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Energy and Environment Directorate

Lirong Zhong

Lirong Zhong

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 371-7101


Lirong Zhong has over 16 years of experience in environmental science and engineering research. Since joining PNNL in 2003, his work has focused primarily on groundwater and vadose zone contamination remediation technology development and subsurface characterization. His research interests cover a broad range of areas that pertain to subsurface science and characterization, contaminate fate and transport, and aquifer and vadose zone remediation engineering. He has conducted researches on enhanced delivery of remedial amendments to aquifer and vadose zone, contaminant mobilization by supercritical carbon dioxide and the fate of mobilized compounds, gaseous treatment for vadose zone remediation, and enhanced vadose zone non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal and vadose zone metal/radionulides immobilization. He is also interested in rheological characterization on fluids and gels, in fluid flow behavior under high pressure and temperature conditions, and in GC-MS/MS analytical method development.

Research Interests

  • Aquifer and vadose zone site remediation
  • Subsurface contamination characterization
  • Subsurface environmental impact of CO2 leak from geological sequestration
  • Rheological property study on fluid and gel materials
  • Fluid flow behavior under high pressure and temperature conditions
  • GC-MS/MS analytical method development

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1999
  • M.S., Geological Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, 1996
  • M.S., Geology, Nanjing University, China, 1991
  • B.S., Geology, Hunan University of Science & Technology, China, 1988

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • Geochemical Society

PNNL Publications


  • Feng R., Y. Chen, X. Zhang, B. Rousseau, P. Gao, P. Chen, and S.T. Mergelsberg, et al. 2023. "Proton-regulated alcohol oxidation for high-capacity ketone-based flow battery anolyte." Joule 7, no. 7:1609-1622. PNNL-SA-174628. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2023.06.013
  • Gao P., S.E. Muller, J. Chun, L. Zhong, and Z.C. Kennedy. 2023. "Effects of 2D filler on rheology of additive manufacturing polymers: Simulation and experiment on polyetherketoneketone-mica composites." Polymer 269. PNNL-SA-177886. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2023.125722
  • Tan S., M. Nguyen, D. Zhang, L. Zhong, Z. Cheng, S. China, and G.E. Johnson, et al. 2023. "Electric-Field-Induced Assembly of an Ionic Liquid-Water Interphase Enables Efficient Heavy Metal Electrosorption." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 15, no. 37:44469-44481. PNNL-SA-182933. doi:10.1021/acsami.3c07465
  • Yan L., X. Zang, Z. Nie, L. Zhong, Z. Deng, and W. Wang. 2023. "Online and Noninvasive Monitoring of Battery Health at Negative-half Cell in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Using Ultrasound." Journal of Power Sources 580. PNNL-SA-174447. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2023.233417


  • Kennedy Z.C., J.F. Christ, M.D. Fenn, L. Zhong, W. Chouyyok, A.M. Arnold, and A.C. Denny, et al. 2022. "Mica filled polyetherketoneketones for material extrusion 3D printing." Additive Manufacturing 49. PNNL-SA-165225. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2021.102492
  • Kim J., Y. Xu, M.H. Engelhard, J. Hu, H. Lim, H. Jia, and Z. Yang, et al. 2022. "Facile Dual-Protection Layer and Advanced Electrolyte Enhancing Performances of Cobalt-Free/Nickel-Rich Cathodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 14, no. 15:17405-17414. PNNL-SA-168201. doi:10.1021/acsami.2c01694
  • Wang Y., L. Zhong, X. Song, M. Adeel, and Y. Yang. 2022. "Natural Colloids Facilitated Transport of Steroidal Estrogens in Saturated Porous Media: Mechanism and Processes." Journal of Hydrology 315. PNNL-SA-169889. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120315
  • Xu W., H. Jia, L. Zhong, and X. Cao. 2022. High-Safety Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries : Is non-flammability of electrolyte overrated in the overall safety performance of lithium ion batteries?. PNNL-33366. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. High-Safety Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries : Is non-flammability of electrolyte overrated in the overall safety performance of lithium ion batteries?
  • Yan X., Y. Fei, X. Yang, T. Liang, and L. Zhong. 2022. "Enhanced delivery of engineered Fe-Mn binary oxides in heterogeneous porous media for efficient arsenic stabilization." Journal of Hazardous Materials 424, no. Part A:Article No.127371. PNNL-SA-163806. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127371


  • Jia H., Y. Xu, X. Zhang, S.D. Burton, P. Gao, B.E. Matthews, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2021. "Advanced low-flammable electrolytes for stable operation of high-voltage lithium-ion batteries." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 60, no. 23:12999-13006. PNNL-SA-159888. doi:10.1002/anie.202102403
  • Muller K.A., L. Zhong, and C.E. Bagwell. 2021. "Characterizing the Influence of Organic Polymers on the Specific Reactivity of Particulate Remedial Amendments." Frontiers in Environmental Science 9. PNNL-SA-162020. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2021.703851
  • Yang X., J. Li, T. Liang, X. Yan, L. Zhong, J. Shao, and A. El-Naggar, et al. 2021. "A combined management scheme to simultaneously mitigate As and Cd concentrations in rice cultivated in contaminated paddy soil." Journal of Hazardous Materials 416. PNNL-SA-163170. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125837


  • Jia H., Y. Xu, S.D. Burton, P. Gao, X. Zhang, B.E. Matthews, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2020. "Enabling Ether-Based Electrolytes for Long Cycle Life of Lithium-Ion Batteries at High Charge Voltage." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 12, no. 49:54893-54903. PNNL-SA-156239. doi:10.1021/acsami.0c18177
  • Johnson C.M., J.E. Fast, B.D. Milbrath, J.D. Lowrey, B.G. Fritz, T.R. Alexander, and M.F. Mayer, et al. 2020. UNESE Phase 2: Injection and measurement of gaseous tracers at U-12p Tunnel. PNNL-30202. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. UNESE Phase 2: Injection and measurement of gaseous tracers at U-12p Tunnel
  • Kwak W., S. Chae, R. Feng, P. Gao, J. Read, M.H. Engelhard, and L. Zhong, et al. 2020. "Optimized Electrolyte with High Electrochemical Stability and Oxygen Solubility for Lithium-Oxygen and Lithium-Air Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 5, no. 7:2182-2190. PNNL-SA-150369. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.0c00809
  • Merkel D.R., W. Kuang, D. Malhotra, G. Petrossian, L. Zhong, K.L. Simmons, and J. Zhang, et al. 2020. "Waste PET Chemical Processing to Terephthalic Amides and Their Effect on Asphalt Performance." ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 8, no. 14:5615-5625. PNNL-SA-150317. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c00036
  • Yan X., Y. Fei, L. Zhong, and W. Wei. 2020. "Arsenic stabilization performance of a novel starch-modified Fe-Mn binary oxide colloid." Science of the Total Environment 707. PNNL-SA-151434. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136064
  • Yang S., X. Yan, L. Zhong, and X. Tong. 2020. "Benzene homologues contaminants in a former herbicide factory site: distribution, attenuation, risk, and remediation implication." Environmental Geochemistry and Health 42, no. 1 SI:241-253. PNNL-SA-151436. doi:10.1007/s10653-019-00342-2
  • Zhang X., L. Zou, Y. Xu, X. Cao, M.H. Engelhard, B.E. Matthews, and L. Zhong, et al. 2020. "Advanced electrolytes for fast-charging high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in wide-temperature range." Advanced Energy Materials 10, no. 22:2000368. PNNL-SA-150274. doi:10.1002/aenm.202000368


  • Amonette J.E., L. Zhong, T.H. Darrah, B.S. Grove, and D.R. Cole. 2019. "Noble and Major Gases Released from Rock Core Materials as Intrinsic Tracers for Detecting Carbon Dioxide Leakage - Laboratory Evaluation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 89. PNWD-SA-10563. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2019.05.010
  • Bagwell C.E., L. Zhong, J.R. Wells, A.V. Mitroshkov, and N. Qafoku. 2019. "Microbial methylation of iodide in unconfined aquifer sediments at the Hanford Site, USA." Frontiers in Microbiology 10. PNNL-SA-143910. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.02460
  • Cao X., Y. Xu, L. Zhang, M.H. Engelhard, L. Zhong, X. Ren, and H. Jia, et al. 2019. "Nonflammable Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Enabled by Ultraconformal Passivation Interphases." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 10:2529-2534. PNNL-SA-145269. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.9b01926
  • Johnson C.M., C.E. Aalseth, T.R. Alexander, T.W. Bowyer, V. Chipman, A.R. Day, and S. Drellack, et al. 2019. "Migration of noble gas tracers at the site of an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada National Security Site." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 208-209. PNNL-SA-143881. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.106047
  • Kennedy Z.C., J.F. Christ, B.W. Arey, L. Zhong, and C.A. Barrett. 2019. "Tunable Porosity in Fused Filament 3D-Printed Blends of Intrinsically Porous Polymer and Thermoplastic Aliphatic Polyesters Polycaprolactone and Polylactic Acid." ACS Applied Polymer Materials 1, no. 3:482-492. PNNL-SA-139794. doi:10.1021/acsapm.8b00172


  • Lin L., L. Zhong, X. Yan, and Y. Fei. 2018. "Reducing Arsenic Concentration in Panax notoginseng via Contaminant Immobilization in Soil Using Fe-Ce Oxide." Journal of Environmental Quality 47, no. 2:312-317. PNNL-SA-130195. doi:10.2134/jeq2017.07.0297
  • Yan X., C. Liu, L. Zhong, and J. Wang. 2018. "Combining Phytoremediation with Soil Flushing for Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Soil." International Journal of Phytoremediation 20, no. 12:1229-1235. PNNL-SA-133336. doi:10.1080/15226514.2018.1460309
  • Yang S., L. Zhong, and G. Li. 2018. "Rheological Properties of Aqueous Colloidal Silica Suspensions Related to Amendment Delivery for Subsurface Remediation." Environmental Engineering Science 35, no. 2:121-131. PNNL-SA-124368. doi:10.1089/ees.2017.0040
  • Zhong L., B.D. Lee, and S. Yang. 2018. "Establishing Vadose Zone Slow-Release Carbon Sources for Enhanced Bioremediation using Silica Suspension." Vadose Zone Journal 17, no. 1:Article No. 170175. PNNL-SA-129486. doi:10.2136/vzj2017.09.0175


  • Childers M.I., M.C. Endres, C.A. Burns, B.J. Garcia, J. Liu, T.W. Wietsma, and A.H. Bonneville, et al. 2017. "Novel Highly Dispersible, Thermally Stable Core/Shell Proppants for Geothermal Applications." Geothermics 70. PNNL-SA-121506. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2017.05.013
  • Liu Y., C. Liu, W.C. Nelson, L. Shi, F. Xu, Y. Liu, and A. Yan, et al. 2017. "Effect of Water Chemistry and Hydrodynamics on Nitrogen Transformation and Microbial Community Functional Potential in Hyporheic Zone Sediment Columns." Environmental Science & Technology 51, no. 9:4877-4886. PNNL-SA-121316. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b05018
  • Szecsody J.E., M.J. Truex, B.D. Lee, C.E. Strickland, J.J. Moran, M. Snyder, and C.T. Resch, et al. 2017. Geochemical, Microbial, and Physical Characterization of 200-DV-1 Operable Unit Cores from Boreholes C9552, C9487, and C9488, Hanford Site Central Plateau. PNNL-26266. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Truex M.J., J.E. Szecsody, N. Qafoku, C.E. Strickland, J.J. Moran, B.D. Lee, and M. Snyder, et al. 2017. Contaminant Attenuation and Transport Characterization of 200-DV-1 Operable Unit Sediment Samples. PNNL-26208. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. doi:10.2172/1368134.Contaminant Attenuation and Transport Characterization of 200-DV-1 Operable Unit Sediment Samples


  • Fernandez C.A., H. Shao, A. Bonneville, T. Varga, and L. Zhong. 2016. "On the Versatility of Rheoreversible, Stimuli-responsive Hydraulic-Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Effect of Reservoir pH." In Proceedings of the 41st Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, February 22-24, 2016, Stanford, California, Paper No SGP-TR-209. Red Hook, New York:Curran Associates Inc. PNNL-SA-116023.
  • Olsen K.B., R.R. Kirkham, V.T. Woods, D.A. Haas, J.C. Hayes, T.W. Bowyer, and D.P. Mendoza, et al. 2016. "Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 307, no. 3:2603-2610. PNNL-SA-109064. doi:10.1007/s10967-015-4639-7
  • Wu B., H. Li, X. Du, L. Zhong, B. Yang, P. Du, and Q. Gu, et al. 2016. "Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: a two-dimensional flow cell study." Chemosphere 144. PNNL-SA-114963. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.005
  • Yang S., M. Oostrom, M.J. Truex, G. Li, and L. Zhong. 2016. "Injectable Silica-Permanganate Gel as a Slow-Release MnO4- Source for Groundwater Remediation: Rheological Properties and Release Dynamics." Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 18, no. 2:256-264. PNNL-SA-107472. doi:10.1039/C5EM00559K


  • Jung H., K. Carroll, S. Kabilan, D.J. Heldebrant, D.W. Hoyt, L. Zhong, and T. Varga, et al. 2015. "Stimuli-Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids as a Greener Alternative to Support Geothermal and Fossil Energy Production." Green Chemistry 17, no. 5:2799-2812. PNNL-SA-106027. doi:10.1039/c4gc01917b
  • Szecsody J.E., M.J. Truex, L. Zhong, J.P. McKinley, N. Qafoku, B.D. Lee, and S.D. Saurey. 2015. "Remediation of Technetium in Vadose Zone Sediments Using Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide Gases." Vadose Zone Journal 14, no. 7. PNNL-SA-107578. doi:10.2136/vzj2014.09.0134
  • Truex M.J., V.R. Vermeul, D. Adamson, M. Oostrom, L. Zhong, R.D. Mackley, and B.G. Fritz, et al. 2015. "Field Test of Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery Using a Shear-Thinning Fluid." Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation 35, no. 3:34-45. PNNL-SA-101736. doi:10.1111/gwmr.12101
  • Zhong L., J.E. Szecsody, M.J. Truex, M.D. Williams, and Y. Liu. 2015. "Ammonia Gas Transport and Reactions in Unsaturated Sediments: Implications for Use as an Amendment to Immobilize Inorganic Contaminants." Journal of Hazardous Materials 289. PNNL-SA-106198. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.02.025
  • Zhong L., M.J. Truex, N. Kananizadeh, Y. Li, A.S. Lea, and X. Yan. 2015. "Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 175-176. PNNL-SA-106469. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2015.02.001


  • Amonette J.E., T.A. Johnson, C.F. Spencer, L. Zhong, J.E. Szecsody, and V.R. Vermeul. 2014. "Geochemical Monitoring Considerations for the FutureGen 2.0 Project." Energy Procedia 63. PNWD-SA-10397. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.441
  • Oostrom M., M.J. Truex, V.R. Vermeul, L. Zhong, G.D. Tartakovsky, and T.W. Wietsma. 2014. "Remedial Amendment Delivery near the Water Table Using Shear Thinning Fluids: Experiments and Numerical Simulations." Environmental Processes 1, no. 4:331-351. PNNL-SA-103590. doi:10.1007/s40710-014-0031-9
  • Roostapour A., G. Lee, L. Zhong, and S.I. Kam. 2014. "Model Fit to Experimental Data for Foam-Assisted Deep Vadose Zone Remediation." Journal of Hazardous Materials 264. PNNL-SA-94316. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.09.016
  • Szecsody J.E., L. Zhong, J.N. Thomle, V.R. Vermeul, C.E. Strickland, M.D. Williams, and J. Liu, et al. 2014. "Influence of scCO2 Injection on Precipitation and Metals Migration, and Changes in Electrical Resistivity." Energy Procedia 63. PNWD-SA-10402. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.356
  • Zhong L., J.E. Amonette, A.V. Mitroshkov, and K.B. Olsen. 2014. "Transport of Perfluorocarbon Tracers and Carbon Dioxide in Sediment Columns - Evaluating the Application of PFC Tracers for CO2 Leakage Detection." Applied Geochemistry 45. PNWD-SA-10210. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.02.016
  • Zhong L., K.J. Cantrell, A.V. Mitroshkov, and J.L. Shewell. 2014. "Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites." Environmental Earth Sciences 71, no. 9:4261-4272. PNNL-SA-94686. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2823-z
  • Zhong L., K.J. Cantrell, D.H. Bacon, and J.L. Shewell. 2014. "Transport of Organic Contaminants Mobilized from Coal through Sandstone Overlying a Geological Carbon Sequestration Reservoir." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 21. PNNL-SA-97831. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.12.014


  • Ding Y., B. Liu, X. Shen, L. Zhong, and X. Li. 2013. "Foam-assisted delivery of nanoscale zero valent iron in porous media." Journal of Environmental Engineering (ASCE) 139, no. 9:1206-1212. PNNL-SA-85164. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000727
  • Szecsody J.E., M.J. Truex, N. Qafoku, D.M. Wellman, C.T. Resch, and L. Zhong. 2013. "Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 151. PNNL-SA-96107. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.05.009
  • Zhong L., M. Oostrom, M.J. Truex, V.R. Vermeul, and J.E. Szecsody. 2013. "Rheological Behavior of Xanthan Gum Solution Related to Shear Thinning Fluid Delivery for Subsurface Remediation." Journal of Hazardous Materials 244-245. PNNL-SA-87185. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.11.028


  • Szecsody J.E., M.J. Truex, L. Zhong, T.C. Johnson, N. Qafoku, M.D. Williams, and W.J. Greenwood, et al. 2012. "Geochemical and Geophysical Changes during Ammonia Gas Treatment of Vadose Zone Sediments for Uranium Remediation." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 4. PNNL-SA-86840. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0158
  • Wellman D.M., S.V. Mattigod, S.S. Hubbard, A.L. Miracle, L. Zhong, M.W. Foote, and Y. Wu, et al. 2012. "Advanced Remedial Methods for Metals and Radionuclides in Vadose Zone Environments." Radwaste Solutions 19, no. 1:82-90. PNNL-SA-85536.
  • Zhang Z.F., L. Zhong, M.D. White, and J.E. Szecsody. 2012. "Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 4. PNNL-SA-87925. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0190
  • Zhong L., and M. Oostrom. 2012. "LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 4. PNNL-SA-84017. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0166


  • Foote M., A.T. Hart, A.T. Hart, D.M. Wellman, S.V. Mattigod, and L. Zhong. 2011. "Scale-Up Testing-Foam as a Remedial Amendment Carrier." In Waste Management (WM 2010): Improving the Future by Dealing with the Past, March 7-11, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona, Paper No. 10040. Tempe, Arizona:WM Symposia. PNNL-SA-70503.
  • Jansik D.P., D.M. Wellman, S.V. Mattigod, L. Zhong, Y. Wu, M. Foote, and Z.F. Zhang, et al. 2011. "FOAM: NOVEL DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF VADOSE ZONE ENVIRONMENTS." In 14th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, September 25-29, Reims, France, 406-416. New York, New York:ASME. PNNL-SA-81100. doi:10.1115/ICEM2011-59019
  • Shen X., L. Zhao, Y. Ding, B. Liu, H. Zeng, L. Zhong, and X. Li. 2011. "Foam, a promising vehicle to deliver nanoparticles for vadose zone remediation." Journal of Hazardous Materials 186, no. 2-3:1773-1780. PNNL-SA-77162.
  • Truex M.J., T. Macbeth, V.R. Vermeul, B.G. Fritz, D.P. Mendoza, R.D. Mackley, and T.W. Wietsma, et al. 2011. "Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance Heating for In Situ Trichloroethene Remediation." Environmental Science & Technology 45, no. 12:5346-5351. PNNL-SA-76701. doi:10.1021/es104266a
  • Zhong L., J.E. Szecsody, M. Oostrom, M.J. Truex, X. Shen, and X. Li. 2011. "Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery to Subsurface Using Shear Thinning Fluid and Aqueous Foam." Journal of Hazardous Materials 191, no. 1-3:249-257. PNNL-SA-77161. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.04.074


  • Liu C., L. Zhong, and J.M. Zachara. 2010. "Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials." Radiochimica Acta 98, no. 9-11:719-726. PNNL-SA-69260. doi:10.1524/ract.2010.1773
  • Mattigod S.V., L. Zhong, D.P. Jansik, M. Foote, A.T. Hart, A.T. Hart, and D.M. Wellman. 2010. "Reactant Carrier Microfoam Technology for In-Situ Remediation of Radionuclide and Metallic Contaminants in Deep Vadose Zone." In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Radioactive Waste Management Symposium, WM 2010, March 7-11, 2010, Phoenix, AZ, 5, 4066-4076. Tucson, Arizona:Waste Management Symposia, Inc. PNNL-SA-70331.
  • Szecsody J.E., L. Zhong, M.J. Truex, C.T. Resch, and M.D. Williams. 2010. "Use of Gas Transported Reactants for Uranium Remediation in Vadose Zone Sediments." In 36th Annual Radioactive Waste Management Symposia, WM 2010, March 7-11, Phoenix, AZ, 4, 3418-3430. Tucson, Arizona:Waste Management Symposia, Inc. PNNL-SA-69758.
  • Wellman D.M., S.V. Mattigod, S. Hubbard, A.L. Miracle, L. Zhong, M. Foote, and Y. Wu, et al. 2010. "Advanced Remedial Methods for Metals and Radionuclides in Vadose Zone Environments." In ASME 2010 13th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM2010), October 3-7, 2010, Tsukuba, Japan, 2, 585-592, Paper No. ICEM2010-40235. Tsukuba:American Society of Mechanical Engineers. PNNL-SA-73089. doi:10.1115/ICEM2010-40235
  • Zhong L., J.E. Szecsody, Z.F. Zhang, and S.V. Mattigod. 2010. "Foam Delivery of Amendments for Vadose Zone Remediation - Propagation Performance in Unsaturated Sediments." Vadose Zone Journal 9, no. 3:757-767. PNNL-SA-70394.


  • Liu C., J.M. Zachara, L. Zhong, S.M. Heald, Z. Wang, B. Jeon, and J.K. Fredrickson. 2009. "Microbial Reduction of Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment." Environmental Science & Technology 43, no. 13:4928-4933. PNNL-SA-62609. doi:10.1021/es8029208
  • Qafoku N., L. Zhong, C.J. Thompson, C. Liu, B.W. Arey, A.V. Mitroshkov, and R.G. Riley. 2009. "Physical control on CCl4 and CHCl3 desorption from artificially contaminated and aged sediments with supercritical carbon dioxide." Chemosphere 74, no. 4:494-500. PNNL-SA-60227.
  • Zhong L., N. Qafoku, J.E. Szecsody, P.E. Dresel, and Z.F. Zhang. 2009. "Foam Delivery of Calcium Polysulfide to Vadose Zone for Chromium-VI Immobilization: A Laboratory Evaluation." Vadose Zone Journal 8, no. 4:976-985. PNNL-SA-60896. doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0124


  • Zhong L., M. Oostrom, T.W. Wietsma, and M.A. Covert. 2008. "Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery through Fluid Viscosity Modifications: Experiments and numerical simulations." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 101, no. 1-4:29-41. PNNL-SA-59438. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2008.07.007


  • Thornton E.C., L. Zhong, M. Oostrom, and B. Deng. 2007. "Experimental and Theoretical Assessment of the Lifetime of a Gaseous-Reduced Vadose Zone Permeable Reactive Barrier." Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:1050-1056. PNNL-SA-52525. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0157
  • Zhong L., E.C. Thornton, and B. Deng. 2007. "Uranium Immobilization by Hydrogen Sulfide Gaseous Treatment under Vadose Zone Conditions." Vadose Zone Journal 6. PNNL-SA-48539.


  • Thornton E.C., L. Zhong, and M. Oostrom. 2006. "Development of a Field Design for In Situ Gaseous Treatment of Sediment Based on Laboratory Column Test Data." Journal of Environmental Engineering (ASCE) 132, no. 12:1626-1632. PNNL-SA-50049.


  • Liu C., J.M. Zachara, L. Zhong, R.K. Kukkadapu, J.E. Szecsody, and D.W. Kennedy. 2005. "Influence of Sediment Bioreduction and Reoxidation on Uranium Sorption." Environmental Science & Technology 39, no. 11:4125-4133. PNNL-SA-42725.
  • Zhong L., C. Liu, J.M. Zachara, D.W. Kennedy, J.E. Szecsody, and B.D. Wood. 2005. "Oxidative Remobilization of Biogenic Uranium (IV) Precipitates: Effects of Iron (II) and pH." Journal of Environmental Quality 34, no. 5:1763-1771. PNNL-SA-42839.
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Energy and Environment

Core Research Areas