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Energy and Environment Directorate

Leo Fifield

Leo Fifield

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-6424

Biography

Dr. Fifield is an experienced materials scientist and research leader interested in material synthesis, formulation, processing, characterization, application, simulation, and lifetime prediction. He leads nuclear cable aging research at PNNL for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. He has an Adjunct Faculty appointment in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University.

Research Interests

  • Materials synthesis, formulation, and processing
  • Materials characterization, simulation, and lifetime prediction
  • Materials system design and production
  • Materials performance in service environments
  • Non-destructive condition assessment

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Chemistry & Nanotechnology
  • M.S., Analytical Chemistry
  • B.S., Chemistry & Physics
  • Certified Project Management Professional

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications

2024

  • Fifield L.S. 2024. LightMAT - Continous Fiber Malleable Thermoset Composites with sub-1-minute dwell times; validation of impact performance and evaluation of the efficacy of the compression forming process - CRADA 409 (Abstract). PNNL-35294. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Kumar V., W. Kuang, and L.S. Fifield. 2024. "Carbon Fiber-Based Vitrimer Composites: A Path toward Current Research That Is High-Performing, Useful, and Sustainable." Materials 17, no. 13:Art. No. 3265. PNNL-SA-198312. doi:10.3390/ma17133265
  • Li D., T.T. Bisel, S.K. Cooley, M.K. Murphy, M.P. Spencer, M.K. Hasan, and L.S. Fifield, et al. 2024. "Effects of gamma, electron beam, and X-ray irradiation on the plastic components of a universal bone cement mixer medical device." Radiation Physics and Chemistry 223. PNNL-SA-188278. doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2024.111971

2023

  • Al-Imran M., S.W. Glass, L.S. Fifield, and M. Ali. 2023. "A Reconfigurable Planar Capacitor Sensor for thru the Jacket Dielectric Constant Measurement of Cable Insulation." IEEE Sensors Journal 23, no. 21:26643 - 26653. PNNL-SA-190632. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2023.3315188
  • Elen M., D. Li, M.P. Spencer, and L.S. Fifield. 2023. "Investigating the Longevity of Hydraulic Power Take-Off Piston Seals in Wave Energy Converters." In OCEANS 2023 - MTS/IEEE U.S. Gulf Coast, September 25-28, 2023, Biloxi, MS, 1-8. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-188195. doi:10.23919/OCEANS52994.2023.10337349
  • Elen M., M.K. Hasan, D. Li, Y. Ni, M.P. Spencer, M.T. Murphy, and A. Zwoster, et al. 2023. Dose Rate Effects on Degradation of Nuclear Power Plant Electrical Cable Insulation at a Common Dose. PNNL-34068. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dose Rate Effects on Degradation of Nuclear Power Plant Electrical Cable Insulation at a Common Dose
  • Fifield L.S. 2023. Friction Stir Scribe Joining of CFRP to Aluminum - CRADA 370 (Abstract). PNNL-35401. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Friction Stir Scribe Joining of CFRP to Aluminum - CRADA 370 (Abstract)
  • Glass S.W., J.R. Tedeschi, M.P. Spencer, J. Son, D. Li, M. Elen, and L.S. Fifield. 2023. Extended Bandwidth Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry Cable Test for Thermal Aging, Low Resistance Fault, and Water Detection. PNNL-34815. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Extended Bandwidth Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry Cable Test for Thermal Aging, Low Resistance Fault, and Water Detection
  • Glass S.W., J.R. Tedeschi, M.P. Spencer, J. Son, M. Elen, and L.S. Fifield. 2023. Laboratory Instrument Software Controlled Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry for Electrical Cable Testing. PNNL-34511. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Laboratory Instrument Software Controlled Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry for Electrical Cable Testing
  • Glass S.W., J.R. Tedeschi, M.R. Huyge, M.P. Spencer, and L.S. Fifield. 2023. Online Monitoring of Medium Voltage Cable Systems with Spread Spectrum Time Domain and Frequency Domain Reflectometry. PNNL-35182. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Online Monitoring of Medium Voltage Cable Systems with Spread Spectrum Time Domain and Frequency Domain Reflectometry
  • Glass S.W., M.P. Spencer, M.S. Prowant, A. Sriraman, J. Son, and L.S. Fifield. 2023. "The ARENA Test Bed - A Versatile Resource for I&C Development and Validation." In Proceedings of the 13th Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control & Human-Machine Interface Technologies (NPIC&HMIT 2023), July 15-20, 2023, Knoxville, TN, 1325-1334. Downers Grove, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-182564.
  • Li D., M. Elen, K. Sushmita, V. Kumar, M.P. Spencer, and L.S. Fifield. 2023. The Durability of Piston Seals in Hydraulic Power Take-off Systems in Wave Energy Converters. PNNL-35186. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The Durability of Piston Seals in Hydraulic Power Take-off Systems in Wave Energy Converters
  • Ni Y., T.T. Bisel, M.K. Hasan, D. Li, W. Fuchs, S.K. Cooley, and L. Nichols, et al. 2023. "Compatibility of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)/Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH)/EVA Films with Gamma, Electron-Beam, and X-ray Irradiation." npj Materials Degradation 7. PNNL-SA-184492. doi:10.1038/s41529-023-00413-x
  • Spencer M.P., M. Elen, and L.S. Fifield. 2023. Survey of Aging and Monitoring Concerns for Cables and Splices Due to Cable Repair and Replacement. PNNL-34576. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Survey of Aging and Monitoring Concerns for Cables and Splices Due to Cable Repair and Replacement
  • Spencer M.P., W.K. Fuchs, Y. Ni, D. Li, M. Pallaka, A.L. Arteaga, and L.S. Fifield. 2023. "Color as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis of Heterogeneous Polymer Degradation." Materials Today Chemistry 29. PNNL-SA-177996. doi:10.1016/j.mtchem.2023.101417

2022

  • Arman A.S., S.W. Glass, L.S. Fifield, and M. Ali. 2022. "Effect of Semiconducting Layer on Cable Insulation Damage Detection Using Surface Wave Reflectometry." In IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC 2022), June 19-23, 2022, Knoxville, TN, 1-4. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-170114. doi:10.1109/EIC51169.2022.9833180
  • Arman A.S., S.W. Glass, L.S. Fifield, and M. Ali. 2022. "Miniature Crack or Damage Detection on Cable Insulation and Jacket using Conformal Surface Wave Reflectometry." IEEE Sensors Journal 6, no. 12:2475-1472. PNNL-SA-172567. doi:10.1109/LSENS.2022.3222097
  • Arman A.S., S.W. Glass, L.S. Fifield, and M. Ali. 2022. "Surface Wave Based Non-conductor-contact Reflectometry Method for Insulation and Jacket Damage Detection in Multi-Conductor Cables." In IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC 2022), June 19-23, 2022, Knoxville, TN, 431-434. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-176637. doi:10.1109/EIC51169.2022.9833167
  • Fifield L.S. 2022. Extension of Cable Electrical Assessment Techniques to Detect and Discriminate Radiation Aging on Cable Insulation Systems - CRADA 562 (Abstract). PNNL-33675. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Extension of Cable Electrical Assessment Techniques to Detect and Discriminate Radiation Aging on Cable Insulation Systems - CRADA 562 (Abstract)
  • Girard-Perier N., S.R. Marque, N. Dupuy, M. Claeys-Bruno, F. Gaston, S. Dorey, and L.S. Fifield, et al. 2022. "Effects of X-rays, Electron beam, and Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Physical Properties of EVA Multilayer Films." Frontiers in Chemistry 10. PNNL-SA-171538. doi:10.3389/fchem.2022.888285
  • Glass S.W., A. Sriraman, M.S. Prowant, M.P. Spencer, L.S. Fifield, and S. Kingston. 2022. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Cable Anomalies using Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) and Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry (SSTDR). PNNL-33334. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Cable Anomalies using Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) and Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry (SSTDR)
  • Gluth A., Z. Xu, L.S. Fifield, and B. Yang. 2022. "Advancing biological processing for valorization of plastic wastes." Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 170. PNNL-SA-167906. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2022.112966
  • Li D., A. Sriraman, Y. Ni, I.R. Ellis, M.P. Spencer, A. Zwoster, and L.S. Fifield. 2022. "Dose Rate Effects in the Aging of Nuclear Cable Insulation Subjected to Gamma Radiation." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2022), October 30-November 2, 2022, Denver, CO, 372-375. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-175819. doi:10.1109/CEIDP55452.2022.9985382
  • Ni Y., A. Sriraman, D. Li, I.R. Ellis, and L.S. Fifield. 2022. "Investigation of Inverse Temperature Effects During Thermal-Radiation Aging of Semicrystalline Cable Insulation." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2022), October 30-November 2, 2022, Denver, CO, 368-371. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-175719. doi:10.1109/CEIDP55452.2022.9985318
  • Spencer M.P., A. Sriraman, S.W. Glass, and L.S. Fifield. 2022. "3D Frequency Domain Reflectometry Digital Twin of an Electrical Cable: A First Glance." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2022), October 30-November 2, 2022, Denver, CO, 103-106. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-175796. doi:10.1109/CEIDP55452.2022.9985387
  • Sriraman A., L.S. Fifield, S.W. Glass, M.P. Spencer, M.S. Prowant, and A.D. Guzman. 2022. "Temperature Dependence of FDR Response for Thermally Aged Low-Voltage Cables." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2022), October 30-November 2, 2022, Denver, CO, 57-60. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-175797. doi:10.1109/CEIDP55452.2022.9985311

2021

  • Arman A.S., M. Ali, S.W. Glass, and L.S. Fifield. 2021. "Full-Wave and Circuit-Based Simulations of Cable Insulation Aging/Damage Using Time-Frequency Domain Reflectometry." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2021), December 12-15, 2021, Vancouver, BC, 531-534. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-163181. doi:10.1109/CEIDP50766.2021.9705408
  • Fifield L.S., M. Pharr, D. Staack, S.D. Pillai, L. Nichols, J. Mccoy, and T. Faucette, et al. 2021. "Direct comparison of gamma, electron beam and X-ray irradiation doses on characteristics of low-density polyethylene, polypropylene homopolymer, polyolefin elastomer and chlorobutyl rubber medical device polymers." Radiation Physics and Chemistry 186. PNNL-SA-154281. doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2021.109505
  • Fifield L.S., M. Pharr, D. Staack, S.D. Pillai, L. Nichols, J. Mccoy, and T. Faucette, et al. 2021. "Direct comparison of gamma, electron beam and X-ray irradiation effects on single-use blood collection devices with plastic components." Radiation Physics and Chemistry 180. PNNL-SA-154311. doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2020.109282
  • Fifield L.S., Y. Ni, A. Sriraman, W.K. Fuchs, D. Li, M. Pallaka, and M.P. Spencer, et al. 2021. Evaluation of Oxygen Consumption as a Sensitive Measure of Electrical Cable Polymer Insulation Degradation. PNNL-31954. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Evaluation of Oxygen Consumption as a Sensitive Measure of Electrical Cable Polymer Insulation Degradation
  • Fuchs W.K., M.P. Spencer, D. Li, Y. Ni, A. Zwoster, and L.S. Fifield. 2021. "Correlation of Diffusion Limited Oxidation to Color Difference in Accelerated Aging of Electrical Cable Insulation." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2021), December 12-15, 2021, Vancouver, BC, 639-642. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-163670. doi:10.1109/CEIDP50766.2021.9705346
  • Glass S.W., L.S. Fifield, and M.P. Spencer. 2021. "Transition to Online Cable Insulation Condition Monitoring." In 48th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE 2021), July 28-30, 2021, Virtual, Online, Art. No. v001t14a004. New York, New York:American Society of Mechanical Engineers. PNNL-SA-165308.
  • Imran M., S.W. Glass, L.S. Fifield, and M. Ali. 2021. "Flexible Fabric-Based IDC Sensors for Conformal Curved Surface Applications." IEEE Sensors Journal 21, no. 1:812-820. PNNL-SA-150896. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2020.3015156
  • Li D., M.P. Spencer, M. Pallaka, T.T. Bisel, Y. Ni, A. Zwoster, and M.K. Murphy, et al. 2021. "Principal Component Analysis of Nuclear Cable Insulation Subjected to Elevated Temperature and Gamma Radiation." In Electrical insulation conference (EIC 2021), June 7-28, 2021, Virtual, Online, 185 - 188. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-159344. doi:10.1109/EIC49891.2021.9612244
  • Li D., M.P. Spencer, Y. Ni, M. Pallaka, A. Zwoster, and L.S. Fifield. 2021. "Application of Principal Component Analysis for the Monitoring of the Aging Process of Nuclear Electrical Cable Insulation." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2021), December 12-15, 2021, Vancouver, BC, 514-517. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-163496. doi:10.1109/CEIDP50766.2021.9705438
  • Liu S., L.S. Fifield, and N. Bowler. 2021. "Aging Mechanisms of Filled Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Cable Insulation Material Exposed to Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation." Radiation Physics and Chemistry 185. PNNL-SA-161290. doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2021.109486
  • Nassiri S., Z. Chen, G. Jian, T. Zhong, M. Haider, H. Li, and C.A. Fernandez, et al. 2021. "Comparison of Unique Effects of Two Contrasting Types of Cellulose Nanomaterials on Setting Time, Rheology, and Compressive Strength of Cement Paste." Cement and Concrete Composites 123. PNNL-SA-163634. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2021.104201
  • Ni Y., T.T. Bisel, M.P. Spencer, W.K. Fuchs, M. Pallaka, and L.S. Fifield. 2021. "Color Change During Thermal Degradation of Polyolefin Electric Cable Insulations." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2021), December 12-15, 2021, Vancouver, BC, 129-132. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-163741. doi:10.1109/CEIDP50766.2021.9705427
  • Pallaka M., M.P. Spencer, T.T. Bisel, Y. Ni, M.K. Murphy, and L.S. Fifield. 2021. "Monitoring Degradation of Nuclear Cable Insulation Subjected To Sequential and Simultaneous Thermal and Radiation Aging." In Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC 2021), May 10-21, 2021, Virtual, Online, Paper No. 170574. Brookfield, Connecticut:Society of Plastics Engineers. PNNL-SA-157876.
  • Pallaka M., W.K. Fuchs, M.P. Spencer, A.L. Arteaga, A. Zwoster, and L.S. Fifield. 2021. "Detection of diffusion limited oxidation in thermally aged ethylene propylene rubber cable insulation material." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2021), December 12-15, 2021, Vancouver, BC, 526-530. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-163682. doi:10.1109/CEIDP50766.2021.9705460
  • Spencer M.P., and L.S. Fifield. 2021. "Effect of Mechanical Deformation on the Dielectric Electric Field in Dynamic Umbilical Cables." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2021), December 12-15, 2021, Vancouver, BC, 651-654. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-163688. doi:10.1109/CEIDP50766.2021.9705442

2020

  • Al-Imran M., M. Ali, S.W. Glass, and L.S. Fifield. 2020. "Comparative Analysis of Capacitive Sensors with Different Geometrical layouts for Cable Insulation Degradation Detection." In 2020 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), 543-546. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-153674. doi:10.1109/CEIDP49254.2020.9437542
  • Kuang W., S. Lee, B. Zhao, L.S. Fifield, K.L. Simmons, J. Zhang, and T.T. Bisel, et al. 2020. Malleable Thermosets (Vitrimers) from CO2 and Plants. PNNL-30668. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Malleable Thermosets (Vitrimers) from CO2 and Plants
  • Spencer M.P., A. Zwoster, T.T. Bisel, M.K. Murphy, and L.S. Fifield. 2020. "Sequential versus Simultaneous Aging of EPDM Nuclear Cable Insulation Subjected to Elevated Temperature and Gamma Radiation." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2020), October 18-30, 2020, East Rutherford, NJ, 470-474. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-153882. doi:10.1109/CEIDP49254.2020.9437502
  • Spencer M.P., A. Zwoster, T.T. Bisel, M.K. Murphy, and L.S. Fifield. 2020. "Sequential versus Simultaneous Aging of XLPE Nuclear Cable Insulation Subjected to Elevated Temperature and Gamma Radiation." In IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC 2020), June 22-July 3, 2020, Knoxville, TN, 50-53. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-150824. doi:10.1109/EIC47619.2020.9158657

2019

  • Fifield L.S., M. Pharr, D. Staack, M.K. Murphy, M. Huang, and M.K. Hasan. 2019. "Transitioning from Cobalt-60 to X-Ray or E-Beam for Medical Sterilization: Filling Data and Education Gaps." In Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 121, 1089-1092. La Grange Park, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-176824.
  • Gagliani R., N. Bowler, S.W. Glass, and L.S. Fifield. 2019. "Capacitance measurements for nondestructive testing of aged nuclear power plant cable." In 46th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE 2019), July 14-18, 2019, Portland, OR, Paper No. QNDE2019-6787. New York, New York:ASME. PNNL-SA-143186.
  • Glass S.W., L.S. Fifield, A. Sriraman, and N. Bowler. 2019. "INTER-DIGITAL CAPACITIVE SENSOR FOR EVALUATING CABLE INSULATION THROUGH JACKET." In 19th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, August 18-22, 2019, Boston, MA, 852-858. La Grange Park, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-142528. doi:10.1063/1.5099728
  • Glass S.W., L.S. Fifield, A. Sriraman, W.C. Palmer, and N. Bowler. 2019. "Inter-digital capacitive sensor for evaluating cable jacket and insulation aging." In 45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Volume 38, July 15-18, 2018, Burlington, Vermont AIP Conference Proceedings, edited by L.J. Bond, S. Holland and S. Laflamme, 2102 A, Paper No. 020024. Melville, New York:AIP Publishing. PNNL-SA-137635. doi:10.1063/1.5099728
  • Glass S.W., M. Al-Imran, L.S. Fifield, and M. Ali. 2019. "Simulation and Experimental Results of Interdigital Capacitor (IDC) Sensors to Monitor Insulation Degradation of Cables." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2019), October 2-23, 2019, Richland, WA, 368-372. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-143786. doi:10.1109/CEIDP47102.2019.9009659
  • Liu J., H.T. Schaef, P.F. Martin, B.P. McGrail, and L.S. Fifield. 2019. "Understanding H2 Evolution from the Decomposition of Di-butylmagnesium Isomers Using In-situ X-ray Diffraction Coupled with Mass Spectroscopy." ACS Applied Energy Materials 2, no. 7:5272-5278. PNNL-SA-119043. doi:10.1021/acsaem.9b00958
  • Shin Y., M.N. Taufique, R. Devanathan, E.C. Cutsforth, J. Lee, W. Liu, and L.S. Fifield, et al. 2019. "Highly Selective Supported Graphene Oxide Membranes for Water-Ethanol Separation." Scientific Reports 9, no. 1:Article No. 2251. PNNL-SA-130472. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-38485-y

2018

  • Correa M., Q. Huang, and L.S. Fifield. 2018. "Tracking of Nuclear Cable Insulation Polymer Structural Changes using the Gel Fraction and Uptake Factor Method." In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, edited by J Jackson, D Paraventi and M Wright, 2, 99-105. Cham:Springer International Publishing. PNNL-SA-127199. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68454-3_9
  • Duckworth R.C., M.K. Kidder, T. Aytug, L.S. Fifield, S.W. Glass, and S. Davis. 2018. "Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Harvested Hypalon Cable Jacket Subjected to Accelerated Thermal Aging." Nuclear Technology 202, no. 2-3:124-131. PNNL-SA-124140. doi:10.1080/00295450.2017.1419783
  • Fifield L.S. 2018. "Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging of Electrical Cable Polymers." In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors (EDM 2017), August 13-17, 2017, Portland, Oregon, edited by J Jackson, D Paraventi and M Wright, 2, 3-10. Cham:Springer International Publishing. PNNL-SA-127562. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68454-3_1
  • Fifield L.S. 2018. "State of Electrical Cable Aging in U.S. Nuclear Power Plants." In Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 118, 1613-1614. La Grange Park, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-132108.
  • Fifield L.S., M. Correa, Y. Shin, and A. Zwoster. 2018. "Insight into Thermal Aging of Jacket-bonded Ethylene-propylene Rubber Cable Insulation." In Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 118, 583-586. La Grange Park, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-132107.
  • Glass S.W., L.S. Fifield, A.M. Jones, and T.S. Hartman. 2018. "Defect Length and Profile Influence on Frequency Domain Reflectometry." In Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 118, 598-600. La Grange Park, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-131726.
  • Glass S.W., L.S. Fifield, A.M. Jones, and T.S. Hartman. 2018. "Frequency Domain Reflectometry Modeling and Measurement for Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Cables." In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, edited by JH Jackson, D Paraventi and M Wright, 2, 51-65. Cham:Springer. PNNL-SA-125030. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68454-3
  • Gupta V., P. Upadhyay, L.S. Fifield, T.J. Roosendaal, X. Sun, P. Nelaturu, and B. Carlson. 2018. "Linking process and structure in the friction stir scribe joining of dissimilar materials: a computational approach with experimental support." Journal of Manufacturing Processes 32, no. 2018:615-624. PNNL-SA-129173. doi:10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.030
  • Liu J., M.D. Bearden, C.A. Fernandez, L.S. Fifield, S.K. Nune, R.K. Motkuri, and P.K. Koech, et al. 2018. "Techno-economic analysis of magnesium extraction from seawater via a catalyzed organo-metathetical process." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 70, no. 3:431-435. PNNL-SA-119113. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2735-6
  • Liu S., L.S. Fifield, and N. Bowler. 2018. "Aging Mechanisms and Nondestructive Aging Indicator of Filled Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Exposed to Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation." In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, edited by J Jackson, D Paraventi and M Wright, 2, 65-75. Cham:Springer International Publishing. PNNL-SA-127618. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68454-3_6
  • Liu S., S.W. Veysey, L.S. Fifield, and N. Bowler. 2018. "Quantitative analysis of changes in antioxidant in crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation material exposed to heat and gamma radiation." Polymer Degradation and Stability 156. PNNL-SA-136319. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2018.09.011
  • Shao Z., M.I. Byler, S. Liu, N. Bowler, L.S. Fifield, and M.K. Murphy. 2018. "Dielectric Response of Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Cable Insulation Material to Radiation and Thermal Aging." In IEEE 2nd International Conference on Dielectrics (ICD 2018), July 1-5, 2018, Budapest, Hungary, 1-4. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-133356. doi:10.1109/ICD.2018.8514664
  • Sharma B., S.A. Kijewski, L.S. Fifield, Y. Shin, C.L. Tucker III, and M.D. Sangid. 2018. "Reliability in the Characterization of Fiber Length Distributions of Injection Molded Long Carbon Fiber Composites." Polymer Composites 39, no. 12:4594-4604. PNNL-SA-122679. doi:10.1002/pc.24571
  • Sriraman A., N. Bowler, S.W. Glass, and L.S. Fifield. 2018. "Dielectric and Mechanical Behavior of Thermally Aged EPR/CPE Cable Materials." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2018), October 21-24, 2018, Cancun, Mexico, 598-601. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-176633. doi:10.1109/CEIDP.2018.8544855

2017

  • Fifield L.S., and Y. Shin. 2017. "Tracking Aging in Nuclear Electrical Cable Polymers." In Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 117, 631-633. La Grange Park, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-127269.
  • Fifield L.S., Y. Shin, and K.L. Simmons. 2017. "Non-Destructive Evaluation of Polyolefin Thermal Aging Using Infrared Spectroscopy." In Nondestructive Characterization and Monitoring of Advanced Materials, Aerospace, and Civil Infrastructure 2017. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by H. Felix Wu; Andrew L. Gyekenyesi; Peter J. Shull; Tzu-Yang Yu, 10169, 101690U. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-125251. doi:10.1117/12.2261983
  • Glass S.W., A.M. Jones, L.S. Fifield, and T.S. Hartman. 2017. "Frequency Domain Reflectometry NDE for Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants." In 43rd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, July 17-22, 2016, Atlanta,Georgia. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1806, Paper No. 080015. Melville, New York:AIP Publishing. PNNL-SA-128221. doi:10.1063/1.4974640
  • Glass S.W., A.M. Jones, L.S. Fifield, T.S. Hartman, and N. Bowler. 2017. Physics-Based Modeling of Cable Insulation Conditions for Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR). PNNL-26493. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Physics-Based Modeling of Cable Insulation Conditions for Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR)
  • Imperatore M.V., L.S. Fifield, D. Fabiani, and N. Bowler. 2017. "Dielectric Spectroscopy on Thermally Aged, Intact Poly-vinyl Chloride/Ethylene Propylene Rubber (PVC/EPR) Multipolar Cables." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation & Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2017), October 22-25, 2017, Fort Worth, TX, 173-176. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-127283. doi:10.1109/CEIDP.2017.8257522
  • Larche M.R., M.S. Prowant, P.J. Bruillard, T.J. Hagge, L.S. Fifield, M.S. Hughes, and X. Sun. 2017. "A Comparison of Different NDE Signal Processing Techniques Based on Waveform Entropies Applied to Long Fiber Graphite/Epoxy Plates." In Nondestructive Characterization and Monitoring of Advanced Materials, Aerospace, and Civil Infrastructure, March 25, 2017, Portland, Oregon, Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by HF Wu, AL Gyekenyesi, PJ Shull and T-Y Yu, 10169, Paper No. 101690T. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-125214. doi:10.1117/12.2260490

2016

  • Duckworth R.C., E. Frame, L.S. Fifield, and S.W. Glass. 2016. "Benchmark Accelerated Aging of Harvested Hypalon/Epr and Cspe/Xlpe Power and I&C Cable in Nuclear Power Plants." In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, June 26-30, 2016, Charlotte, North Carolina, 1, Paper No. ICONE24-60311, pp. V001T01A007. New York, New York:ASME. PNNL-SA-116072. doi:10.1115/ICONE24-60311
  • Fifield L.S., S. Liu, and N. Bowler. 2016. "Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging of Cable Polymers." In 2016 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2016 ), October 16-19, 2016, Toronto, Canada. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-119035. doi:10.1109/CEIDP.2016.7785479
  • Fifield L.S., Y. Shin, W. Liu, and D.W. Gotthold. 2016. "Scalable Production Method for Graphene Oxide Water Vapor Separation Membranes." MRS Advances 1, no. 28:2091-2098. PNNL-SA-117497. doi:10.1557/adv.2016.485
  • Glass S.W., and L.S. Fifield. 2016. "Nondestructive Examination for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs." LWRS Newsletter January 2016, no. 20:18-23. PNNL-SA-114754.
  • Glass S.W., P. Ramuhalli, L.S. Fifield, M.S. Prowant, G. Dib, J.R. Tedeschi, and J.D. Suter, et al. 2016. "Assessment of NDE for Key Indicators of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants - Interim Status." In 42nd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, July 26-31, 2015, Minneapolis, MN. . AIP Conference Proceedings, edited by Art. No. 170006, 1706. Melville, New York:AIP Publishing. PNNL-SA-112712. doi:10.1063/1.4940629
  • Liu S., L.S. Fifield, and N. Bowler. 2016. "Towards aging mechanisms of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation materials in nuclear power plants." In IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2016), October 16-19, 2016, Toronto, Canada. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-123219. doi:10.1109/CEIDP.2016.7785636
  • Shin Y., W. Liu, B. Schwenzer, S. Manandhar, D.G. Chase-Woods, M.H. Engelhard, and R. Devanathan, et al. 2016. "Graphene oxide membranes with high permeability and selectivity for dehumidification of air." Carbon 106. PNNL-SA-112915. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.023
  • Upadhyay P., Y. Hovanski, S. Jana, and L.S. Fifield. 2016. "Joining dissimilar materials using Friction Stir scribe technique." Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 139, no. 3:Article No. 034501. PNNL-SA-121019. doi:10.1115/1.4034629
  • Upadhyay P., Y. Hovanski, S. Jana, and L.S. Fifield. 2016. "JOINING DISSIMILAR MATERIALS USING FRICTION STIR SCRIBE TECHNIQUE." In Proceedings of the ASME 11th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, June 27-July 1, 2016, Blacksburg, Virginia, 1: Processing, Paper No. MSEC2016-8512, pp. V001T02A055. New York, New York:ASME. PNNL-SA-114869. doi:10.1115/MSEC2016-8512

2015

  • Fifield L.S., and R.C. Duckworth. 2015. "PROGRESS IN THE INVESTIGATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CABLE AGING." In 17th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems -- Water Reactors, August 9-12, 2015, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1, 263-271. Toronto:Canadian Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-111390.
  • Upadhyay P., Y. Hovanski, L.S. Fifield, and K.L. Simmons. 2015. "FRICTION STIR LAP WELDING OF ALUMINUM - POLYMER USING SCRIBE TECHNOLOGY." In Friction Stir Welding and Processing VIII, March 15-19, 2015, Orlando, Florida, edited by RS Mishra, et al, 153-161. Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PNNL-SA-106300. doi:10.1002/9781119093343.ch17
  • Wang J., B.N. Nguyen, R.N. Mathur, B. Sharma, M.D. Sangid, F. Costa, and X. Jin, et al. 2015. "FIBER ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDED LONG CARBON FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES." In Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC 2015), March 23-25, 2015, Orlando, Florida. Bethel, Connecticut:Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE). PNNL-SA-106185.

2014

  • Simmons K.L., P. Ramuhalli, A.F. Pardini, M.S. Prowant, L.S. Fifield, J.R. Tedeschi, and A.M. Jones, et al. 2014. "Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants using Non-destructive Evaluation." In 2014 ANS Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo, November 9-13, 2014, Anaheim, CA. Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 111, 456-458. La Grange Park, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-104772.

2012

  • Prisbrey L., D. Roundy, K. Blank, L.S. Fifield, and E.D. Minot. 2012. "Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Devices Prepared with Single Oxidative Point Defects." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, no. 2:1961-1965. PNWD-SA-9562. doi:10.1021/jp208870c
  • Ren X., R. Qui, L.S. Fifield, K.L. Simmons, and K. li. 2012. "Effects of Surface Treatments on Mechanical Properties and Water Resistance of Kenaf Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites." Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 26, no. 18-19:2277-2289. PNNL-SA-91410. doi:10.1163/156856111X623087

2011

  • Matyas J., G.E. Fryxell, B.J. Busche, K. Wallace, and L.S. Fifield. 2011. "FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELS: ADVANCED MATERIALS TO CAPTURE AND IMMOBILIZE RADIOACTIVE IODINE." In Ceramic Materials for Energy Applications: Papers from The American Ceramic Society's 35th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2011, Daytona Beach, Florida. Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, edited by Y Katoh, et al, 32, 23-33. Hoboken, New Jersey:Wiley. PNNL-SA-77216. doi:10.1002/9781118095386.ch3
  • Qui R., X. Ren, L.S. Fifield, K.L. Simmons, and K. Li. 2011. "Hemp-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites: Optimization of Processing and Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion." Journal of Applied Polymer Science 121, no. 2:862-868. PNNL-SA-70326. doi:10.1002/app.33674

2010

  • Fifield L.S., and J.W. Grate. 2010. "Hydrogen-bond acidic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with covalently-bound hexafluoroisopropanol groups." Carbon 48, no. 7:2085-2088. PNNL-SA-68638. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2010.02.019
  • Fifield L.S., and K.L. Simmons. 2010. "COMPRESSION MOLDED, BIO-FIBER REINFORCED, HIGH PERFORMANCE THERMOSET COMPOSITES FOR STRUCTURAL AND SEMI-STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS." In COMPOSITES: SHAPING NEW VEHICLES, 10th Annual Society of Plastics Engineers Automotive Composites Conference & Exhibition, September 15-16, 2010, Troy, Michigan. Newtown, Connecticut:Society of Plastics Engineers. PNNL-SA-74285.
  • Fifield L.S., C. Huang, and K.L. Simmons. 2010. "Investigation of Polymer Resin/Fiber Compatibility in Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite Automotive Materials." In 10th International Conference on Wood & Biofiber Plastic Composites. Madison, Wisconsin:Forest Products Society. PNNL-SA-67109.
  • Fifield L.S., K.L. Simmons, R. Battiste, C. Schutte, M.T. Smith, D. Houston, and L. Berger. 2010. "Evaluation of Composite Natural Fiber-Resin Compatibility." In 2009 Annual Progress Report: Lightweighting Materials. 8-77 - 8-85. Washington, Dc:US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. PNNL-SA-70201.
  • Fifield L.S., K.L. Simmons, S. Laddha, and T.A. Kafentzis. 2010. "PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MOLDED KENAF FIBER REINFORCED VINYL ESTER COMPOSITES THROUGH RESIN ADDITIVE." In SAMPE 2010: New Materials and Processes for a New Economy 55th International SAMPE Symposium, May 17-20, 2010, Seattle, Washington, edited by K Nelson, A Yousefpour and SW Beckwith. Covina, California:Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. PNNL-SA-70709.
  • Simmons K.L., L.S. Fifield, S. Laddha, F. Chen, and K.M. Wright. 2010. "EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TREATMENTS ON UNRETTED KENAF FIBERS." In SAMPE 2010: New Materials and Processes for a New Economy 55th International SAMPE Symposium, May 17-20, 2010, Seattle Washington, edited by K Nelson, A Yousefpour and SC Beckwith, Paper No. 66. Covina, California:Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. PNNL-SA-70867.
  • Zhang J., J. Liu, D. Wang, D. Choi, L.S. Fifield, C.M. Wang, and G. Xia, et al. 2010. "Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth." Journal of Power Sources 195, no. 6 SP ISS:1691-1697. PNNL-SA-67705.

2009

  • Simmons K.L., D.T. Howe, S. Laddha, and L.S. Fifield. 2009. "Natural Fiber Composite Retting, Preform Manufacture and Molding (Project 18988/Agreement 16313)." In 2009 Annual Progress Report: Lightweighting Materials. 8-54 - 8-65. Washington Dc:Department of Energy; Vehicle Technologies Office. PNNL-SA-70189.

2008

  • Fifield L.S., C. Huang, K.L. Simmons, J.A. Carpenter, and M.T. Smith. 2008. "Evaluation of Composite Natural Fiber/Resin Compatibility." In Annual Progress Report 2008 Vehicle Technologies Program, Lightweigting Materials. 8-75 - 8-81. Washington, District Of Columbia:US Department of Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. PNNL-18108.

2007

  • Dutta D., S.K. Sundaram, J.G. Teeguarden, B.J. Riley, L.S. Fifield, J.M. Jacobs, and R.S. Addleman, et al. 2007. "Adsorbed Proteins Influence the Biological Activity and Molecular Targeting of Nanomaterials." Toxicological Sciences 100, no. 1:303-315. PNNL-SA-55139. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfm217
  • Fifield L.S. 2007. "Carbon Nanotubes." In Productive Nanosystems: A Technology Roadmap. Menlo Park, California:Foresight Institute. PNWD-SA-7946.
  • Fifield L.S. 2007. "Piezoelectrics and Piezo Applications." In Productive Nanosystems: A Technology Roadmap. Menlo Pak, California:Foresight Institute. PNWD-SA-7948.

2006

  • Zheng F., D.L. Baldwin, L.S. Fifield, N.C. Anheier, C.L. Aardahl, and J.W. Grate. 2006. "Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Paper as a Sorbent for Organic Vapor Preconcentration." Analytical Chemistry 78, no. 7:2442-2446. PNNL-SA-45755.

2005

  • Fifield L.S., K.M. Denslow, A. Gutowska, K.L. Simmons, and J. Holbery. 2005. "ROLE OF FIBER MODIFICATION IN NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE PROCESSING." In International SAMPE Technical Conference: Materials and Processing Technologies for Revolutionary Applications. Covina, California:Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. PNNL-SA-53296.

2004

  • Fifield L.S., L.R. Dalton, R.S. Addleman, R.A. Galhotra, M.H. Engelhard, G.E. Fryxell, and C.L. Aardahl. 2004. "Noncovalent Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes with Molecular Anchors using Supercritical Fluids." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 108, no. 25:8737-8741. PNNL-SA-40325.

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