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Energy and Environment Directorate

Christine Holland

Christine Holland

(971) 940-7124


Christine joined the Energy Policy and Economics Group at PNNL in 2020. She is recognized as a leader in transportation electrification and has worked on numerous strategic planning projects involving light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles, along with building and grid integration. Additionally, she has worked on several battery storage projects to inform rate-making decisions, microgrid sizing, and resilience benefits, for public utility commissions, school districts, and disadvantaged communities. Prior to joining PNNL, Christine privately consulted on a variety of projects including the creation of a county-level energy data management system, socio-economic analysis to support consumer electricity adoption, hybrid-electric vehicle and ductless heat pump forecasting for energy marketing firms, and an alternative fuel fleet regulatory review. Prior to her consulting, she modeled diffusions of innovations in energy efficiency to support cost-effective market transformation planning, developed regional utility integrated resource plans, and supported wholesale energy marketing. Christine has a Ph.D. in Resource and Environmental Economics from the Agricultural Economics Department at Texas A&M.

Research Interests

  • Transportation Electrification and Strategic Planning
  • Energy Policy and Regulation
  • Market Transformation Design
  • Energy Storage Valuation
  • Energy Technology Adoption
  • Resilience and Microgrid Applications

Education and Credentials

  • B.S., Economics, Indiana University of Pennsylvania 1990
  • M.S., Resource and Environmental Economics, Texas A&M 1997
  • Ph.D., Resource and Environmental Economics, Texas A&M 2000

PNNL Publications


  • Macmillan M., K.D. Wilson, S. Baik, J.P. Carvallo, A. Dubey, and C. Holland. 2023. "Shedding light on the economic costs of long-duration power outages: A review of resilience assessment methods and strategies." Energy Research & Social Science 99. PNNL-SA-182947. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2023.103055


  • Ma X., C. Holland, J.B. Twitchell, and D. Wu. 2022. "Optimal Sizing and Operation of a Hybrid Clean Energy Center." In IEEE Electrical Energy Storage Applications and Technologies (EESAT) 2022, Austin, TX., 1-5. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-174560. doi:10.1109/EESAT55007.2022.9998017
  • Sridhar S., C. Holland, A. Singhal, M. Kintner-Meyer, K.E. Wolf, A.N. James, and J. Smith, et al. 2022. "Distribution System Planning for Growth in Residential Electric Vehicle Adoption." In IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM 2022), July 17-21, 2022, Denver, CO, 1-5. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-168612. doi:10.1109/PESGM48719.2022.9917240

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas