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Energy and Environment Directorate

Fred Zhang

Fred Zhang

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 372-4866

Research Interests

  • Parameter estimation and inverse modeling
  • Unsaturated and saturated flow and transport
  • Flow instability
  • Uncertainty and stochastic analysis
  • Multiphase flow

Education and Credentials

  • Diploma of Micro-Computer Systems: McMaster University, 2000
  • Ph.D., Soil Physics, University of Guelph, 1999
  • M.S., Soil Science, Beijing Agricultural University, 1988
  • B.S., Soil and Agro-Chemistry, Beijing Agricultural University, 1985

Affiliations and Professional Service

Awards and Recognitions

  • June 2003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Environmental Technology Directorate, Shining Star Award
  • May 2003, The 2002 "Editors' Citation for Excellence in Manuscript Review" by the Vadose Zone Journal (VZJ)
  • October 1998, Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Canada, 1-year Mary Williams Scholarship
  • May 1998, University of Guelph Scholarship
  • October 1996, Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Canada, 2-year Mary Williams Scholarship
  • January 1996 - December 1998, University of Guelph, Canada, Combined Visa Scholarship and Differential Tuition Waiver
  • 12/1994-03/1995: United Nations Development Program (UNDP) fellowship
  • 03/1992: Received the third prize of science-and-technology improvement of China‚Äôs national Ministry of Agriculture on the technical package for the cultivation of high yield crops in Weibei dry lands, Shaanxi province
  • September 1991, Received the second prize of science-and-technology improvement of Shaanxi province, China, on the technical package for the cultivation of high yield crops in Weibei dry lands, Shaanxi province

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Saslow S.A., A.R. Lawter, B.N. Gartman, Z. Zhang, M. Snyder, L. Zhong, and K.J. Cantrell, et al. 2018. Evaluation of Perched Water Post-Extraction Remedy Technologies: Interim Status Report. PNNL-28054. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z., J.N. Thomle, and R.E. Clayton. 2018. Monitoring the Prototype Hanford Barrier - Fiscal Year 2017 Report. PNNL-27383. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z., J.N. Thomle, R.E. Clayton, S.F. Harding, and G.L. Dai. 2018. Monitoring the Prototype Hanford Barrier - Fiscal Year 2018 Report. PNNL-28039. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z., N. Bugosh, T.K. Tesfa, M.J. Mcdonald, and J. Kretzmann. 2018. "CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR HYDROLOGY - BASED GEOMORPHIC EVAPOTRANSPIRATION COVERS FOR RECLAMATION OF MINE LAND." Journal of The American Society of Mining and Reclamation 7, no. 2:61 - 88. PNNL-SA-132816. doi:10.21000/JASMR18020061

2017

  • Zhang Z. 2017. "Long-Term Drainage from the Riprap Side Slope of a Surface Barrier." Water 8. PNNL-SA-118037. doi:10.14294
  • Zhang Z. 2017. "Should the Standard Count Be Excluded from Neutron Probe Calibration?." Soil Science Society of America Journal 81. PNNL-SA-123951. doi:10.2136/sssaj2017.02.0052
  • Zhang Z., C.E. Strickland, and S.O. Link. 2017. "Design and Performance Evaluation of a 1000-year Evapotranspiration-Capillary Surface Barrier." Journal of Environmental Management 187. PNNL-SA-121353. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.11.007

2016

  • Gilmore T.J., A.H. Bonneville, E.C. Sullivan, M.E. Kelley, D. Appriou, V.R. Vermeul, and S.K. White, et al. 2016. "Characterization and Design of the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Storage Site." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 53. PNNL-SA-116762. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.022
  • Rockhold M.L., Z.F. Zhang, and Y. Bott. 2016. Scale-Dependent Solute Dispersion in Variably Saturated Porous Media. PNNL-25146. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Wang H., S. Wang, R. Fan, and Z. Zhang. 2016. Minimizing Uncertainties Impact in Decision Making with an Applicability Study for Economic Power Dispatch. PNNL-26084. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F. 2016. "Evaluating the long-term hydrology of an evapotranspiration-capillary barrier with a 1000 year design life." Water Resources Research 52, no. 6:4883-4904. PNNL-SA-113332. doi:10.1002/2015WR018167
  • Zhang Z.F., D.M. Wellman, J.G. Morse, K.D. Leary, and M.D. Freshley. 2016. "Performance of a Surface Barrier for Waste Isolation and Flux Reduction at the Hanford Site." In Annual Waste Management Conference (WM2016), March 6-10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona, 5, 3474-3482, Paper No. 16099. Tempe, Arizona:Waste Management Symposia, Inc. PNNL-SA-114505.
  • Zhang Z.F., M. Oostrom, and M.D. White. 2016. "Relative Permeability for Multiphase Flow for Oven-Dry to Full Saturation Conditions." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 49. PNWD-SA-10506. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.02.029

2015

  • Rockhold M.L., Z.F. Zhang, P.D. Meyer, and J.N. Thomle. 2015. Physical, Hydraulic, and Transport Properties of Sediments and Engineered Materials Associated with Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste. PNNL-23711; RPT-IGTP-004, Rev. 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F. 2015. "Field Soil Water Retention of the Prototype Hanford Barrier and Its Variability with Space and Time." Vadose Zone Journal 14, no. 8:Article No. 0011. PNNL-SA-107612. doi:10.2136/vzj2015.01.0011
  • Zhang Z.F., S.K. White, and M.D. White. 2015. "Delineating the Horizontal Plume Extent and CO2 Distribution at Geologic Sequestration Sites." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 43. PNWD-SA-10494. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.10.018

2014

  • Zhang Z.F. 2014. "Relationship between Anisotropy in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Saturation." Vadose Zone Journal 13, no. 6. PNNL-SA-98575. doi:10.2136/vzj2013.09.0172
  • Zhang Z.F., S.K. White, A. Bonneville, and T.J. Gilmore. 2014. "Local Sensitivity of Predicted CO2 Injectivity and Plume Extent to Model Inputs for the FutureGen 2.0 site." Energy Procedia 63. PNWD-SA-10392. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.409

2013

  • Bonneville A., T.J. Gilmore, E.C. Sullivan, V.R. Vermeul, M.E. Kelley, S.K. White, and D. Appriou, et al. 2013. "Evaluating the Suitability for CO2 Storage at the FutureGen 2.0 Site, Morgan County, Illinois, USA." Energy Procedia 37. PNNL-SA-91308. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.541
  • Liu Z., M. Flury, Z.F. Zhang, J.B. Harsh, G.W. Gee, C.E. Strickland, and R.E. Clayton. 2013. "Transport of Europium Colloids in Vadose Zone Lysimeters at the Semiarid Hanford Site." Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 5:2153-2160. PNNL-SA-94191.
  • White M.D., D.H. Bacon, S.K. White, and Z.F. Zhang. 2013. "Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production." Energy Procedia 37. PNNL-SA-91038. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.295

2012

  • White M.D., D.H. Bacon, B.P. McGrail, D.J. Watson, S.K. White, and Z.F. Zhang. 2012. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e Guide: Version 1.0. PNNL-21268. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., C.E. Strickland, J.G. Field, D.L. Parker, and R.E. Clayton. 2012. "Evaluating the Performance of a Surface Barrier on Reducing Soil-Water Flow." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 3:Article No. 0117. PNNL-SA-82602. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0117
  • Zhang Z.F., L. Zhong, M.D. White, and J.E. Szecsody. 2012. "Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 4. PNNL-SA-87925. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0190

2011

  • Jansik D.P., D.M. Wellman, S.V. Mattigod, L. Zhong, Y. Wu, M. Foote, and Z.F. Zhang, et al. 2011. "FOAM: NOVEL DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF VADOSE ZONE ENVIRONMENTS." In 14th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, September 25-29, Reims, France, 406-416. New York, New York:ASME. PNNL-SA-81100. doi:10.1115/ICEM2011-59019
  • Zhang Z.F. 2011. "Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Conditions from Oven-Dry to Full Saturation." Vadose Zone Journal 10, no. 4:1299-1308. PNNL-SA-78084. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0019
  • Zhang Z.F., A.L. Ward, and J.M. Keller. 2011. "Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures." Vadose Zone Journal 10, no. 1:313-321. PNNL-SA-68711. doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0138
  • Zhang Z.F., C.E. Strickland, J.G. Field, and D.L. Parker. 2011. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report. PNNL-20144. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2010

  • Truex M.J., M. Oostrom, Z.F. Zhang, K.C. Carroll, J.A. Schramke, T.W. Wietsma, and G.D. Tartakovsky, et al. 2010. Evaluation of Soil Flushing for Application to the Deep Vadose Zone in the Hanford Central Plateau. PNNL-19938. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F. 2010. "Effective Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Isotropic Soils with Multidimensional Heterogeneity." Soil Science Society of America Journal 74, no. 3:734-743. PNNL-SA-62341. doi:10.2136/sssaj2009.0405
  • Zhang Z.F. 2010. Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Full Range of Saturation. PNNL-19800. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., and R. Khaleel. 2010. "Simulating Field-Scale Moisture Flow Using a Combined Power-Averaging and Tensorial Connectivity-Tortuosity Approach." Water Resources Research 46. PNNL-SA-68187. doi:10.1029/2009WR008595
  • Zhang Z.F., C.E. Strickland, J.G. Field, and D.L. Parker. 2010. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY09 Report. PNNL-19123. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., C.E. Strickland, J.G. Field, and D.L. Parker. 2010. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration-Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan. PNNL-19772. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhong L., J.E. Szecsody, Z.F. Zhang, and S.V. Mattigod. 2010. "Foam Delivery of Amendments for Vadose Zone Remediation - Propagation Performance in Unsaturated Sediments." Vadose Zone Journal 9, no. 3:757-767. PNNL-SA-70394.

2009

  • Gee G.W., B.D. Newman, S.R. Green, R. Meissner, H. Rupp, Z.F. Zhang, and J.M. Keller, et al. 2009. "Passive wick fluxmeters: Design considerations and field applications." Water Resources Research 45. PNNL-SA-60335.
  • Zhang Z.F., A.L. Ward, and J.M. Keller. 2009. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures. PNNL-18801. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., and R. Khaleel. 2009. The Interfacial-Area-Based Relative Permeability Function. PNNL-18792. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., C.E. Strickland, J.G. Field, and D.L. Parker. 2009. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Report. PNNL-18083 FINAL. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., V.L. Freedman, and L. Zhong. 2009. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review. PNNL-18918. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhong L., A.T. Hart, A.T. Hart, J.E. Szecsody, Z.F. Zhang, V.L. Freedman, and M. Ankeny, et al. 2009. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation. PNNL-18143. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhong L., N. Qafoku, J.E. Szecsody, P.E. Dresel, and Z.F. Zhang. 2009. "Foam Delivery of Calcium Polysulfide to Vadose Zone for Chromium-VI Immobilization: A Laboratory Evaluation." Vadose Zone Journal 8, no. 4:976-985. PNNL-SA-60896. doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0124

2008

  • Oostrom M., P.D. Thorne, Z.F. Zhang, G.V. Last, and M.J. Truex. 2008. Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site. PNNL-17181. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Oostrom M., Z.F. Zhang, V.L. Freedman, and G.D. Tartakovsky. 2008. Improved Predictions of Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Flow and Transport: Implementation of Kinetic Volatilization and Multicomponent NAPL Behavior. PNNL-17878. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., and C.E. Strickland. 2008. T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Fourth-Quarter Status Report. PNNL-17914. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., C.E. Strickland, J.M. Keller, C.D. Wittreich, and H.A. Sydnor. 2008. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration -- Vadose Zone Monitoring FY07 Report. PNNL-17306. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2007

  • Freedman V.L., Z.F. Zhang, J.M. Keller, and Y. Chen. 2007. Development of Waste Acceptance Criteria at 221-U Building: Initial Flow and Transport Scoping Calculations. PNNL-16585. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Ward A.L., and Z.F. Zhang. 2007. "Effective Hydraulic Properties Determined from Transient Unsaturated Flow in Anisotropic Soils." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:913-924. PNNL-SA-55334. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0174
  • Zhang Z.F., J.M. Keller, and C.E. Strickland. 2007. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration--Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan. PNNL-16538. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., M. Oostrom, and A.L. Ward. 2007. "Saturation-Dependent Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy for Multifluid Systems in Porous Media." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:925-934. PNNL-SA-52784. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0141

2006

  • Ward A.L., M.E. Conrad, W.D. Daily, J.B. Fink, V.L. Freedman, G.W. Gee, and G.M. Hoversten, et al. 2006. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report. PNNL-15443. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Ward A.L., Z.F. Zhang, and G.W. Gee. 2006. "Upscaling unsaturated hydraulic parameters for flow through heterogeneous anisotropic sediments." Advances in Water Resources 29, no. 2:268-280. PNNL-SA-49477. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2005.02.013
  • Zhang Z.F., and J.M. Keller. 2006. T Tank Farm Interim Cover Test - Design Plan. PNNL-15913 Rev. 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2005

  • Freedman V.L., Z.F. Zhang, S.R. Waichler, and S.K. Wurstner. 2005. 2005 Closure Assessments for WMA-C Tank Farms: Numerical Simulations. PNNL-15377. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Gee G.W., Z.F. Zhang, S.W. Tyler, W.H. Albright, and M.J. Singleton. 2005. "Chloride-Mass-Balance: Cautions in Predicting Increased Recharge Rates." Vadose Zone Journal 4, no. 2005:72-78. PNNL-SA-40927.
  • Ward A.L., M.D. White, E.J. Freeman, and Z.F. Zhang. 2005. STOMP Sparse Vegetation Evapotranspiration Model for the Water-Air-Energy Operational Mode. PNNL-15465. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2004

  • Gee G.W., A.L. Ward, Z.F. Zhang, and A. Anandacoomaraswamy. 2004. "Use of Water Fluxmeters to Measure Drainage." In Drainage VIII : Proceedings of the 8th International Drainage Symposium, 21-24 March 2004, Sacramento, California, edited by Richard A. Cooke, 321 -331. St. Joseph, Michigan:American Society of Agricultural Engineers. PNNL-SA-39875.
  • Gee G.W., Z.F. Zhang, A.L. Ward, and J.M. Keller. 2004. "Passive-wick water fluxmeters: theory and practice." In SuperSoil2004: 3rd Australian New Zealand Soils Conference, December 5-9, 2004 Sydney, Australia, edited by B Singh. Gosford:The Regional Institute Ltd. PNNL-SA-43958.
  • Raats P.A., Z.F. Zhang, A.L. Ward, and G.W. Gee. 2004. "The relative connectivity-tortuosity tensor for conduction of water in anisotropic unsaturated soils." Vadose Zone Journal 3, no. 4:1471-1478. PNNL-SA-40555.
  • Ward A.L., G.W. Gee, Z.F. Zhang, and J.M. Keller. 2004. Vadose Zone Contaminant Fate and Transport Analysis for the 216-B-26 Trench. PNNL-14907. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., A.L. Ward, and G.W. Gee. 2004. "A Combined Parameter Scaling and Inverse Technique to Upscale the Unsaturated Hydraulic Parameters for Heterogeneous Soils." Water Resources Research 40, no. 8:1-13 (W08306). PNNL-SA-40137.
  • Zhang Z.F., A.L. Ward, and G.W. Gee. 2004. "A Parameter Scaling Concept for Estimating Field-Scale Hydraulic Functions of Layered Soils." Journal of Hydraulic Research 42, no. SI:93 - 103. PNNL-SA-38270.
  • Zhang Z.F., V.L. Freedman, and S.R. Waichler. 2004. 2004 Initial Assessments for the T and TX TY Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR): Numerical Simulations. PNNL-14838. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., V.L. Freedman, S.R. Waichler, and M.D. White. 2004. 2004 Initial Assessments of Closure for the S-SX Tank Farm: Numerical Simulations. PNNL-14604. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2003

  • Gee G.W., Z.F. Zhang, and A.L. Ward. 2003. "A modified vadose zone fluxmeter with solution collection capability." Vadose Zone Journal 2. PNNL-SA-38348.
  • Ward A.L., G.W. Gee, Z.F. Zhang, and J.M. Keller. 2003. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: FY 2002 Status Report. PNNL-14150. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhang Z.F., A.L. Ward, and G.W. Gee. 2003. "A Tensorial Connectivity-Tortuosity Concept to Describe the Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties of Anisotropic Soils." Vadose Zone Journal 2, no. 3:313-321. PNNL-SA-37749.
  • Zhang Z.F., A.L. Ward, and G.W. Gee. 2003. "Estimating Soil Hydraulic Parameters of a Field Drainage Experiment Using Inverse Techniques." Vadose Zone Journal 2. PNNL-SA-36979.
  • Zhang Z.F., V.L. Freedman, and M.D. White. 2003. 2003 Initial Assessments of Closure for the C Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR):Numerical Simulations. PNNL-14334. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2002

  • Gee G.W., A.L. Ward, Z.F. Zhang, G.S. Campbell, and J.B. Mathison. 2002. "The Influence of Hydraulic Non-Equilibrium on Pressure Plate Data." Vadose Zone Journal 1. PNNL-SA-38178.
  • Zhang Z.F., A.L. Ward, and G.W. Gee. 2002. Estimating Field-Scale Hydraulic Parameters of Heterogeneous Soils Using A Combination of Parameter Scaling and Inverse Methods. PNNL-14109. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2001

  • Ward A.L., G.W. Gee, and Z.F. Zhang. 2001. "The effect of fluid properties on field-scale anion transport during intermittent unsaturated flow." Eos 82, no. 47:F421. PNNL-SA-31825.
  • Zhang Z.F., A.L. Ward, and G.W. Gee. 2001. "Estimating soil hydraulic properties from field-scale experiments using the inverse model UCODE with the STOMP simulator." Eos 82, no. 47:F363. PNNL-SA-31725.

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