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Energy and Environment Directorate

Mark Rockhold

Mark Rockhold

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-2516

Research Interests

  • Physical, chemical, and biological processes and interactions in soils and groundwater
  • Surface and interfacial phenomena
  • Development and application of numerical flow and transport models
  • Reactive transport modeling
  • Parameterization methods for field-scale applications of flow and transport models in heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media
  • Stochastic and conditional simulation methods
  • Geostatistics
  • Uncertainty analysis

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Bioresource Engineering (Water Resources), Oregon State University, 2002
  • M.S., Agronomy (Soil Physics), Kansas State University, 1988
  • B.S., Geology, Kansas State University, 1984

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member of the American Geophysical Union (AGU)
  • Soil Science Society of America
  • Reviewer for Water Resources Research, Advances in Water Resources, Vadose Zone Journal, Soil Science Society of America Journal, Journal of Environmental Quality, Hydrogeology Journal

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2001 Outstanding Student Paper Award, AGU Hydrol. Section, Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA
  • 1999 Myron G. Cropsey Agricultural Engineering Scholarship, Dept. of Bioengineering, OSU
  • Sigma Gamma Epsilon – Honorary Earth Science Society

PNNL Publications


  • Robinson J.L., J.N. Thomle, D.P. McFarland, K.A. Deters, M.L. Rockhold, F.D. Day-Lewis, and V.L. Freedman. 2022. "Integration of Large-Scale Electrical Imaging into Geological Framework Development and Refinement." Environmental Processes 9, no. 2:Art. No. 21. PNNL-SA-166767. doi:10.1007/s40710-022-00570-2


  • Parajuli K., S.B. Jones, D.G. Tarboton, L. Hipps, L. Zhao, M. Sadeghi, and M.L. Rockhold, et al. 2020. "Stone Content Influence on Land Surface Model Simulation of Soil Moisture and Evapotranspiration at Reynolds Creek Watershed." Journal of Hydrometeorology 21, no. 8:1889-1904. PNNL-SA-148727. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-19-0075.1
  • Rockhold M.L., J.L. Robinson, K. Parajuli, X. Song, Z. Zhang, and T.C. Johnson. 2020. "Groundwater characterization and monitoring at a complex industrial waste site using electrical resistivity imaging." Hydrogeology Journal 28, no. 6:2115-2127. PNNL-SA-147892. doi:10.1007/s10040-020-02167-1


  • Rockhold M.L., X. Song, and X. Chen. 2019. "Complex Sources and Impacts on Remediation and Monitoring Approaches." In WM SYMPOSIA (WM 2019), March 3-7, 2019, Phoenix, AZ, Paper No. 19058. Tempe, Arizona:WM Symposia, Inc. PNNL-SA-139412.
  • Rod K.A., W. Um, S.M. Colby, M.L. Rockhold, C.E. Strickland, A.P. Kuprat, and S. Han. 2019. "Relative permeability for water and gas through fractures in cement." PLoS One 14, no. 1:Article Number: e0210741. PNNL-SA-124005. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210741


  • Johnson C.M., J.D. Lowrey, M.L. Rockhold, and S.R. Waichler. 2018. "The impact of geologic parameters and water infiltration on the imprinting of 133Xe." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 318, no. 1:131-137. PNNL-SA-133423. doi:10.1007/s10967-018-6069-9
  • Johnson C.M., S.R. Biegalski, J.D. Lowrey, M.L. Rockhold, and D.A. Haas. 2018. "Comparison of measured and simulated concentrations of 133Xe in the shallow subsurface." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 189. PNNL-SA-132618. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.04.010
  • Johnson T.C., J.N. Thomle, and M.L. Rockhold. 2018. "3D Time-Lapse Geophysical Imaging Evaluation of Contaminant Migration at the Hanford BY Cribs Site." In Proceedings of the 44th Annual Waste Management Conference (WM2018): Nuclear and Industrial Robotics, Remote Systems and Other Emerging Technology, March 18-22, 2018, Phoenix, Arizona, 8, 5438-5451; Paper No. 18504. Tempe, Arizona:Waste Management Symposia, Inc. PNNL-SA-131239.


  • Oostrom M., M.J. Truex, M.L. Rockhold, and T.C. Johnson. 2017. "Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Flux Evaluation at the Hanford BY-Cribs Site using Forward and Imposed Concentration Modeling Approaches." Environmental Processes 4, no. 4:771-797. PNNL-SA-127119. doi:10.1007/s40710-017-0272-5
  • Rockhold M.L., and Y. Bott. 2017. Alternative conceptual models of the subsurface at WMA-C. PNNL-24740. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Alternative conceptual models of the subsurface at WMA-C.


  • Gilmore T.J., A.H. Bonneville, E.C. Sullivan, M.E. Kelley, D. Appriou, V.R. Vermeul, and S.K. White, et al. 2016. "Characterization and Design of the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Storage Site." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 53. PNNL-SA-116762. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.022


  • Freedman V.L., X. Chen, S.A. Finsterle, M.D. Freshley, I. Gorton, L.J. Gosink, and E. Keating, et al. 2014. "A high-performance workflow system for subsurface simulation." Environmental Modelling & Software 55. PNNL-SA-92680. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.01.030


  • Chen X., G.E. Hammond, C.J. Murray, M.L. Rockhold, V.R. Vermeul, and J.M. Zachara. 2013. "Applications of Ensemble-based Data Assimilation Techniques for Aquifer Characterization using Tracer Data at Hanford 300 Area." Water Resources Research 49. PNNL-SA-91954. doi:10.1002/2012WR013285
  • Stegen J.C., X. Lin, J.K. Fredrickson, X. Chen, D.W. Kennedy, C.J. Murray, and M.L. Rockhold, et al. 2013. "Quantifying Community Assembly Processes and Identifying Features that Impose Them." The ISME Journal 7. PNNL-SA-86535. doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.93
  • Zachara J.M., P.E. Long, J. Bargar, J.A. Davis, P.M. Fox, J.K. Fredrickson, and M.D. Freshley, et al. 2013. "Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 147. PNNL-SA-88773. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.02.001


  • Chen X., H. Murakami, H. Murakami, M.S. Hahn, G.E. Hammond, M.L. Rockhold, and J.M. Zachara, et al. 2012. "Three-Dimensional Bayesian Geostatistical Aquifer Characterization at the Hanford 300 Area using Tracer Test Data." Water Resources Research 48. PNNL-SA-78432. doi:10.1029/2011WR010675
  • Hou Z., M.L. Rockhold, and C.J. Murray. 2012. "Evaluating the impact of caprock and reservoir properties on potential risk of CO2 leakage after injection." Environmental Earth Sciences 66, no. 8:2403-2415. PNNL-SA-78848. doi:10.1007/s12665-011-1465-2
  • Johnson T.C., R.J. Versteeg, M.L. Rockhold, L.D. Slater, D. Ntarlagiannis, W.J. Greenwood, and J.M. Zachara. 2012. "Characterization of a contaminated wellfield using 3D electrical resistivity tomography implemented with geostatistical, discontinuous boundary, and known conductivity constraints." Geophysics 77, no. 6:EN85-EN96. PNNL-SA-86781. doi:10.1190/geo2012-0121.1
  • Schuchardt K.L., D.A. Agarwal, S.A. Finsterle, C.W. Gable, I. Gorton, L.J. Gosink, and E. Keating, et al. 2012. "AKUNA - INTEGRATED TOOLSETS SUPPORTING ADVANCED SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS FOR ENVIRONMETAL MANAGEMENT." In International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources (CMWR 2012), June 17-22, 2012, Champaign, IL. Washington, District Of Columbia:US Department of Energy, Office of Science. PNNL-SA-86251.


  • Bonneville A., G.D. Black, I. Gorton, P.S. Hui, E.M. Murphy, C.J. Murray, and M.L. Rockhold, et al. 2011. "Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3): a collaborative approach to the management of geological GHG storage projects." In Proceedings of the 10th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference (GHGT10), September 19-23, 2010, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Energy Procedia, edited by J Gale, C Hendriks W Turkenberg, 4, 3825-3832. Amsterdam:Elsevier. PNNL-SA-74783. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.318
  • Hammond G.E., P.C. Lichtner, and M.L. Rockhold. 2011. "Stochastic Simulation of Uranium Migration at the Hanford 300 Area." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 120-121. PNNL-SA-69786. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.04.005


  • Ma R., C. Zheng, H. Prommer, J. Greskowiak, C. Liu, J.M. Zachara, and M.L. Rockhold. 2010. "A Field-Scale Reactive Transport Model for U(VI) Migration Influenced by Coupled Multirate Mass Transfer and Surface Complexation Reactions." Water Resources Research 46. PNNL-SA-67581. doi:10.1029/2009WR008168
  • Murakami H., H. Murakami, X. Chen, M.S. Hahn, Y. Liu, M.L. Rockhold, and V.R. Vermeul, et al. 2010. "Bayesian approach for three-dimensional aquifer characterization at the Hanford 300 Area." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 14. PNNL-SA-75939. doi:10.5194/hess-14-1989-2010
  • Schuchardt K.L., K. Agarwal, J.M. Chase, M.L. Rockhold, V.L. Freedman, T.O. Elsethagen, and T.D. Scheibe, et al. 2010. "Task parallel sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation of groundwater simulations through the SALSSA framework." In Proceedings of the 2010 Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference, July 11-15, 2010, Cattanooga, Tennessee, 233-237. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PNNL-SA-73770.


  • Weisbrod N., T. McGinnis, M.L. Rockhold, M. Niemet, and J.S. Selker. 2009. "Effective Darcy-Scale Contact Angles in Porous Media Imbibing Solutions of Various Surface Tensions." Water Resources Research 45. PNNL-SA-69576.


  • Meyer P.D., M. Ye, S.P. Neuman, and M.L. Rockhold. 2008. "Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area." In Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling: Credibility of Modelling: Proceedings of ModelCARE 2007 Conference, 64-69. Oxfordshire:International Association of Hydrological Sciences. PNNL-SA-55882.
  • Meyer P.D., T.J. Nicholson, M. Ye, S.P. Neuman, and M.L. Rockhold. 2008. "Incorporating Scenario Uncertainty within a Hydrogeologic Uncertainty Assessment Methodology." In 2008 Ground Water Summit, March 20 - April 2, 2008, Memphis, TN. Westerville, Ohio:National Ground Water Association. PNNL-SA-70390.
  • Szecsody J.E., J.S. Fruchter, C.A. Burns, M.L. Rockhold, M. Oostrom, M.D. Williams, and V.R. Vermeul. 2008. "Sr-90 Immobilization by Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution into the Hanford 100-N Area Vadose Zone." In Waste Management 2008: HLW, TRU, LLW/ILW, Mixed, Hazardous Wastes & Environmental Management, Art. # 8141. Tucson, Arizona:Arizona Board of Regents. PNNL-SA-58607.
  • White M.D., M. Oostrom, M.L. Rockhold, and M. Rosing. 2008. "Scalable Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Migration at the Hanford Site Using the STOMP Simulator." Vadose Zone Journal 7, no. 2:654-666. PNNL-SA-57102. doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0070


  • Gee G.W., M. Oostrom, M.D. Freshley, M.L. Rockhold, and J.M. Zachara. 2007. "Hanford Site Vadose-Zone Studies: An Overview." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:899-905. PNNL-SA-53286. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0179
  • Knight R.J., J.D. Irving, P. Tercier, E.J. Freeman, C.J. Murray, and M.L. Rockhold. 2007. "A Comparison of the Use of Radar Images and Neutron Probe Data to Determine the Horizontal Correlation Length of Water Content." In Subsurface Hydrology: Data Integration for Properties and Processes: Geophysical Monograph Series, edited by David W. Hyndman, Frederick D. Day-Lewis, Kamini Singha. 31-44. Washington, District Of Columbia:American Geophysical Union. PNNL-SA-52665.
  • Last G.V., C.J. Murray, D.A. Bush, E.C. Sullivan, M.L. Rockhold, R.D. Mackley, and B.N. Bjornstad. 2007. "Standardization of Borehole Data to Support Vadose Zone Flow and Transport Modeling." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:906-912. PNNL-SA-53079. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0175
  • Oostrom M., M.L. Rockhold, P.D. Thorne, M.J. Truex, G.V. Last, and V.J. Rohay. 2007. "Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:971-984. PNNL-SA-52843. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0166


  • Meyer P.D., M. Ye, S.P. Neuman, M.L. Rockhold, K.J. Cantrell, and T.J. Nicholson. 2006. "Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty." In Proceedings of the 3rd Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference. Washington D.C.:USGS Water Information Coordination Program Subcommittee on Hydrology. PNNL-SA-47117.


  • Rockhold M.L., R.R. Yarwood, M.R. Niemet, P.J. Bottomley, and J.S. Selker. 2005. "Experimental observations and numerical modeling of coupled microbial and transport processes in variably saturated sand." Vadose Zone Journal 4, no. 2:407-417. PNNL-SA-45867. doi:10.2136/vzj2004.0087


  • Rockhold M.L., R.R. Yarwood, and J.S. Selker. 2004. "Coupled Microbial and Transport Processes in soils." Vadose Zone Journal 3, no. 2:368-383. PNNL-SA-42985.
  • Weisbrod N., M.R. Niemet, M.L. Rockhold, T.D. Mcginnis, and J.S. Selker. 2004. "Migration of saline solutions in variably saturated porous media." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 72. PNNL-SA-42530.


  • Chen G., M.L. Rockhold, and K.A. Strevett. 2003. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Adsorption of Bacteria on Alluvial Sand and Surface Thermodynamic Interpretation." Research in Microbiology 154. PNNL-SA-39284.


  • Rockhold M.L., R.R. Yarwood, M.R. Niemet, P.J. Bottomley, and J.S. Selker. 2002. "Considerations for Modeling Bacterial-Induced Changes in Hydraulic Properties of Variably Saturated Porous Media." Advances in Water Resources 25, no. 5:477-495. PNNL-SA-36850. doi:10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00023-4
  • Yarwood R., M.L. Rockhold, M. Niemet, J.S. Selker, and P.J. Bottomley. 2002. "Noninvasive Quantitative Measurement of Bacterial Growth in Porous Media Under Unsaturated-Flow Conditions." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, no. 7:3597-3605. PNNL-SA-36835.


  • Meyer P.D., G.W. Gee, and M.L. Rockhold. 1999. "Characterization of Soil Hydraulic Parameter Uncertainty." In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Characterization and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media. Oct. 22-24, 1997, edited by M. Th. van Genuchten F. J. Leij and L. Wu, 1439-1451. Riverside, California:U.C. Riverside Press. PNNL-SA-31789.
  • Rockhold M.L., C.J. Murray, and M.J. Fayer. 1999. "Conditional simulation and upscaling of soil hydraulic properties." In Characterization and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media, edited by M. Th. van Genuchten, F. J. Leij, and L. Wu, 2, 1391-1401. Riverside, California:University of California Press. PNNL-SA-31799.

Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas