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Leonard Fifield

Leonard Fifield

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-6424

Biography

Dr. Fifield is an experienced materials scientist and research leader interested in material synthesis, formulation, processing, characterization, application, simulation, and lifetime prediction. He leads nuclear cable aging research at PNNL for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. He has an Adjunct Faculty appointment in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University.

Research Interests

  • Materials synthesis, formulation, and processing
  • Materials characterization, simulation, and lifetime prediction
  • Materials system design and production
  • Materials performance in service environments
  • Non-destructive condition assessment

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Chemistry & Nanotechnology
  • M.S., Analytical Chemistry
  • B.S., Chemistry & Physics
  • Certified Project Management Professional

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications

2019

  • Shin Y., M.N. Taufique, R. Devanathan, E.C. Cutsforth, J. Lee, W. Liu, and L.S. Fifield, et al. 2019. "Highly Selective Supported Graphene Oxide Membranes for Water-Ethanol Separation." Scientific Reports 9, no. 1:Article No. 2251. PNNL-SA-130472. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-38485-y

2018

  • Correa M., Q. Huang, and L.S. Fifield. 2018. "Tracking of Nuclear Cable Insulation Polymer Structural Changes using the Gel Fraction and Uptake Factor Method." In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, edited by J Jackson, D Paraventi and M Wright, 2, 99-105. Cham:Springer International Publishing. PNNL-SA-127199. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68454-3_9
  • Glass S.W., L.S. Fifield, A.M. Jones, and T.S. Hartman. 2018. "Frequency Domain Reflectometry Modeling and Measurement for Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Cables." In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, edited by JH Jackson, D Paraventi and M Wright. 51-65. Cham:Springer. PNNL-SA-125030. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68454-3
  • Glass S.W., L.S. Fifield, N. Bowler, A. Sriraman, and W.C. Palmer. 2018. Interdigital Capacitance Local Non-Destructive Examination of Nuclear Power Plant Cable for Aging Management Programs. PNNL-27546. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Interdigital Capacitance Local Non-Destructive Examination of Nuclear Power Plant Cable for Aging Management Programs
  • Gupta V., P. Upadhyay, L.S. Fifield, T.J. Roosendaal, X. Sun, P. Nelaturu, and B. Carlson. 2018. "Linking process and structure in the friction stir scribe joining of dissimilar materials: a computational approach with experimental support." Journal of Manufacturing Processes 32, no. 2018:615-624. PNNL-SA-129173. doi:10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.030
  • Liu J., M.D. Bearden, C.A. Fernandez, L.S. Fifield, S.K. Nune, R.K. Motkuri, and P.K. Koech, et al. 2018. "Techno-economic analysis of magnesium extraction from seawater via a catalyzed organo-metathetical process." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 70, no. 3:431-435. PNNL-SA-119113. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2735-6
  • Liu S., L.S. Fifield, and N. Bowler. 2018. "Aging Mechanisms and Nondestructive Aging Indicator of Filled Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Exposed to Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation." In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, edited by J Jackson, D Paraventi and M Wright, 2, 65-75. Cham:Springer International Publishing. PNNL-SA-127618. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68454-3_6
  • Liu S., S.W. Veysey, L.S. Fifield, and N. Bowler. 2018. "Quantitative analysis of changes in antioxidant in crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation material exposed to heat and gamma radiation." Polymer Degradation and Stability 156. PNNL-SA-136319. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2018.09.011
  • Sharma B., S.A. Kijewski, L.S. Fifield, Y. Shin, C.L. Tucker III, and M.D. Sangid. 2018. "Reliability in the Characterization of Fiber Length Distributions of Injection Molded Long Carbon Fiber Composites." Polymer Composites 39, no. 12:4594-4604. PNNL-SA-122679. doi:10.1002/pc.24571

2017

  • Fifield L.S., and M. Correa. 2017. Analysis of simultaneous thermal/gamma radiation aging of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation-interim status report. PNNL-26554. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Analysis of simultaneous thermal/gamma radiation aging of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation-interim status report
  • Fifield L.S., M. Correa, and A. Zwoster. 2017. Crystal River 3 Cable Materials for Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging. PNNL-26785. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Crystal River 3 Cable Materials for Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging
  • Fifield L.S., Y. Shin, and K.L. Simmons. 2017. "Non-Destructive Evaluation of Polyolefin Thermal Aging Using Infrared Spectroscopy." In Nondestructive Characterization and Monitoring of Advanced Materials, Aerospace, and Civil Infrastructure 2017. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by H. Felix Wu; Andrew L. Gyekenyesi; Peter J. Shull; Tzu-Yang Yu, 10169, 101690U. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-125251. doi:10.1117/12.2261983
  • Glass S.W., A.M. Jones, L.S. Fifield, and T.S. Hartman. 2017. "Frequency Domain Reflectometry NDE for Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants." In 43rd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, July 17-22, 2016, Atlanta,Georgia. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1806, Paper No. 080015. Melville, New York:AIP Publishing. PNNL-SA-128221. doi:10.1063/1.4974640
  • Glass S.W., A.M. Jones, L.S. Fifield, T.S. Hartman, and N. Bowler. 2017. Physics-Based Modeling of Cable Insulation Conditions for Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR). PNNL-26493. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Physics-Based Modeling of Cable Insulation Conditions for Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR)
  • Imperatore M.V., L.S. Fifield, D. Fabiani, and N. Bowler. 2017. "Dielectric Spectroscopy on Thermally Aged, Intact Poly-vinyl Chloride/Ethylene Propylene Rubber (PVC/EPR) Multipolar Cables." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation & Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2017), October 22-25, 2017, Fort Worth, TX, 173-176. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-127283. doi:10.1109/CEIDP.2017.8257522
  • Larche M.R., M.S. Prowant, P.J. Bruillard, T.J. Hagge, L.S. Fifield, M.S. Hughes, and X. Sun. 2017. "A Comparison of Different NDE Signal Processing Techniques Based on Waveform Entropies Applied to Long Fiber Graphite/Epoxy Plates." In Nondestructive Characterization and Monitoring of Advanced Materials, Aerospace, and Civil Infrastructure, March 25, 2017, Portland, Oregon, Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by HF Wu, AL Gyekenyesi, PJ Shull and T-Y Yu, 10169, Paper No. 101690T. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-125214. doi:10.1117/12.2260490

2016

  • Duckworth R.C., E. Frame, L.S. Fifield, and S.W. Glass. 2016. "Benchmark Accelerated Aging of Harvested Hypalon/Epr and Cspe/Xlpe Power and I&C Cable in Nuclear Power Plants." In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, June 26-30, 2016, Charlotte, North Carolina, 1, Paper No. ICONE24-60311, pp. V001T01A007. New York, New York:ASME. PNNL-SA-116072. doi:10.1115/ICONE24-60311
  • Fifield L.S. 2016. Status Report and Research Plan for Cables Harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant. PNNL-25833. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Status Report and Research Plan for Cables Harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant
  • Fifield L.S., Q. Huang, M.I. Childers, M. Correa, Y. Shin, and A. Zwoster. 2016. Progress in Characterizing Thermal Degradation of Ethylene-Propylene Rubber. PNNL-25713; M3LW-16OR0404014. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Progress in Characterizing Thermal Degradation of Ethylene-Propylene Rubber
  • Fifield L.S., S. Liu, and N. Bowler. 2016. "Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging of Cable Polymers." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2016 ), October 16-19, 2016, Toronto, Canada. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-119035.
  • Fifield L.S., Y. Shin, W. Liu, and D.W. Gotthold. 2016. "Scalable Production Method for Graphene Oxide Water Vapor Separation Membranes." MRS Advances: Nanotechnology 1, no. 28:2091-2098. PNNL-SA-117497. doi:10.1557/adv.2016.485
  • Glass S.W., A.M. Jones, L.S. Fifield, and T.S. Hartman. 2016. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs. PNNL-25634. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs
  • Glass S.W., and L.S. Fifield. 2016. "Nondestructive Examination for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs." LWRS Newsletter January 2016, no. 20:18-23. PNNL-SA-114754.
  • Glass S.W., L.S. Fifield, and T.S. Hartman. 2016. Evaluation of Localized Cable Test Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs. PNNL-25432; M3LW-16OR0404022. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Evaluation of Localized Cable Test Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs
  • Liu S., L.S. Fifield, and N. Bowler. 2016. "Towards aging mechanisms of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation materials in nuclear power plants." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2016), October 16-19, 2016, Toronto, Canada. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-123219. doi:10.1109/CEIDP.2016.7785636
  • Nguyen B., L.S. Fifield, U.N. Gandhi, S. Mori, and E.J. Wollan. 2016. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Thermoplastic Composites: Weight and Cost Analyses. PNNL-25646. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Thermoplastic Composites: Weight and Cost Analyses
  • Nguyen B.N., L.S. Fifield, G. Lambert, D.G. Baird, J. Wang, F. Costa, and C.L. Tucker III, et al. 2016. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2016 First Quarterly Report. PNNL-25163. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2016 First Quarterly Report
  • Nguyen B.N., L.S. Fifield, J. Wang, F. Costa, G. Lambert, D.G. Baird, and B. Sharma, et al. 2016. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - Topical Report. PNNL-25440. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - Topical Report
  • Shin Y., W. Liu, B. Schwenzer, S. Manandhar, D.G. Chase-Woods, M.H. Engelhard, and R. Devanathan, et al. 2016. "Graphene oxide membranes with high permeability and selectivity for dehumidification of air." Carbon 106. PNNL-SA-112915. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.023
  • Upadhyay P., Y. Hovanski, S. Jana, and L.S. Fifield. 2016. "Joining dissimilar materials using Friction Stir scribe technique." Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 139, no. 3:Article No. 034501. PNNL-SA-121019. doi:10.1115/1.4034629
  • Upadhyay P., Y. Hovanski, S. Jana, and L.S. Fifield. 2016. "JOINING DISSIMILAR MATERIALS USING FRICTION STIR SCRIBE TECHNIQUE." Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 139, no. 3:Article No. 034501; Paper No: MANU-16-1436. PNNL-SA-120672. doi:10.1115/1.4034629
  • Upadhyay P., Y. Hovanski, S. Jana, and L.S. Fifield. 2016. "JOINING DISSIMILAR MATERIALS USING FRICTION STIR SCRIBE TECHNIQUE." In Proceedings of the ASME 11th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, June 27-July 1, 2016, Blacksburg, Virginia, 1: Processing, Paper No. MSEC2016-8512, pp. V001T02A055. New York, New York:ASME. PNNL-SA-114869. doi:10.1115/MSEC2016-8512

2015

2014

  • Nguyen B.N., L.S. Fifield, R.N. Mathur, S.A. Kijewski, M.D. Sangid, J. Wang, and X. Jin, et al. 2014. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2014 Fourth Quarterly Report. PNNL-23842. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2014 Fourth Quarterly Report
  • Schonewill P.P., P.A. Gauglitz, R.W. Shimskey, K.M. Denslow, M.R. Powell, G.K. Boeringa, and J.R. Bontha, et al. 2014. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments. PNNL-23340; DSGREP-RPT-005, Rev.0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments
  • Simmons K.L., L.S. Fifield, M.P. Westman, and J.A. Roberts. 2014. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants: M3LW-14OR0404015 Cable Rejuvenation Report. PNNL-23606. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants: M3LW-14OR0404015 Cable Rejuvenation Report
  • Simmons K.L., P. Ramuhalli, A.F. Pardini, M.S. Prowant, L.S. Fifield, J.R. Tedeschi, and A.M. Jones, et al. 2014. "Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants using Non-destructive Evaluation." In 2014 ANS Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo, November 9-13, 2014, Anaheim, CA. Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 111, 456-458. La Grange Park, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-104772.

2013

2012

  • Prisbrey L., D. Roundy, K. Blank, L.S. Fifield, and E.D. Minot. 2012. "Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Devices Prepared with Single Oxidative Point Defects." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, no. 2:1961-1965. PNWD-SA-9562. doi:10.1021/jp208870c
  • Ren X., R. Qui, L.S. Fifield, K.L. Simmons, and K. li. 2012. "Effects of Surface Treatments on Mechanical Properties and Water Resistance of Kenaf Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites." Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 26, no. 18-19:2277-2289. PNNL-SA-91410. doi:10.1163/156856111X623087

2011

  • Matyas J., G.E. Fryxell, B.J. Busche, K. Wallace, and L.S. Fifield. 2011. "FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELS: ADVANCED MATERIALS TO CAPTURE AND IMMOBILIZE RADIOACTIVE IODINE." In Ceramic Materials for Energy Applications: Papers from The American Ceramic Society's 35th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2011, Daytona Beach, Florida. Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, edited by Y Katoh, et al, 32, 23-33. Hoboken, New Jersey:Wiley. PNNL-SA-77216. doi:10.1002/9781118095386.ch3
  • Qui R., X. Ren, L.S. Fifield, K.L. Simmons, and K. Li. 2011. "Hemp-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites: Optimization of Processing and Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion." Journal of Applied Polymer Science 121, no. 2:862-868. PNNL-SA-70326. doi:10.1002/app.33674

2010

  • Fifield L.S., and J.W. Grate. 2010. "Hydrogen-bond acidic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with covalently-bound hexafluoroisopropanol groups." Carbon 48, no. 7:2085-2088. PNNL-SA-68638. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2010.02.019
  • Fifield L.S., and K.L. Simmons. 2010. "COMPRESSION MOLDED, BIO-FIBER REINFORCED, HIGH PERFORMANCE THERMOSET COMPOSITES FOR STRUCTURAL AND SEMI-STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS." In COMPOSITES: SHAPING NEW VEHICLES, 10th Annual Society of Plastics Engineers Automotive Composites Conference & Exhibition, September 15-16, 2010, Troy, Michigan. Newtown, Connecticut:Society of Plastics Engineers. PNNL-SA-74285.
  • Fifield L.S., C. Huang, and K.L. Simmons. 2010. "Investigation of Polymer Resin/Fiber Compatibility in Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite Automotive Materials." In 10th International Conference on Wood & Biofiber Plastic Composites. Madison, Wisconsin:Forest Products Society. PNNL-SA-67109.
  • Fifield L.S., K.L. Simmons, R. Battiste, C. Schutte, M.T. Smith, D. Houston, and L. Berger. 2010. "Evaluation of Composite Natural Fiber-Resin Compatibility." In 2009 Annual Progress Report: Lightweighting Materials. 8-77 - 8-85. Washington, Dc:US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. PNNL-SA-70201.
  • Fifield L.S., K.L. Simmons, S. Laddha, and T.A. Kafentzis. 2010. "PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MOLDED KENAF FIBER REINFORCED VINYL ESTER COMPOSITES THROUGH RESIN ADDITIVE." In SAMPE 2010: New Materials and Processes for a New Economy 55th International SAMPE Symposium, May 17-20, 2010, Seattle, Washington, edited by K Nelson, A Yousefpour and SW Beckwith. Covina, California:Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. PNNL-SA-70709.
  • Simmons K.L., L.S. Fifield, S. Laddha, F. Chen, and K.M. Wright. 2010. "EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TREATMENTS ON UNRETTED KENAF FIBERS." In SAMPE 2010: New Materials and Processes for a New Economy 55th International SAMPE Symposium, May 17-20, 2010, Seattle Washington, edited by K Nelson, A Yousefpour and SC Beckwith, Paper No. 66. Covina, California:Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. PNNL-SA-70867.
  • Westman M.P., L.S. Fifield, K.L. Simmons, S. Laddha, and T.A. Kafentzis. 2010. Natural Fiber Composites: A Review. PNNL-19220. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Natural Fiber Composites: A Review
  • Zhang J., J. Liu, D. Wang, D. Choi, L.S. Fifield, C.M. Wang, and G. Xia, et al. 2010. "Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth." Journal of Power Sources 195, no. 6 SP ISS:1691-1697. PNNL-SA-67705.

2009

  • Simmons K.L., D.T. Howe, S. Laddha, and L.S. Fifield. 2009. "Natural Fiber Composite Retting, Preform Manufacture and Molding (Project 18988/Agreement 16313)." In 2009 Annual Progress Report: Lightweighting Materials. 8-54 - 8-65. Washington Dc:Department of Energy; Vehicle Technologies Office. PNNL-SA-70189.

2008

  • Fifield L.S., C. Huang, K.L. Simmons, J.A. Carpenter, and M.T. Smith. 2008. "Evaluation of Composite Natural Fiber/Resin Compatibility." In Annual Progress Report 2008 Vehicle Technologies Program, Lightweigting Materials. 8-75 - 8-81. Washington, District Of Columbia:US Department of Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. PNNL-18108.

2007

  • Dutta D., S.K. Sundaram, J.G. Teeguarden, B.J. Riley, L.S. Fifield, J.M. Jacobs, and R.S. Addleman, et al. 2007. "Adsorbed Proteins Influence the Biological Activity and Molecular Targeting of Nanomaterials." Toxicological Sciences 100, no. 1:303-315. PNNL-SA-55139. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfm217
  • Fifield L.S. 2007. "Carbon Nanotubes." In Productive Nanosystems: A Technology Roadmap. Menlo Park, California:Foresight Institute. PNWD-SA-7946.
  • Fifield L.S. 2007. "Piezoelectrics and Piezo Applications." In Productive Nanosystems: A Technology Roadmap. Menlo Pak, California:Foresight Institute. PNWD-SA-7948.

2006

  • Zheng F., D.L. Baldwin, L.S. Fifield, N.C. Anheier, C.L. Aardahl, and J.W. Grate. 2006. "Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Paper as a Sorbent for Organic Vapor Preconcentration." Analytical Chemistry 78, no. 7:2442-2446. PNNL-SA-45755.

2005

  • Fifield L.S., K.M. Denslow, A. Gutowska, K.L. Simmons, and J. Holbery. 2005. "ROLE OF FIBER MODIFICATION IN NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE PROCESSING." In International SAMPE Technical Conference: Materials and Processing Technologies for Revolutionary Applications. Covina, California:Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. PNNL-SA-53296.

2004

  • Fifield L.S., L.R. Dalton, R.S. Addleman, R.A. Galhotra, M.H. Engelhard, G.E. Fryxell, and C.L. Aardahl. 2004. "Noncovalent Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes with Molecular Anchors using Supercritical Fluids." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 108, no. 25:8737-8741. PNNL-SA-40325.

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