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Energy and Environment Directorate

Mark Rockhold

Mark Rockhold

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-2516

Research Interests

  • Physical, chemical, and biological processes and interactions in soils and groundwater
  • Surface and interfacial phenomena
  • Development and application of numerical flow and transport models
  • Reactive transport modeling
  • Parameterization methods for field-scale applications of flow and transport models in heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media
  • Stochastic and conditional simulation methods
  • Geostatistics
  • Uncertainty analysis

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Bioresource Engineering (Water Resources), Oregon State University, 2002
  • M.S., Agronomy (Soil Physics), Kansas State University, 1988
  • B.S., Geology, Kansas State University, 1984

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member of the American Geophysical Union (AGU)
  • Soil Science Society of America
  • Reviewer for Water Resources Research, Advances in Water Resources, Vadose Zone Journal, Soil Science Society of America Journal, Journal of Environmental Quality, Hydrogeology Journal

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2001 Outstanding Student Paper Award, AGU Hydrol. Section, Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA
  • 1999 Myron G. Cropsey Agricultural Engineering Scholarship, Dept. of Bioengineering, OSU
  • Sigma Gamma Epsilon – Honorary Earth Science Society

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Johnson C.M., J.D. Lowrey, M.L. Rockhold, and S.R. Waichler. 2018. "The impact of geologic parameters and water infiltration on the imprinting of 133Xe." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 318, no. 1:131-137. PNNL-SA-133423. doi:10.1007/s10967-018-6069-9
  • Johnson C.M., S.R. Biegalski, J.D. Lowrey, M.L. Rockhold, and D.A. Haas. 2018. "Comparison of measured and simulated concentrations of 133Xe in the shallow subsurface." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 189. PNNL-SA-132618. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.04.010
  • Rockhold M.L., F.A. Spane, T.W. Wietsma, D.R. Newcomer, R.E. Clayton, D.I. Demirkanli, and D.L. Saunders, et al. 2018. Physical and Hydraulic Properties of Sediments from the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit. PNNL-27846. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., J.L. Downs, S.R. Waichler, C. Yonkofski, V.L. Freedman, and M.J. Truex. 2018. Draft Technical Impracticability Evaluation for Iodine-129 in Groundwater at Hanford: 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. PNNL-28057. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., X. Song, J.D. Tagestad, P.D. Thorne, G.D. Tartakovsky, and X. Chen. 2018. Sensitivity Analysis of Contaminant Transport from Vadose Zone Sources to Groundwater. PNNL-28065. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Truex M.J., G.B. Chronister, C.E. Strickland, C.D. Johnson, G.D. Tartakovsky, M. Oostrom, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2018. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report. PNNL-26902. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2017

  • Rockhold M.L., and Y. Bott. 2017. Alternative conceptual models of the subsurface at WMA-C. PNNL-24740. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2016

  • Gilmore T.J., A.H. Bonneville, E.C. Sullivan, M.E. Kelley, D. Appriou, V.R. Vermeul, and S.K. White, et al. 2016. "Characterization and Design of the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Storage Site." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 53. PNNL-SA-116762. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.022
  • Rockhold M.L., Z.F. Zhang, and Y. Bott. 2016. Scale-Dependent Solute Dispersion in Variably Saturated Porous Media. PNNL-25146. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2015

  • Rockhold M.L., Z.F. Zhang, P.D. Meyer, and J.N. Thomle. 2015. Physical, Hydraulic, and Transport Properties of Sediments and Engineered Materials Associated with Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste. PNNL-23711; RPT-IGTP-004, Rev. 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Yabusaki S.B., R.J. Serne, M.L. Rockhold, G. Wang, and J.H. Westsik. 2015. Technical Approach for Determining Key Parameters Needed for Modeling the Performance of Cast Stone for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. PNNL-24022. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2014

  • Freedman V.L., X. Chen, S.A. Finsterle, M.D. Freshley, I. Gorton, L.J. Gosink, and E. Keating, et al. 2014. "A high-performance workflow system for subsurface simulation." Environmental Modelling & Software 55. PNNL-SA-92680. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.01.030

2013

  • Chen X., G.E. Hammond, C.J. Murray, M.L. Rockhold, V.R. Vermeul, and J.M. Zachara. 2013. "Applications of Ensemble-based Data Assimilation Techniques for Aquifer Characterization using Tracer Data at Hanford 300 Area." Water Resources Research 49. PNNL-SA-91954. doi:10.1002/2012WR013285
  • Rockhold M.L., D.H. Bacon, V.L. Freedman, K.R. Parker, S.R. Waichler, and M.D. Williams. 2013. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive Transport. PNNL-22886;RPT-DVZ-AFRI-019. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Stegen J.C., X. Lin, J.K. Fredrickson, X. Chen, D.W. Kennedy, C.J. Murray, and M.L. Rockhold, et al. 2013. "Quantifying Community Assembly Processes and Identifying Features that Impose Them." The ISME Journal 7. PNNL-SA-86535. doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.93
  • Zachara J.M., P.E. Long, J. Bargar, J.A. Davis, P.M. Fox, J.K. Fredrickson, and M.D. Freshley, et al. 2013. "Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 147. PNNL-SA-88773. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.02.001

2012

  • Chen X., H. Murakami, H. Murakami, M.S. Hahn, G.E. Hammond, M.L. Rockhold, and J.M. Zachara, et al. 2012. "Three-Dimensional Bayesian Geostatistical Aquifer Characterization at the Hanford 300 Area using Tracer Test Data." Water Resources Research 48. PNNL-SA-78432. doi:10.1029/2011WR010675
  • Hou Z., M.L. Rockhold, and C.J. Murray. 2012. "Evaluating the impact of caprock and reservoir properties on potential risk of CO2 leakage after injection." Environmental Earth Sciences 66, no. 8:2403-2415. PNNL-SA-78848. doi:10.1007/s12665-011-1465-2
  • Johnson T.C., R.J. Versteeg, M.L. Rockhold, L.D. Slater, D. Ntarlagiannis, W.J. Greenwood, and J.M. Zachara. 2012. "Characterization of a contaminated wellfield using 3D electrical resistivity tomography implemented with geostatistical, discontinuous boundary, and known conductivity constraints." Geophysics 77, no. 6:EN85-EN96. PNNL-SA-86781. doi:10.1190/geo2012-0121.1
  • Rockhold M.L., D.H. Bacon, V.L. Freedman, M.J. Lindberg, and R.E. Clayton. 2012. Numerical Modeling of 90Sr and 137Cs Transport from a Spill in the B-Cell of the 324 Building, Hanford Site 300 Area. PNNL-21214. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zachara J.M., B.N. Bjornstad, J.N. Christensen, M.S. Conrad, J.K. Fredrickson, M.D. Freshley, and R. Haggerty, et al. 2012. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford's 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2011 to January 2012. PNNL-21169. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2011

  • Bonneville A., G.D. Black, I. Gorton, P.S. Hui, E.M. Murphy, C.J. Murray, and M.L. Rockhold, et al. 2011. "Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3): a collaborative approach to the management of geological GHG storage projects." In Proceedings of the 10th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference (GHGT10), September 19-23, 2010, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Energy Procedia, edited by J Gale, C Hendriks W Turkenberg, 4, 3825-3832. Amsterdam:Elsevier. PNNL-SA-74783. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.318
  • Hammond G.E., P.C. Lichtner, and M.L. Rockhold. 2011. "Stochastic Simulation of Uranium Migration at the Hanford 300 Area." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 120-121. PNNL-SA-69786. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.04.005
  • Zachara J.M., B.N. Bjornstad, J.N. Christensen, M.S. Conrad, J.K. Fredrickson, M.D. Freshley, and R. Haggerty, et al. 2011. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford's 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2010 to January 2011. PNNL-20257. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2010

  • Ma R., C. Zheng, H. Prommer, J. Greskowiak, C. Liu, J.M. Zachara, and M.L. Rockhold. 2010. "A Field-Scale Reactive Transport Model for U(VI) Migration Influenced by Coupled Multirate Mass Transfer and Surface Complexation Reactions." Water Resources Research 46. PNNL-SA-67581. doi:10.1029/2009WR008168
  • Murakami H., H. Murakami, X. Chen, M.S. Hahn, Y. Liu, M.L. Rockhold, and V.R. Vermeul, et al. 2010. "Bayesian approach for three-dimensional aquifer characterization at the Hanford 300 Area." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 14. PNNL-SA-75939. doi:10.5194/hess-14-1989-2010
  • Rockhold M.L., G.V. Last, and L.A. Middleton. 2010. Prototype Data Models and Data Dictionaries for Hanford Sediment Physical and Hydraulic Properties. PNNL-19817. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schuchardt K.L., K. Agarwal, J.M. Chase, M.L. Rockhold, V.L. Freedman, T.O. Elsethagen, and T.D. Scheibe, et al. 2010. "Task parallel sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation of groundwater simulations through the SALSSA framework." In Proceedings of the 2010 Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference, July 11-15, 2010, Cattanooga, Tennessee, 233-237. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PNNL-SA-73770.
  • Szecsody J.E., V.R. Vermeul, J.S. Fruchter, M.D. Williams, M.L. Rockhold, N. Qafoku, and J.L. Phillips. 2010. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis. PNNL-19524. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zachara J.M., B.N. Bjornstad, J.N. Christensen, M.E. Conrad, J.K. Fredrickson, M.D. Freshley, and R. Haggerty, et al. 2010. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford's 300 Area Uranium Plume. PNNL-19209. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2009

  • Last G.V., M.L. Rockhold, C.J. Murray, and K.J. Cantrell. 2009. Selection and Traceability of Parameters To Support Hanford-Specific RESRAD Analyses -- Fiscal Year 2008 Status Report. PNNL-18564. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., and L.A. Middleton. 2009. Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6. PNNL-18331. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., D.L. Saunders, C.E. Strickland, S.R. Waichler, and R.E. Clayton. 2009. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report. PNNL-18807. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., E.C. Sullivan, C.J. Murray, G.V. Last, and G.D. Black. 2009. Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development - A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software. PNNL-18844. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., G.V. Last, and L.A. Middleton. 2009. A Long-Term Strategic Plan for Hanford Sediment Physical Property and Vadose Zone Hydraulic Parameter Databases. PNNL-18836. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., L.A. Middleton, and K.J. Cantrell. 2009. Status Report on Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6. PNNL-18530. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Szecsody J.E., M.L. Rockhold, M. Oostrom, R.C. Moore, C.A. Burns, M.D. Williams, and L. Zhong, et al. 2009. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution. PNNL-18303. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Vermeul V.R., B.N. Bjornstad, B.G. Fritz, J.S. Fruchter, R.D. Mackley, D.R. Newcomer, and D.P. Mendoza, et al. 2009. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report. PNNL-18529. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Weisbrod N., T. McGinnis, M.L. Rockhold, M. Niemet, and J.S. Selker. 2009. "Effective Darcy-Scale Contact Angles in Porous Media Imbibing Solutions of Various Surface Tensions." Water Resources Research 45. PNNL-SA-69576.

2008

  • Meyer P.D., M. Ye, S.P. Neuman, and M.L. Rockhold. 2008. "Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area." In Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling: Credibility of Modelling: Proceedings of ModelCARE 2007 Conference, 64-69. Oxfordshire:International Association of Hydrological Sciences. PNNL-SA-55882.
  • Meyer P.D., T.J. Nicholson, M. Ye, S.P. Neuman, and M.L. Rockhold. 2008. "Incorporating Scenario Uncertainty within a Hydrogeologic Uncertainty Assessment Methodology." In 2008 Ground Water Summit, March 20 - April 2, 2008, Memphis, TN. Westerville, Ohio:National Ground Water Association. PNNL-SA-70390.
  • Nichols W.E., M.L. Rockhold, and J.L. Downs. 2008. Compendium of Data for the Hanford Site (Fiscal Years 2004 to 2008) Applicable to Estimation of Recharge Rates. PNNL-17841. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Peterson R.E., M.L. Rockhold, R.J. Serne, P.D. Thorne, and M.D. Williams. 2008. Uranium Contamination in the Subsurface Beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington. PNNL-17034. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L. 2008. Status Report for Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 1.B - Physical and Hydraulic Properties Database and Interpretation. PNNL-17866. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Szecsody J.E., J.S. Fruchter, C.A. Burns, M.L. Rockhold, M. Oostrom, M.D. Williams, and V.R. Vermeul. 2008. "Sr-90 Immobilization by Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution into the Hanford 100-N Area Vadose Zone." In Waste Management 2008: HLW, TRU, LLW/ILW, Mixed, Hazardous Wastes & Environmental Management, Art. # 8141. Tucson, Arizona:Arizona Board of Regents. PNNL-SA-58607.
  • White M.D., M. Oostrom, M.L. Rockhold, and M. Rosing. 2008. "Scalable Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Migration at the Hanford Site Using the STOMP Simulator." Vadose Zone Journal 7, no. 2:654-666. PNNL-SA-57102. doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0070
  • Williams M.D., B.G. Fritz, D.P. Mendoza, M.L. Rockhold, P.D. Thorne, Y. Xie, and B.N. Bjornstad, et al. 2008. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization. PNNL-17429. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Williams M.D., M.L. Rockhold, P.D. Thorne, and Y. Chen. 2008. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State. PNNL-17708. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2007

  • Gee G.W., M. Oostrom, M.D. Freshley, M.L. Rockhold, and J.M. Zachara. 2007. "Hanford Site Vadose-Zone Studies: An Overview." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:899-905. PNNL-SA-53286. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0179
  • Knight R.J., J.D. Irving, P. Tercier, E.J. Freeman, C.J. Murray, and M.L. Rockhold. 2007. "A Comparison of the Use of Radar Images and Neutron Probe Data to Determine the Horizontal Correlation Length of Water Content." In Subsurface Hydrology: Data Integration for Properties and Processes: Geophysical Monograph Series, edited by David W. Hyndman, Frederick D. Day-Lewis, Kamini Singha. 31-44. Washington, District Of Columbia:American Geophysical Union. PNNL-SA-52665.
  • Last G.V., C.J. Murray, D.A. Bush, E.C. Sullivan, M.L. Rockhold, R.D. Mackley, and B.N. Bjornstad. 2007. "Standardization of Borehole Data to Support Vadose Zone Flow and Transport Modeling." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:906-912. PNNL-SA-53079. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0175
  • Meyer P.D., M. Ye, M.L. Rockhold, S.P. Neuman, and K.J. Cantrell. 2007. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. NUREG/CR-6940; PNNL-16396. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Oostrom M., M.L. Rockhold, P.D. Thorne, M.J. Truex, G.V. Last, and V.J. Rohay. 2007. "Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:971-984. PNNL-SA-52843. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0166
  • Vermeul V.R., M.D. Williams, B.G. Fritz, R.D. Mackley, D.P. Mendoza, D.R. Newcomer, and M.L. Rockhold, et al. 2007. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection. PNNL-16571. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Williams B.A., C.F. Brown, W. Um, M.J. Nimmons, R.E. Peterson, B.N. Bjornstad, and D.C. Lanigan, et al. 2007. Limited Field Investigation Report for Uranium Contamination in the 300 Area, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington. PNNL-16435. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2006

  • Meyer P.D., M. Ye, S.P. Neuman, M.L. Rockhold, K.J. Cantrell, and T.J. Nicholson. 2006. "Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty." In Proceedings of the 3rd Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference. Washington D.C.:USGS Water Information Coordination Program Subcommittee on Hydrology. PNNL-SA-47117.
  • Oostrom M., M.L. Rockhold, P.D. Thorne, G.V. Last, and M.J. Truex. 2006. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update. PNNL-16198. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Williams B.A., B.N. Bjornstad, D.C. Lanigan, J.M. Keller, and M.L. Rockhold. 2006. Borehole Data Package for One CY 2005 CERCLA Well 699-S20-E10, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington. PNNL-15417. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2005

  • Rockhold M.L., R.R. Yarwood, M.R. Niemet, P.J. Bottomley, and J.S. Selker. 2005. "Experimental observations and numerical modeling of coupled microbial and transport processes in variably saturated sand." Vadose Zone Journal 4, no. 2:407-417. PNNL-SA-45867. doi:10.2136/vzj2004.0087
  • Szecsody J.E., J.S. Fruchter, J.L. Phillips, M.L. Rockhold, V.R. Vermeul, M.D. Williams, and B.J. Devary, et al. 2005. Effect of Geochemical and Physical Heterogeneity on the Hanford 100D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Longevity. PNNL-15499 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Szecsody J.E., V.R. Vermeul, J.S. Fruchter, M.D. Williams, J.L. Phillips, B.J. Devary, and M.L. Rockhold, et al. 2005. Effect of Geochemical and Physical Heterogeneity on the Hanford 100D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Longevity. PNNL-15499. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2004

  • Brockman F.J., J.S. Selker, and M.L. Rockhold. 2004. Integrated Field, Laboratory, and Modeling Studies to Determine the Effects of Linked Microbial and Physical Spatial Heterogeneity on Engineered Vadose Zone Bioremediation. PNNL-14535. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Oostrom M., M.L. Rockhold, P.D. Thorne, G.V. Last, and M.J. Truex. 2004. Three-Dimensional Modeling of DNAPL in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site. PNNL-14895. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., M.D. White, and E.J. Freeman. 2004. Canyon Disposal Initiative - Numerical Modeling of Contaminant Transport from Grouted Residual Waste in the 221-U Facility (U Plant). PNNL-14908. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Rockhold M.L., R.R. Yarwood, and J.S. Selker. 2004. "Coupled Microbial and Transport Processes in soils." Vadose Zone Journal 3, no. 2:368-383. PNNL-SA-42985.
  • Weisbrod N., M.R. Niemet, M.L. Rockhold, T.D. Mcginnis, and J.S. Selker. 2004. "Migration of saline solutions in variably saturated porous media." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 72. PNNL-SA-42530.

2003

  • Chen G., M.L. Rockhold, and K.A. Strevett. 2003. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Adsorption of Bacteria on Alluvial Sand and Surface Thermodynamic Interpretation." Research in Microbiology 154. PNNL-SA-39284.

2002

  • Rockhold M.L., R.R. Yarwood, M.R. Niemet, P.J. Bottomley, and J.S. Selker. 2002. "Considerations for Modeling Bacterial-Induced Changes in Hydraulic Properties of Variably Saturated Porous Media." Advances in Water Resources 25, no. 5:477-495. PNNL-SA-36850. doi:10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00023-4
  • Yarwood R., M.L. Rockhold, M. Niemet, J.S. Selker, and P.J. Bottomley. 2002. "Noninvasive Quantitative Measurement of Bacterial Growth in Porous Media Under Unsaturated-Flow Conditions." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, no. 7:3597-3605. PNNL-SA-36835.

1999

  • Meyer P.D., G.W. Gee, and M.L. Rockhold. 1999. "Characterization of Soil Hydraulic Parameter Uncertainty." In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Characterization and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media. Oct. 22-24, 1997, edited by M. Th. van Genuchten F. J. Leij and L. Wu, 1439-1451. Riverside, California:U.C. Riverside Press. PNNL-SA-31789.
  • Rockhold M.L., C.J. Murray, and M.J. Fayer. 1999. "Conditional simulation and upscaling of soil hydraulic properties." In Characterization and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media, edited by M. Th. van Genuchten, F. J. Leij, and L. Wu, 2, 1391-1401. Riverside, California:University of California Press. PNNL-SA-31799.

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