G. T. Chandler and X. Feng, pp. 29-37.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH. 
  • Baskaran S, J Liu, K Domansky, NJ Kohler, XH Li, CA Coyle, GE Fryxell, S Thevuthasan, and RE Williford. 2000. "Low Dielectric Constant Mesoporous Silica Films Through Molecularly Templated Synthesis ." Advanced Materials 12(4):291-294. 
  • Choi S, Y Wang, Z Nie, D Khmbapati, J Liu, and CHF Peden. 2000. "Mesoporous Silica Supported Solid Acid Catalysts." In 12th International Congress on Catlysis, Studies in Surface Science Catalysis, vol. 130 pt B, ed. A. Corma, F.Melo, S. Mendioroz et al, pp. 965-970.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, , NETHERLANDS. 
  • Choi S, Y Wang, Z Nie, J Liu, and CHF Peden. 2000. "Cs-Substituted Tungstophosphoric Acid Salt Supported on Mesoporous Silica." Catalysis Today 55(1-2):117-124. 
  • Gong X, J Liu, S Baskaran, RD Voise, and JS Young. 2000. "Surfactant-assisted Processing of Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites." Chemistry of Materials 12(4):1049-1052. 
  • Liang L, PC Rieke, GE Fryxell, J Liu, MH Engelhard, and KL Alford. 2000. "Temperature-Sensitive Surfaces Prepared by UV Photografting Reaction of Photosensitizer and N-Isopropylacrylamide ." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104(49):11667-11673. 
  • Liang L, PC Rieke, GE Fryxell, J Liu, MH Engelhard, and KL Alford. 2000. "Temperature-Sensitive Surfaces Prepared by UV Photografting Reaction of Photosensitizer and N-Isopropylacrylamide ." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104:11667-11673. 
  • Liang L, PC Rieke, J Liu, GE Fryxell, JS Young, MH Engelhard, and KL Alford. 2000. "Surfaces with Reversible Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Characteristics on Cross-linked Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels." Langmuir 16:8016-8023. 
  • Liu J, GE Fryxell, M Qian, LQ Wang, and Y Wang. 2000. "Interfacial Chemistry in Self-Assembled Nanoscale Materials with Structural Ordering." Pure and Applied Chemistry 72(1-2):269-279. 
  • Liu J, GE Fryxell, SV Mattigod, TS Zemanian, Y Shin, and LQ Wang. 2000. "Synthesis and Applications of Functionalized Nanoporous Materials for Specific Adsorption." In Nanoporoous Materials II, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 129, pp. 729-738.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, , NETHERLANDS. 
  • Liu J, Y Shin, Z Nie, JH Chang, LQ Wang, GE Fryxell, WD Samuels, and GJ Exarhos. 2000. "Molecular Assembly in Ordered Mesoporosity: A New Class of Highly Functional Nanoscale Materials." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 104(36):8328-8339. 
  • Shin Y, J Liu, LQ Wang, Z Nie, WD Samuels, GE Fryxell, and GJ Exarhos. 2000. "Ordered Hierarchical Porous Materials: Towards Tunable Size- and Shape-Selective Microcavities in Nanoporous Channels." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 39(15):2702-2707. 
  • Shin Y, TS Zemanian, GE Fryxell, LQ Wang, and J Liu. 2000. "Supercritical Processing of Functionalized Size Selective Microporous Materials." Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 37(1-2):49-56. 
  • Smith BA, JZ Zhang, AG Joly, and J Liu. 2000. "Luminescence Decay Kinetics of Mn2+ Doped ZnS Nanoclusters Grown in Reverse Micelles." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 62(3):2021-2028. 
  • Thevuthasan S, S Baskaran, K Domansky, J Liu, and MH Engelhard. 2000. "Effectiveness of High Energy Ion Beam Techniques for the Characterization of Mesoporous Low Dielectric-Constant Materials." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 161-163:476-481. 
  • Wang LQ, J Liu, GJ Exarhos, K Flanigan, and R Bordia. 2000. "Conformation Heterogeneity and Mobility of Surfactant Molecules in intercalated Clay Minerals Studied by Solid-State NMR." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104(13)(April 6, 2000):2810-2816. 


  • Fryxell GE, J Liu, and SV Mattigod. 1999. "Self-assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS) - An Innovative Environmental Sorbent." Materials Technology 14(4):188-191. 
  • Fryxell GE, J Liu, TA Hauser, Z Nie, KF Ferris, SV Mattigod, M Gong, and RT Hallen. 1999. "Design and Synthesis of Selective Mesoporous Anion Types ." Chemistry of Materials 11(8):2148-2154. 
  • Kemner KM, X Feng, J Liu, GE Fryxell, LQ Wang, AY Kim, M Gong, and SV Mattigod. 1999. "Investigation of the local chemical interactions between Hg and self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports." Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 6(3):633-635. 
  • Mattigod SV, X Feng, GE Fryxell, J Liu, and M Gong. 1999. "Separation of Complexed Mercury from Aqueous Wastes Using Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica." Separation Science and Technology 34(12):2329-2345. 
  • Palmer BJ, J Liu, and JW Virden. 1999. "Simulations of the Effect of Diblock Surfactant Spacer Molecules on Micelle Structure and Function." Langmuir 15(22):7426-7431. 
  • Wang LQ, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 1999. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Characterization of Self-Assembled Nanostructural Materials." Advanced Materials 11(16):1331-1341. 
  • Wang LQ, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 1999. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Characterization of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials." Advanced Materials 11(16):1331-1340. 


  • Elder SH, Y Gao, XS Li, J Liu, DE McCready, and CF Windisch, Jr. 1998. "Zirconia-Stabilized 25-AngstromTiO2 Anatase Crystallites in a Mesoporous Structure." Chemistry of Materials 10(10):3140-3145. 
  • Windisch CF, Jr, JW Virden, SH Elder, J Liu, and MH Engelhard. 1998. "Electrochemistry of TiN in 6M KOH Solution." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 145(4):1211-1218. 

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